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APA Style. RCS 6080 September 7, 2006. Why Use APA Style?. Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily Provides consistent format within a discipline Gives you credibility as a writer Protects you from plagiarism. Cross-Referencing Your Sources.

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apa style

APA Style

RCS 6080

September 7, 2006

why use apa style
Why Use APA Style?
  • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily
  • Provides consistent format within a discipline
  • Gives you credibility as a writer
  • Protects you from plagiarism
cross referencing your sources
Cross-Referencing Your Sources

Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.

“Because one purpose of listing references is to enable readers to retrieve and use the sources, reference data must be correct and complete. …” (APA, 2001, p. 216).

using a consistent format
Using a Consistent Format

Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on.

It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments.

52 APA primary journals; as many as 1000 more in social sciences and psychology use APA as their style guide.

establishing credibility
Establishing Credibility

The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material.

“[Because] authors are responsible for all information in their reference lists. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher” (APA, 2001, p. 216).

avoiding plagiarism
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Academic honesty and integrity!
    • Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school.
  • You are academically dishonest if:
    • Someone writes your paper for you
    • You purchase a paper
    • You copy a paper from online
    • You fail to cite your sources
    • Your present someone else’s ideas as your own
quick background of the publication manual of the american psychological association
Quick Background of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
  • 1928: Meeting of editors of anthropological and psychological journals.
  • February 1929: 7 page article in Psychological Bulletin.
    • Just recommended a standard procedure – did not dictate the style to authors.
  • 1952: 1st edition – 60 page supplement to Psychological Bulletin.
  • 1974: 2nd edition – 136 pages
  • 1983: 3rd edition – APA style became a major guide for publishing
  • 1994: 4th edition – APA style became more specific and sensitive
  • 2001: 5th edition – Builds on 4th edition and is now a whopping 439 pages!
apa style8
APA Style
  • Content & Organization of a Manuscript
  • Expressing Ideas & Reducing Bias in Language
  • Editorial Style
  • Reference List
content organization
Content & Organization
  • Parts of a Manuscript
    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Method
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Multiple Experiments
    • References
    • Appendix
    • Author Note
title page
Title Page
  • Title (centered, upper ½ of page, ds)
  • Author’s name (1 ds below title)
  • Institutional affiliation or course identification (ds below author’s name)
  • Manuscript page header (upper right corner, 1st 2 or 3 words of title, 5 spaces, then page #)
  • Running head
running head
Running Head
  • Abbreviated title
  • Maximum 50 characters including letters, punctuation, and spaces
  • All CAPS
  • Left-justified below manuscript page header
  • Example:Running head: GENERATION X
slide12

Disability Attitudes 1

Running head: DISABILITY ATTITUDES IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST

The Development and Psychometric Validation of

the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test

Steven R. Pruett

University of Florida

abstract
Abstract
  • Brief comprehensive summary
  • Usually no more than120 words
  • Concise
  • Self-contained
  • Non-evaluative
  • Coherent
  • Readable

Note: Manual has specific guidelines for empirical studies, reviews

and theoretical pieces, methodological works, and case studies.

slide14

Abstract

Objectives: Develop and validate the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (DA-IAT). Participants: Two hundred twenty three rehabilitation counseling students. Outcome Measures: DA-IAT, Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice Toward People with Disabilities Scales, Contact with Disabled PersonsScale, and Demographics. Results: DA-IAT congruent associations (disability+negative/non-disabled+positive) occurred more frequently than incongruent associations (disability+positive/non-disabled+negative). DA-IAT had no relationship with ATDP, an explicit attitude measure. Demographics did not predict DA-IAT scores. Contact with Disabled Persons Scale was the dominant predictor for the DA-IAT. Conclusions: The DA-IAT has potential of becoming a useful measure of implicit group disability attitudes based on experience versus belief.

[Abstract=117 words]

Keywords: Attitudes Measurement, Disabled (Attitude Towards), Psychosocial Factors, Demographics, Student Attitudes

first page of text
First Page of Text
  • Includes manuscript page header
  • Full title is centered on the top line of the page
  • DS, only, between title and first line of text

Note. Double space, only, throughout the entire document.

headings
Headings
  • The levels of heading are established by format or appearance
  • The hierarchy of sections help orient the reader to the structure of the manuscript – they function as an outline
  • Topics of equal importance have the same level of heading throughout the manuscript.
  • Start each section with the highest level of heading, even if one section may have fewer levels of subheading than another section
headings continued
Headings - Continued

CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING

(Level 5)

 Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

(Level 1)

Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

(Level 2)

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading

(Level 3)

Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending

with a period.

(Level 4)

one level heading
One Level Heading

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

(Level 1)

Engagement

Assessment

Planning

Implementation

Evaluation

two levels use level 1 3
Two levels (use level 1 & 3)

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

(Level 1)

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading

(Level 3)

Engagement

Techniques

Orientation of Client

three levels use level 1 3 and 4
Three levels (Use level 1, 3 and 4)

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

(Level 1)

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading

(Level 3)

Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)

Assessment

Development

Early childhood.

Adolescent.

handling quotes in your text
Handling Quotes in Your Text
  • If directly quoted from another author’s work should be reproduced word for word
  • Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text, enclosed with double quotation marks.
  • Must be accompanied by a reference citation with a page number
example of a short quotation
Example of a Short Quotation

Matkin (1985) stated “the compensation principle and accident prevention form an intertwined relationship whereby one enhances the other” (p. 29).

  • At end of sentence – close quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses after marks, and end with the period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis.
example of mid sentence quote
Example of Mid-Sentence Quote

He found “Assessment or decision-making interviews are generally more focused” (Zastrow, 1998, p. 86) than other types of interview formats.

  • In midsentence - End the passage with quotation marks, cite source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence.
  • Use no other punctuation unless meaning of sentence requires it.
example of long quote
Example of Long Quote

Wang, Thomas, Chan, and Cheing (2003) stated the following:

Conjoint analysis has the potential to augment the study of attitudes toward disabilities in rehabilitation psychology research. Specifically, as an indirect measurement, conjoint analysis is less prone to social desirability effects. The trade-off method used in conjoint analysis to study people’s attitudes toward disability closely approximates human decision making in real life. Hence both conjoint measurements and conjoint analysis could increase the ability of rehabilitation psychology researchers to understand factors contributing to the formation of attitudes/preferences in multiple social contexts. (p. 200-201)

  • At end of block quote – Cite the quoted source in parentheses after the final punctuation mark
  • Do not single space long quotes. Indent 5-7 spaces from the left margin without the usual paragraph indent.
numbers
Numbers
  • General rule is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above

  The client is 25 years old

Mr. Roberts has had 12 arrests

  • Use words to express numbers below 10

  Nora Edwards has had three previous marriages.

exceptions
Exceptions

Always as numerals: Dates, Ages, Exact sums of money, scores and points on a scale, numbers and precise measurements

  • Each item on the Beck Depression Index is scored on a 5-point scale
  • The client receives $8 per completed hour.

Always as words: Any number that begins a sentence, common fractions

  • Twelve participants were involved in the focus groups; one-half of them were female. 
parenthetical within text citations
Parenthetical (Within-Text) Citations
  • Author’s(s’) last name
  • Year of publication
  • Page number (if quoting)
  • Example:

(Chan, 2000, p. 17)

parenthetical citations multiple authors
Parenthetical CitationsMultiple Authors
  • 2 authors – cite both names separated by & Example: (Rubin & Roessler, 2002, p. 127)
  • 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Chan et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al.Example: (Rosenthal et al., 1992)
parenthetical citations multiple citations
Parenthetical Citations Multiple Citations
  • Multiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma.

Example: (Thomas, 1998, 1999, in press)

  • Within same year: Example: (Chan, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)
parenthetical citations multiple citations continued
Parenthetical Citations Multiple Citations Continued
  • Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order Example: (Chan, 1998; Pruett, 2005; Thomas, 1992)
handling parenthetical citations
Handling Parenthetical Citations
  • If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:

Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”

Citation: (“California,” 1999)

handling parenthetical citations32
Handling Parenthetical Citations
  • A reference to a personal communication:

Source: email message from Hanoch Livneh

Citation: (H. Livneh, personal communication, November 22, 2002)

  • A general reference to a web siteSource: University of Florida web site

Citation: (http://www.ufl.edu)

reference citations in text
Reference Citations in Text
  • If author(s) name is part of narrative, cite only year of publication in parentheses

Hess, Marwitz and Kreutzer (2003) report treatment planning following a spinal cord injury should include methods for identifying cognitive deficits.

On rare occasions you may have the year and author with no parentheses.

In 2000 Walker compared reaction times

keys to parenthetical citations
Keys to Parenthetical Citations

Readability

  • Keep references brief
  • Give only information needed to identify the source on your reference page
  • Do not repeat unnecessary information
handling quotes in your text35
Handling Quotes in Your Text

There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format.

If you run into something unusual, look it up!

reference list general guidelines
Reference List – General Guidelines
  • On a separate page
  • References (the title) is centered on top line
  • Alphabetical list of works cited
  • If same author cited more than once, chronologically listed
  • Double spaced
  • Hanging indent
  • Titles of works and volume number in italics
reference list journal article
Reference List – Journal Article
  • Garske, G. G. (2000). The significance of rehabilitation counselor job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 31(3), 10- 13.
  • Shaw, L. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2001). The use of professional disclosure in rehabilitation counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 45, 40-47.
  • Weinrach, S.G., Thomas, K.R., Pruett, S.R., & Chan, F. (in press). Scholarly productivity of three American counseling and counseling psychology journals. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling.
reference list book
Reference List – Book
  • Falvo, D. (2005). Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Chronic Illness and Disability. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
  • Zaretsky, H.H., Richter, E.F., & Eisenberg, M.G. (Eds.) (2005). Medical Aspects of Disability (3rd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
reference list book chapter
Reference List – Book Chapter
  • Chan, F., Pruett, S.R., Miller, S., Frain, M., & Blalock, K. (2006). Internet utilization by people with disabilities: Applications and research direction. In K. Hagglund, & A.W. Heinemann (Eds.), Handbook of Applied Disability and Rehabilitation Research (pp. 263-278). New York: Springer Publishing.
reference list electronic media
Reference ListElectronic Media

Internet articles based on a print source (exact replicate – usually a pdf file)

Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative supervisors on job retention {Electronic version}. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110- 112.

Internet articles that are not exactly as the printed article (i.e., htlm, doc, or txt files)

Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative supervisors on job retention. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jarc.org/articles

reference list electronic media41
Reference ListElectronic Media

Articles in an Internet only journal

James, T. (2001, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 01a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/articles

Stand alone document, no author identified, no date.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.ahrq.gov

apa writing style rules abbreviations
APA Writing Style Rules:Abbreviations
  • Avoid abbreviations except for long familiar terms (MMPI).
  • Explain what the abbreviation means at the first occurrence: American Psychological Association (APA).
  • If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, RAM).
  • Use two-letter postal codes for U.S. state names.
avoiding biased and pejorative language
Be more specific, not less

Use age ranges rather than broad categories

Use the phrase Men and women – rather than generic “mankind”

Avoid the generic “he”

Specific ethnic or racial labeling

Mention differences only when relevant

Avoiding Biased and Pejorative Language
be sensitive to labels
Be Sensitive to Labels
  • Use person-first language when describing and individual or group of people with a disability.

Example: people over the age of 65, people with learning disabilities

standards of comparison
Standards of Comparison
  • Be aware of hidden standards that compare the study group to an invisible (standard) group.Example: “culturally deprived” (by what standard?)
  • Unparallel nouns

Example: man and wife - Instead: husband and wife

acknowledge participation
Acknowledge Participation
  • Replace the impersonal term “subjects” with- participants

- individuals

- college students

- children

where do i find apa style and format
Where Do I Find APA Style and Format?
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
    • http://www.apastyle.org
  • Some other good links: http://www.docstyles.com/apacrib.htm

http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/amoebaweb/index.aspx?doc_id=2415

software for apa style
Software for APA Style
  • APA Style Helper 5
    • Walks you through a paper as you create it
    • Helps format references, headings etc
    • Includes a reference builder
    • Works with most word processors
    • From APA – costs $40
  • MS Word Template for APA format
    • Headings and Format in APA style (no help with references)
    • From Microsoft Office Web site, Free, only good with Microsoft Word.
software for apa style50
Software for APA Style
  • Citation Software
    • EndNote 9.0 (endnote.com)
    • ProCite 5.0 (procite.com)
    • Software Reference Manager 11.01 (refman.com)
    • Biblioscape 6.0 (biblioscape.com)
  • All have versions for Mac (OS X) as well as Windows (98 – XP) & support a variety of word processors (except Biblioscape – Windows only)
  • Cost: $110 – $200 (Education prices)
a word or two on purchases
A Word (or two) on Purchases
  • NOTE: I am not recommending you purchase ANY of these software products. I do not use any of them and do not know how well they work. The purpose of this list is to let you know what is out there, but you should practice the maxim “let the buyer beware.”
  • I would recommend you purchase the APA Publication Manual (5th ed.).