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APA Style

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APA Style

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  1. APA Style NDSU Center for Writers 2011

  2. What is APA Style? Guidelines published by the American Psychological Society for manuscript preparation Used by journals in social and behavioral sciences, education, and other fields Center for Writers -

  3. Resources for APA Style • Official text: NEW 6th ed. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009),Washington: APA • Summary of changes in the new edition: Center for Writers -

  4. Resources for APA Style • Basic APA Style online tutorial: • CFW website links to online handbooks and this presentation: Center for Writers -

  5. Online Resources • Purdue University Online Writing Lab Center for Writers -

  6. Note • Style manuals are very complex • Do not rely on your memory • ALWAYS refer to a manual for examples • Pay attention to unique aspects • source type • capitalization & punctuation • author vs. editor • edition/volume/issue/DOI Center for Writers -

  7. APA Style • Format (title page, abstract, sections, headings, font, margins, tables, figures, etc.) • In-text parenthetical citations (Author, date) • Reference page Center for Writers -

  8. Format example • Spacing • One space after commas, colons, semicolons • One space after periods on reference page (including name initials) • Two spaces after end punctuation in sentences • See exceptions on p. 88 of the Manual Center for Writers -

  9. In-Text Citations • Requirements • author of the source • date of publication • page numbers required for direct quotations and encouraged for paraphrases Center for Writers -

  10. In-Text Citations • If page numbers are not available, including other information for easy access is encouraged for online or long documents (e.g. sections, paragraph numbers) (Discussion section, para. 1) Center for Writers -

  11. In-Text Citations • Walker (2000) compared reaction times. • A recent study found reaction times vary (Walker, 2000). • In 2000, Walker compared reaction times. Center for Writers -

  12. Direct Quotations • Lopez (1993) found that “the effect disappeared within minutes” (p. 311). • The author stated, “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez, 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect. Center for Writers -

  13. Reference List • Provide enough information to identify and retrieve each source. • Exception: do NOT include personal communications and classical works with standardized sections (e.g., Bible, Qur’an) on the list, but cite them in the text: T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001) claims that . . . Center for Writers -

  14. Reference List • Arrange entries alphabetically on the page by the first author’s last name (do not rearrange the order of the authors in a document) • Use a hanging indent • Double-space (entire document) • Use initials for all first names (not just the first one and a space after periods Center for Writers -

  15. Reference List: 1-7 Authors • Give the last name and initials for 1-7 authors (not just the first one) Smith, J. M., Jones, T., & Rogers, L. S. • Use “&” for reference list and parenthetical references, but use “and” in the text Smith, Jones, and Rogers (2000)… Center for Writers -

  16. Reference List: 8+ Authors More than seven authors • In the reference list, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors, and then use an ellipses and the final name.  • In-text: cite only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” for all in-text references.  Center for Writers -

  17. Reference List • Format varies for titles • books—print and online: use italics, capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns • journals and periodicals: use italics, capitalize all important words • articles: use plain font and capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns Center for Writers -

  18. Reference List Moral of the story: always check the APA guidelines. Center for Writers -

  19. Reference Examples • Book Tapscott, D. (1988). Growing up digital. New York: McGraw-Hill. Center for Writers -

  20. Reference List: Books WRONG: Shostak, S. (2002). Becoming immortal: Combining cloning and stem-cell therapy. State University of New York Press. Center for Writers -

  21. Reference List: Books CORRECT: Shostak, S. (2002). Becoming immortal: Combining cloning and stem-cell therapy. Albany: State University of New York Press. Center for Writers -

  22. Reference Examples • Edited book Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological intervention with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Center for Writers -

  23. Reference Examples Subsequent edition of a reference book Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.).Retrieved from /heuristic Center for Writers -

  24. Reference Examples NOTE: No longer include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g. Wikis). . . . Retrieved October 5, 2000, from http:// www… Center for Writers -

  25. Reference Examples • Chapter in edited book Krantz, D. (2000). The ethics of business. In D. L. Smith (Ed.), Ethics in Modern America (pp. 94-120). New York: Smith-Johnson Press. Center for Writers -

  26. Reference Examples • Journal article [note the volume/issue italics format] Johnson, B. A. (2000). Truth or consequences: Parenting children who lie. Modern Family, 126(3), 910-924. Center for Writers -

  27. Reference Examples • Electronic journal article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Whitmeyer, J. M. (2000). Power through appointment. Social Science Research, 29(4), 535-555. doi:10.1006/ssre.2000.0680 Center for Writers -

  28. Note Break URL and doi beforemost punctuation (exception is http:// ); do not add a hyphen. O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from /showitem.asp?itemID=135 Center for Writers -

  29. Reference List: Journals WRONG: Gilbert, D. G., and, . . . Botros, N. (2004). “Effects of Quitting Smoking on EEG Activation and Attention Last for More Than 32 Days and are More Severe with Stress, Dependence, DRD2 A1 Allele, and Depressive Traits.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305 Center for Writers -

  30. Reference List: Journals CORRECT: Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 32 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080 /14622200410001676305 Center for Writers -

  31. Reference Examples • Journal article without DOI [NOTE: omit period after URL or DOI and do not include retrieval date] Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well- being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved from /prevention/ volume3/ pre0030001a.html Center for Writers -

  32. Reference Examples Electronic version of print book [NOTE: Use DOI instead of URL, if possible] Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http:// /index.asp Center for Writers -

  33. Reference Examples Electronic-only book O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from /showitem.asp?itemID=135 Center for Writers -

  34. Reference Examples Abstract as original source: Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L., Fanselow, M. S., & Butcher, L. L. (1991). MAP-2 expression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 17, 480. Lassen, S. R., Steele, M. M., & Sailor, W. (2006). The relationship of school-wide positive behavior support to academic achievement in an urban middle school. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 701-712. Abstract retrieved from Center for Writers -

  35. Reference Examples Abstract as secondary source Hare, L. R., & O’Neill, K. (2000). Effectiveness and efficiency in small academic peer groups. Small Group Research, 31, 24-53. Abstract retrieved from Sociological Abstracts database. (Accession No. 200010185) Center for Writers -

  36. Reference Examples Print Reports (similar to book entry): Author, A., A. (1998). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher. Center for Writers -

  37. Reference Examples Another exception is for online reports: add publisher (or archive) to retrieval statement--unless the publisher is the author McDaniel, J. E., & Miskel, C. G. (2002). The effect of groups and individuals on national decisionmaking: Influence and domination in the reading policymaking environment (CIERA Report 3-025). Retrieved from University of Michigan, Center for Improvement of Early Reading Achievement website: /3-025.pdf Center for Writers -

  38. Special Situations • Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source • Find primary sources when possible Center for Writers -

  39. Author Issues • Two authors: • Cite both names on the reference page • Cite both names every time the work is mentioned in the text. Center for Writers -

  40. Author Issues • Three, four, or five authors • Cite all names for the first in-text reference and on the reference page. • Cite the first author and “et al.” in subsequent references in the text. • Cite all names on the reference page. Center for Writers -

  41. Author Issues • Six or seven authors • Cite only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” for all in-text references.  • Cite all names on the reference page. Center for Writers -

  42. Multiple Authors • More than seven authors • Cite only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” for all in-text references.  • In the reference list, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors, and then use an ellipses and the last name.  Center for Writers -

  43. No Authors • On the reference page, alphabetize by the first important word in the title and place the year after the title. The new health-care lexicon. (1993, August/September). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2. Center for Writers -

  44. No Authors: In Text • In the text and parentheses, use quotation marks and capitalize the important words in article titles: • e.g., The article, “The New Health-Care Lexicon,” (1992) discusses the… • e.g.,  Experts claim … (“The New Health-Care Lexicon,” 1993) Center for Writers -

  45. No Authors: In Text • In the text, parentheses, and reference list, italicize and capitalize book titles, periodical titles, and other major works:  • e.g. ...the book College Bound Seniors (1979). Center for Writers -

  46. Special Situations If unable to locate the primary source: • In-text citation: Skinner (2000) found no evidence of emotion in rats (as cited in Smith & Jones, 2006). • Reference page includes source you read: Smith, J., & Jones, B. (2006). Title. etc. Center for Writers -

  47. Block Quotations • Indent/block quotations of 40 or more words. • Indent ½” from the margin (5 spaces) and double-space. • If there are additional paragraphs within the block, indent an additional ½”. Center for Writers -

  48. Block Quotations • Generally, direct quotations should be used sparingly in APA style. • Studies are summarized and results are paraphrased, except when the author's original words are unique and difficult to put into different words.  Center for Writers -

  49. Other Considerations • Do not use “this study,” “this present study” or “the current study” to refer to someone else’s work—use them to refer to your own study. • Use past tense for results. • Use present tense for conclusions. Center for Writers -

  50. Other Considerations • Avoid using verbs such as feel, think, believe, stated, wrote, said, confirm, and prove. • Use words such as find, reason, assess, test, hypothesize, support, investigate,demonstrate,  and indicate. Center for Writers -