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EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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  1. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  2. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Four Basic Components of Emotions: • Stimuli that provoke a reaction • Feelings – Pos. or neg. conscious experiences of which we become aware • Physiological arousal • Behavioral response • Example:

  3. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Sequence of Emotional Development: Newborn 3 months 2 ½ - 6 months 8 – 10 months Second year Third year

  4. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  5. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  6. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Functions of Emotions: • Adaptive function • Communication • Social relationships • Sociomoral development • Source of pleasure or pain

  7. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Temperament: a person’s characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviorally to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability. Moderately heritable! Non-shared experiences affect later temperament.

  8. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT New York Longitudinal Study: 40% Easy, 10% Difficult, 15% Slow-to-Warm-Up, rest showed unique patterns

  9. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Attachment: a close emotional relationship between two persons characterized by…. 1. Mutual affection 2. Frequent interaction and close proximity 3. Selectivity

  10. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Infant characteristics promoting attachment: • “kewpie doll” appearance • Rooting, sucking, grasping reflexes • Smiling • Cooing, babbling • Crying • Synchronous movement

  11. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Infant characteristics making attachments more difficult: • Physically unattractive • Weak reflexes • Irritable • Little pleasant vocalization • Irritating, shrill cry • Easily over stimulated

  12. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Caregiver characteristics hindering attachment: • Maternal depression • Abused mother • Mother doesn’t want baby • Mother unable to take lead • Mother insensitive to infant

  13. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  14. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Ecological Constraints on Attachment: • Several children • Poor marital relationship

  15. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Theories of Attachment • Psychoanalytic Theory • Learning Theory • Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Ethological Theory • Summary of Evidence • Feeding not as critical as once believed. • Contact comfort & responsive interaction are important. • Timing is related to obj. perm. • Infants are active participants.

  16. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Stranger Anxiety – Wary reaction to a stranger which occurs shortly after attachment to a primary caregiver. Separation Anxiety – Wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when separated from the person(s) to whom they are attached.

  17. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Separation Anxiety

  18. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Why Infants Fear Separation and Strangers “Conditioned Anxiety” Hypothesis - Separation - Strangers - Comments Ethological Viewpoint - Separation - Strangers

  19. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Why Infants Fear Separation and Strangers • Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint • - Separation • - Strangers • Conclusion: • Child’s fear of losing warmth/security of caregiver • Apprehension of unfamiliar • Inability to fit into existing schemes.

  20. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Types of Attachment • Secure Attachment • Explores • Distressed when separated • Warmly greets mom • Outgoing to strangers when mom is there • Insecure Attachment (Anxious/Resistant) • Anxious • Very distressed when separated • Ambivalent on mom’s return • Wary of strangers when mom is there

  21. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Types of Attachment • Insecure Attachment (Anxious/Avoidant) • Not interested in exploring • Little distress when separated • Avoids contact on return • Not wary of stranger • Insecure Attachment (Disorganized/disoriented) • Show mixture of other two types of insecure attachment • Show approach/avoidance conflict when mom returns

  22. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  23. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Explanations of Attachment Differences Ainsworth’s Caregiving Hypothesis: quality of an infant’s attachment depends largely on the kind of attention the infant has received. Secure attachment: Insecure attachment (anxious/resistant): Insecure attachment (anxious/avoidant): Insecure attachment (disorganized/disoriented):

  24. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Explanations of Attachment Differences Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

  25. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Explanations of Attachment Differences Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis: quality of an infant’s attachment reflects individual differences in infant temperament. All other factors being equal, then: Easy temperament: Difficult temperament: Slow-to-warm-up temperament:

  26. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Explanations of Attachment Differences

  27. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Explanations of Attachment Differences Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis: quality of an infant’s attachment reflects individual differences in infant temperament. All other factors being equal, then: Easy temperament: Difficult temperament: Slow-to-warm-up temperament: Who is correct? What is the evidence?

  28. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Long-term Correlates of Attachment Quality Securely attached toddlers and preschoolers tend to be: 1. Better problem solvers at age 2 2. More creative 3. More attractive playmates 4. Initiate play activities 5. Sensitive to others 6. Curious 7. Self-directed 8. Eager to learn

  29. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Important Factors in Daycare & Attachment • Quality of care • Parental attitudes • Two-parent or Single parent? • Socioeconomic status (SES)

  30. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Important Factors in Daycare & Attachment Characteristics of High Quality Day Care: 1. Child-to-caregiver ratio 2. Caregivers warm/expressive/responsive 3. Little staff turnover 4. Age-appropriate curriculum 5. Administration willing/eager to confer with parents about child

  31. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Daycare & Attachment

  32. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys

  33. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys • Three months of Isolation • Characteristics displayed • Recovery?

  34. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys • Three months of Isolation • Six months of Isolation • Characteristics displayed • Recovery?

  35. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys • Three months of Isolation • Six months of Isolation • Twelve months of Isolation • a. Characteristics displayed • b. Recovery?

  36. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys • Three months of Isolation • Six months of Isolation • Twelve months of Isolation • Summary of this work • Later recovery

  37. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The “Unattached” Infant • Harlow’s Studies of Socially-Deprived Monkeys B. Early Social Deprivation in children 1. Characteristics of Infants 2. Characteristics of Toddlers/Older Children 3. How to Aid Recovery from Early Social Deprivation