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Cognitive and Emotional Development . Chapter 3 Section 2 and 3 Notes . Cognitive Development . Jean Piaget Focused on the development of thought As the child grows, intelligence and the ability to understand develops.

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Cognitive and emotional development

Cognitive and Emotional Development

Chapter 3 Section 2 and 3 Notes

Cognitive development
Cognitive Development

  • Jean Piaget

    • Focused on the development of thought

    • As the child grows, intelligence and the ability to understand develops.

    • A child develops intellectually with both quantitative and qualitative changes.

  • Schemas- A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world.

  • Assimilation- the process of filtering objects and experiences into one’s schemas.

  • Accommodation- the adjustment of one’s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences.

  • Assimilation and accommodation work with each other to produce intellectual growth.

Cognitive development1
Cognitive Development

  • Object Permanence

    • Peek-a-boo

    • “hiding a toy”

    • The object still exists even though you cannot see it or touch it

  • Representational Thought

    • The child starts to achieve ‘object permanence’

    • The child can picture things in their mind.

  • The Principle of Conservation

    • Happens between ages 5 and 7 when the child can determine that the quantity does not change even if the appearance does.

      • Example: water in different size glasses

  • Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development

    • Describes the changes that occur in a child’s understanding.

Emotional development
Emotional Development

  • Imprinting

    • Inherited tendencies/responses that are displayed by

      newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in

      their environment

    • Konrad Lorenzo discovered that baby geese become attached to their mother, or what they think is their mother, in an instant.

  • Surrogate mothers

    • Harry Harlow studied and tested the bond between mother and child using monkeys.

  • Human Infants

    • When an attachment is formed between mother and child, disruption can be disturbing to the infant.

      • Stranger anxiety/ separation anxiety

Parenting styles
Parenting Styles

  • Authoritarian- Parents attempt to control, shape, and evaluates the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set code of conduct.

  • Democratic/Authoritative- children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives.

  • Permissive/Laissez-faire- Children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non-punishing, accepting attitude toward children.

Social development
Social Development

  • Socialization- the process of learning rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live.

    • What is acceptable and unacceptable?

    • Gender has different rules to follow.

    • learning what rules apply and when you can bend them

  • Freud’s theory of psychosexual Development

    • All children are born with strong sexual and aggressive urges.

    • Identification- the process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same sex parent.

      • Boys have the same values and morals as their father

    • Sublimation- the process of reducing sexual impulses into learning tasks.

      • Sexual desires are pushed into the background and child learn new skills by exploring the world.

Social development1
Social Development

  • Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development

    • He recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, but also feels that social acceptance is also important.

    • We all face numerous crises as we grow up and it helps shape us one way or another

    • Erickson and Freud both believe that learning social rules is much different then riding a bike

  • Kohlberg

    • Studied moral reasoning in children and adolescences by presenting the children with different dilemmas.

    • Kohlberg’s six stages of development were created once he questioned the reasoning behind the way the children solved the dilemmas.

    • In order to reach the highest form of Moral development you must see the view points of different people.