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APA Style

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APA Style

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  1. APA Style

  2. Why Use APA Style? • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily • Provides consistent format within a discipline • Gives you credibility as a writer • Protects you from plagiarism

  3. Cross-Referencing Your Sources Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects. “Because one purpose of listing references is to enable readers to retrieve and use the sources, reference data must be correct and complete. …” (APA, 2001, p. 216).

  4. Using a Consistent Format Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on. It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments. 32 APA primary journals; as many as 1000 more in social sciences and psychology use APA as their style guide.

  5. Establishing Credibility The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. “[Because] authors are responsible for all information in their reference lists. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher” (APA, 2001, p. 216).

  6. Avoiding Plagiarism • Academic honesty and integrity! • Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. Plagiarism may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school. • You are academically dishonest if: • Someone writes your paper for you • You purchase a paper • You copy a paper from online • You fail to cite your sources • Your present someone else’s ideas as your own

  7. APA Style • Content & Organization of a Manuscript • Expressing Ideas & Reducing Bias in Language • Editorial Style • Reference List

  8. Content & Organization • Parts of a Manuscript • Title Page • Introduction • Discussion/Main body of the paper • Conclusions • References

  9. Title Page • Title (centered, upper ½ of page, ds) • Author’s name (1 ds below title) • Institutional affiliation or course identification (ds below author’s name) • Manuscript page header (upper right corner, 1st 2 or 3 words of title, 5 spaces, then page #) • Running head

  10. Disability Attitudes 1 Running head: DISABILITY ATTITUDES IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Disability Attitudes Implicit Association Test Ima Student Abilene Christian University

  11. Running Head • Abbreviated title • Maximum 50 characters including letters, punctuation, and spaces • Left-justified below manuscript page header • Example:Running head: GENERATION X

  12. First Page of Text • Includes manuscript page header • Full title is centered on the top line of the page • DS, only, between title and first line of text Note. Double space, only, throughout the entire document.

  13. Headings • The levels of heading are established by format or appearance • The hierarchy of sections help orient the reader to the structure of the manuscript – they function as an outline • Topics of equal importance have the same level of heading throughout the manuscript. • Start each section with the highest level of heading, even if one section may have fewer levels of subheading than another section

  14. Headings - Continued CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING (Level 5)  Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2) Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading (Level 3) Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)

  15. One Level Heading Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) Engagement Assessment Planning Implementation Evaluation

  16. Handling Quotes in Your Text • If directly quoted from another author’s work should be reproduced word for word • Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into the text, enclosed with double quotation marks. • Must be accompanied by a reference citation with a page number

  17. Example of a Short Quotation Matkin (1985) stated “the compensation principle and accident prevention form an intertwined relationship whereby one enhances the other” (p. 29). • At end of sentence – close quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses after marks, and end with the period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis.

  18. Example of Mid-Sentence Quote He found “Assessment or decision-making interviews are generally more focused” (Zastrow, 1998, p. 86) than other types of interview formats. • In midsentence - End the passage with quotation marks, cite source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. • Use no other punctuation unless meaning of sentence requires it.

  19. Example of Long Quote Wang, Thomas, Chan, and Cheing (2003) stated the following: Conjoint analysis has the potential to augment the study of attitudes toward disabilities in rehabilitation psychology research. Specifically, as an indirect measurement, conjoint analysis is less prone to social desirability effects. The trade-off method used in conjoint analysis to study people’s attitudes toward disability closely approximates human decision making in real life. Hence both conjoint measurements and conjoint analysis could increase the ability of rehabilitation psychology researchers to understand factors contributing to the formation of attitudes/preferences in multiple social contexts. (p. 200-201) • At end of block quote – Cite the quoted source in parentheses after the final punctuation mark • Do not single space long quotes. Indent 5-7 spaces from the left margin without the usual paragraph indent.

  20. Numbers • General rule is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above   The client is 25 years old Mr. Roberts has had 12 arrests • Use words to express numbers below 10   Nora Edwards has had three previous marriages.

  21. Exceptions Always as numerals: Dates, Ages, Exact sums of money, scores and points on a scale, numbers and precise measurements • Each item on the Beck Depression Index is scored on a 5-point scale • The client receives $8 per completed hour. Always as words: Any number that begins a sentence, common fractions • Twelve participants were involved in the focus groups 

  22. Parenthetical (Within-Text) Citations • Author’s(s’) last name • Year of publication • Page number (if quoting) • Example: (Chan, 2000, p. 17)

  23. Parenthetical CitationsMultiple Authors • 2 authors – cite both names separated by & Example: (Rubin & Roessler, 2002, p. 127) • 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Chan et al., 2000) • 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al.Example: (Rosenthal et al., 1992)

  24. Parenthetical Citations Multiple Citations • Multiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma. Example: (Thomas, 1998, 1999, in press) • Within same year: Example: (Chan, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)

  25. Parenthetical Citations Multiple Citations Continued • Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order Example: (Chan, 1998; Pruett, 2001; Thomas, 1992)

  26. Handling Parenthetical Citations • If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: (“California,” 1999)

  27. Handling Parenthetical Citations • A reference to a personal communication: Source: email message from Hanoch Livneh Citation: (H. Livneh, personal communication, November 22, 2002) • A general reference to a web siteSource: University of Florida Citation: (http://www.ufl.edu)

  28. Reference Citations in Text • If author(s) name is part of narrative, cite only year of publication in parentheses Hess, Marwitz and Kreutzer (2003) report treatment planning following a spinal cord injury should include methods for identifying cognitive deficits. On rare occasions you may have the year and author with no parentheses. In 2000 Walker compared reaction times

  29. Keys to Parenthetical Citations Readability • Keep references brief • Give only information needed to identify the source on your reference page • Do not repeat unnecessary information

  30. Handling Quotes in Your Text There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format. If you run into something unusual, look it up!

  31. Reference List – General Guidelines • On a separate page • References (the title) is centered on top line • Alphabetical list of works cited • If same author cited more than once, chronologically listed • Double spaced • Hanging indent • Titles of works and volume number in italics

  32. Reference List – Journal Article • Garske, G. G. (2000). The significance of rehabilitation counselor job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 31(3),10- 13. • Shaw, L. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2001). The use of professional disclosure in rehabilitation counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 45, 40-47. • Miller, L. J., & Donders, J. (in press). Prediction of educational outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology.

  33. Reference List – Book • Smart, J. (2001). Disability, Society, and the Individual. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. • Parker, R. M., & Szymanski, E. M. (Eds.). (1998). Rehabilitation Counseling: Basics and Beyond. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. • American Psychiatric Association. (1994).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

  34. Reference List – Book Chapter • Jaet, D. N., & McMahon, B.T. (1999). Implications of disability legislation for case managers. In F. Chan & M. J. Leahy (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case Management (pp. 213 – 238). Lake Zurich, IL: Vocational Consultants Press.

  35. Reference List: Electronic Media Internet articles based on a print source (exact replicate – usually a pdf file) Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative supervisors on job retention {Electronic version}. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112. Internet articles that are not exactly as the printed article (i.e., htlm, doc, or txt files) Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative supervisors on job retention. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jarc.org/articles

  36. Reference List: Electronic Media Articles in an Internet only journal James, T. (2001, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 01a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/articles Stand alone document, no author identified, no date. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.ahrq.gov

  37. APA Writing Style Rules: Abbreviations • Avoid abbreviations except for long familiar terms (MMPI). • Explain what the abbreviation means at the first occurrence: American Psychological Association (APA). • If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, RAM). • Use two-letter postal codes for U.S. state names.

  38. Language Exerts a Powerful Influence

  39. Avoiding Biased and Pejorative Language • Be more specific, not less • Use age ranges rather than broad categories • Use the phrase Men and women – rather than generic “mankind” • Avoid the generic “he” • Specific ethnic or racial labeling • Mention differences only when relevant

  40. Be Sensitive to Labels • Use person-first language when describing and individual or group of people with a disability. Example: people over the age of 65, people with learning disabilities

  41. Standards of Comparison • Be aware of hidden standards that compare the study group to an invisible (standard) group.Example: “culturally deprived” (by what standard?) • Unparallel nouns Example: man and wife - Instead: husband and wife

  42. Acknowledge Participation • Replace the impersonal term “subjects” with- participants - individuals - college students - children

  43. Where Do I Find APA Style and Format? • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. • http://www.apastyle.org • Some other good links: http://www.docstyles.com/apacrib.htm http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/amoebaweb/index.aspx?doc_id=2415