Emotional Development • At birth, partial and full-face expressions of interest, smiling and disgust are observed. • Endogenous Smiles
Carroll Izard • Emotions develop in orderly fashion • 4-6 weeks: social/exogenous smiles • 3-4 months: anger, sadness, surprise • 5-7 months: fear • 6-8 months: shame, shyness, self-awareness • 24 months: contempt, guilt
Joseph Campos • All basic emotions are in place at birth; prewired • Just because they are not observed does not mean child is not experiencing them.
Emotional Stability • Amount of sadness during brief separation from mother predicts sadness 6 months later • Amount of anger during inoculation at 2-7 months predicts amount of anger at 19 months • Izard and colleagues
TEMPERAMENT • Behavioral style or primary pattern of reacting to environment • Hereditary component • Includes sociability, emotionality, activity level (Buss & Plomin)
Thomas and Chess (1956) • New York Longitudinal Study – followed 141 people from infancy to adulthood • Nine temperament dimensions • Activity level • Rhythmicity • Approach/withdrawal • Distractability • Adaptability • Threshold of Mood • Intensity of Reaction • Mood • Attention span/persistence
Three Significant Constellations • Easy Child (40% of sample) - smiles easily, adapts to change, quickly develops regular patterns of eating and sleeping • Difficult Child (10%) - easily frustrated, slow to adapt, withdraws from novelty, shows irregular patterns • Slow-To-Warm-Up Child (15%) - mildly negative initial responses gradually change to positive, reactions less intense than Difficult Child • Remaining35% in sample didn’t fall into categories
Goodness of Fit • Outcome determined largely by goodness offit between temperament and environment • Consistent individual differences in temperament evident from earliest months • Children react differently to environments depending on own temperaments • Recognizing different temperaments and providing a good fit is important for all who interact with children
Jerome Kagan (1989) • Behavioral Inhibition: tendency to be extremely shy and restrained in response to unfamiliar people and situations.
Stability of Temperament • Active fetus – more likely to be an active infant • Relatively stable through infancy and preschool years
Other Aspects of Emotional Development • Social Referencing: looking to another individual for emotional cues in interpreting a strange/ambiguous event. • Complex emotions