APA Style • APA Publication Manual is currently in its 5th version since 1929. • APA manual presents rules for the preparation of manuscripts for publication. • Purposes of APA Style • clear communication to reviewers/readers • organization of manuscript follows set format • clarity of descriptions
Purposes of APA Style cont. • production of clear tables and graphs • references presented in a consistent way • statistics are presented in common format for easy comprehension • reducing bias in language • reduce insensitive labels, stereotypes, use neutral language • editorial standards in publication • e.g., spelling, abbreviations, citations, footnotes, etc.
Assignment • Re-format a JABA brief report article into an APA-style manuscript. • You will be assigned your own brief report and may not trade reports with another student. • You are to find your article online, copy and paste the text into a word-processing program, and re-format the manuscript into APA style. • You do NOT have to retype the article.
Assignment cont. • You need to get a copy of the article as it appears published (2 column). Use either the two-column pdf that is online, or get a library copy. • Print/photocopy the graph(s), cut each out, and put each figure a page by itself. • If you use the library copy, please be courteous to other students and replace your journal volume back on the shelf
Assignment cont. • You should not have a a table • Turn in the reformatted article and put on top the APA-assignment grading sheet that is online.
Examples Published article: • http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba/articles/2005/jaba-38-03-0303.pdf An article in APA style: • http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedfiles/faculty/ddegelman/prayer.pdf.
Title page • The article’s authors and affiliation(s) will go on the title page. Look at the hard copy of the article to determine what the running head is.
Layout • One-sided pages • Double space • 1” Margins (the Word default is 1.25”) • 12 point font for ALL text
Abstract • Make sure to put on a page by itself • You do not need to include the descriptors. • In the online html version, the abstract and introduction are merged together • To see where your abstract ends, look at the published copy of the article or look for the keywords/descriptors, as they are put at the end of the abstract.
Introduction • Make sure to include the title on page 3. • Use the correct heading level. • Do not start a new page for the method section. • Ignore the authors in the added material section, but the rest of the added material is likely the authors note and figure captions
Reference • Make sure they are formatted correctly. Baron, A., & Galizio, M. (2005). Positive and negative reinforcement: should the distinction be preserved? The Behavior Analyst, 28, 85-98. • Author note • The added material should be the authors’ note. (To double check, look at the published copy of your article. The author’s note is located on the first page at the bottom).
Figure captions • Figure captions should be on their own page. You can find the captions below the added material in the online text.
Figures • Graphs should be photocopied from the hard copy of the article or printed from the pdf of the published version of the article • ALL articles should have a figure. • The extra text and caption should be removed, and they should be placed on their own page(s).
The final format of your article should look EXACTLY like the article shown in the APA guide so look at that article to make sure yours looks the same (except the words used in the headings, etc. will be different)
Reference Citations in Text Examples: Works by a Single Author • The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000) • If the name of the author appears as part of the narrative, cite only the year of publication in parentheses. Walker (2000) compared reaction times.
Reference Citations in Text Works by Multiple Authors • When a work has two authors, always cite both names. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1989) • In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and." as Nightlinger and Littlewoord (1993) demonstrated…
Reference Citations in Text • When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found… • In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Wasserstein et al. (1994) found…
When to cite material? • You make a claim that could be challenged. • You quote somebody. • You make a specific claim that is not common knowledge. • You paraphrase information from a source • You are providing an authoritative (expert) opinion. • You got an idea from somebody else. This material from Grace Fleming
Examples of Claims You Should Support (CITE) • Alcohol has effects on all brain regions (cite) • Divorce is one of life’s most stressful events (cite) • Individuals who hurt themselves are often only seeking help (cite) • Some people are more susceptible than others to PTSD (cite) • Several studies have shown that timeout can decrease aggressive behavior in children (cite) • Categorization of phenomena has been viewed as simply pre-scientific behavior (cite)
When You Don't Need to Cite a Source Common Knowledge or Well-Known Facts. Examples: • Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis • Researchers should avoid confounds in their experiments • Pavlov studied classical conditioning • Fresh water freezes at 32 degrees F. • Holland is famous for its tulips.
Unsure about whether to cite? • Go ahead and cite!!
References • Book Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Last name, only initials of first names Year of publication Publisher Book title italicized Place of publication
Reference • Journal Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. Last name, only initials of first names Year of publication Page numbers Article title Volume (issue) italicized Journal title italicized
Headings • Do not use BOLD • First level – Centered, capitalize only first letter of each word: Example of title: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Reaction Time Example of other main headings: Method Results Discussion References
Headings • Level three – Flush left, italics, capitalize first letter of each word. Participants The subjects were three adults….
Headings • Level four – Flush left, italics, capitalize first letter of each word: Participants Sam. Sam was a 22 year old male…