Cognitive and Emotional Development Chapter 3, Section 2
Shemas • Mental representations of the world. • Assimilation: fitting objects and experiences into one’s schemas. • Stacking a block with others. • Accommodation: when we change our schema to include newly observed events and experiences. • Try to fit the box into stacking schema but finds that the block just falls inside the box. The stacking schema must be changed to accommodate the new object.
Representational Thought • Intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind. • Need object permanence first. • Piaget’s daughter’s temper tantrum (14 months).
Emotional Development • Attachment to people and care about what they think and feel.
Experiments with Animals • Konrad Lorenz • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqZmW7uIPW4&feature=related • Baby geese became attacked to mothers very quickly • Called imprinting! • They waddled after the first thing that moves! • Lorenz substituted himself. • There is a critical period • Goslings corrected their imprinted response when actual mother was introduced.
Surrogate Mothers • Harry Harlow • Studied the relationship between mother and child---with rhesus monkeys! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsA5Sec6dAI
What makes the mother so important? • Took baby monkeys away when they were born. • Babies raised with surrogate mothers. • Monkeys could choose between two mothers: • Mother made from wood and wire. • Mother made from wood and wire (but covered in cloth). • In some cages, the cloth mother had a bottle. • In some cages, the wire mother had a bottle.
The Results…. • Monkeys became attached to the cloth mother, whether she gave food or not. Mostly ignored the wire mother. • Touching/Physical contact is what mattered, not the feeding.
Human Infants • Is there a “critical period” for human infants? • Attached at about 6 months • They can distinguish one person from another and object permanence. • Especially strong 6 months and 3 years. • Separation Anxiety • Common among 1 year old.
Mary Ainsworth • Attachment in Families • Stranger Situation • Situations where mother leaves and comes back when a stranger was and was not present. • Three patterns of attachment: • Secure attachment • Avoidant attachment • Resistant attachment • Disorganized attachment
Secure Attachment • Balance the need to explore with the need to be close. • Welcome mom back and are free of anger.
Avoidant Attachment • Infants avoid or ignore the mother when she leaves and returns.
Resistant Attachment • Are not upset when the mother leaves but reject her or act angrily when she returns.
Disorganized Attachment • Behave inconsistently. • Seem confused and act in contradictory ways. • May not be upset when mom leaves but then they avoid her when she returns.