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APA Style. Basic Requirements for Lab Papers. 1 in. margins (top, bottom, left, right) Double spaced 12 pt. times new roman font Each page has page header Contains few words from title & pg. # Remember to write with clarity and avoid flowery and personal language

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basic requirements for lab papers
Basic Requirements for Lab Papers
  • 1 in. margins (top, bottom, left, right)
  • Double spaced
  • 12 pt. times new roman font
  • Each page has page header
    • Contains few words from title & pg. #
  • Remember to write with clarity and avoid flowery and personal language
    • Don’t say “I/We did this …”
  • Use proper grammar, I know everyone has passed basic English
overview of apa paper
Overview of APA Paper
  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures
title page
Title Page
  • Contains running head
    • Abbreviated title (no more than 50 characters including punctuation and spaces)
    • Centered in the upper half of the page
      • Title
      • Name of author
      • Institution
abstract
Abstract
  • Sectioned labeled “Abstract” centered at the top
  • Brief but detailed summary of the paper
    • Statement of the problem
    • Brief description of the methods
    • Mention important findings & conclusions
  • No paragraph indentation
  • Approx. 200 words or 15 single-spaced lines in length
introduction 3 pages minimum
Introduction (3 pages minimum)
  • Not labeled; all other sections are
  • Begin w/ background
  • Define relevant terms
  • Don’t simply put paragraph after paragraph outlining other papers
    • Integrate them!!!!
  • No direct quotes
introduction 3 pages minimum7
Introduction (3 pages minimum)
  • Though not an exhaustive review should adequately be able to introduce the problem, what has been done, and what will be done
    • E.g. memory
  • Descriptions of studies don’t need to be complete, talk about stuff (variables, manipulations, results) relevant to your study
introduction 3 pages minimum8
Introduction (3 pages minimum)
  • After background is given begin to discuss theoretical basis for current experiment
  • Translate the hypothesis into operational terms that tell what variables are being manipulated and what are being measured
  • Don’t simply put IV was this… DV was this…
methods
Methods
  • Write in a way that others could repeat the experiment exactly how you did it
  • Contains
    • Participants describe who was in the study
    • Apparatus & Materials what was used
      • Don’t go into ridiculous detail (e.g. pencils)
    • Procedure how the experiment was done
  • May reference figures if illustrate apparatus or technique
results
Results
  • Summarize collected data & statistical treatment of data
  • Describe only what was measured
    • E.g. “This study measured latency by averaging the time for 3 trials”
  • Describe data (e.g. means & s.d.)
    • E.g. the mean number of words recalled on day 1 was higher (12) compared to day 2 (5)
results11
Results
  • Mention statistical tests performed & results of them
    • E.g. an independent t-test was used to determine…
    • E.g. as predicted studying raised student’s GPA t(df) = t-observed, p<0.05
    • F(df numerator, df denominator) = F-observed, p<0.05
  • Refer to graphs/tables to illustrate the data
    • Describe what they mean
    • Eg. mean number of errors with s.d. are shown in table 1
    • Eg. the difference in performance from day 1 to day 2 is illustrated in figure 1
results12
Results
  • No interpretations until discussion
  • Only facts and findings are in the results
    • "All we want are the facts, ma'am" – Joe Friday
discussion 2 pages minimum
Discussion (2 pages minimum)
  • Purpose here is to interpret the results and explain what conclusions can be drawn from them
    • Begin with concise statement of results
    • E.g. The results of the present study indicate (are in agreement)…
  • Make inferences about the psychological process of interest from the measures used in the study
    • What conclusions can be drawn from the results
discussion 2 pages minimum14
Discussion (2 pages minimum)
  • Mention limitations and sources of error
    • Explain why these weakness occurred
    • How could study be improved
    • Don’t need a laundry list
    • Make sure to give appropriate citations
  • How do the results fit with current theories or hypothesis
    • Relate to what other studies have found
discussion 2 pages minimum15
Discussion (2 pages minimum)
  • End on good note
    • What are the directions for future studies
    • Be reasonable and give logic for why they would be good studies to do
    • Avoid statements like: “more subjects are needed”
references
References
  • List references mentioned in paper
    • Since we gave you 4 empirical papers you need to give at least 2
    • You can use reviews or book chapters but they don’t count towards the 2
    • NO online sources (e.g. wikipedia)
references17
References
  • Proper citation needed
  • In the paper
    • (Author’s last name, year)
    • (Kolb, 1998) or (Kolb & Whishaw, 2000) or (Kolb, Whishaw & Robinson, 2003)
    • In Author’s last name (year), it was suggested
    • In Kolb and Whishaw (1999)…
references18
References
  • Reference section
  • One author
    • Vallar, G. (1998). Spatial hemineglect in humans. Trends in

Cognitive Sciences, 2(3), 87-97.

  • More than one author
    • Szele, F. G., Alexander, C., & Chesselet, M. F. (1995). Expression of molecules associated with neuronal plasticity in the striatum after aspiration and thermocoagulatory lesions of the cerebral cortex in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 15(6), 4429- 4448.
  • Book
    • Sholl, D. A. (1956) The Organization of the Cerebral Cortex. London: Methuen.
references19
References
  • If you have any question about APA style there are 5 non-circulating copies of the APA manual in the library
  • How to find references
    • Library (website)
    • www.pubmed.org
    • psychinfo
tables
Tables
  • Contain data
  • Contain examples of measures
    • Lists of words
    • Lists of stories
table example
Table Example

Table 1. Words Used in Study

table example22
Table Example

Table 2. Average (S.D.) Number of Words

Recalled Each Day For Experiment 1

figures
Figures
  • Figure captions page prior
    • Describe figures
  • Each figure gets its own separate page
figures24
Figures
  • Figures can also be illustrations mentioned in methods
logic of apa paper
Logic of APA Paper
  • Flow of information
    • How the problem was conceptualized
    • How the problem was researched
    • How the data was analyzed
    • What were the findings
    • How were the findings interpreted
logic of apa paper26
Logic of APA Paper

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

most important
Most Important

DO NOT PLAGARIZE