Cognitive and Emotional Development Chapter 3 Section 2 and 3 Notes
Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget • Focused on the development of thought • As the child grows, intelligence and the ability to understand develops. • A child develops intellectually with both quantitative and qualitative changes. • Schemas- A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world. • Assimilation- the process of filtering objects and experiences into one’s schemas. • Accommodation- the adjustment of one’s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences. • Assimilation and accommodation work with each other to produce intellectual growth.
Cognitive Development • Object Permanence • Peek-a-boo • “hiding a toy” • The object still exists even though you cannot see it or touch it • Representational Thought • The child starts to achieve ‘object permanence’ • The child can picture things in their mind. • The Principle of Conservation • Happens between ages 5 and 7 when the child can determine that the quantity does not change even if the appearance does. • Example: water in different size glasses • Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development • Describes the changes that occur in a child’s understanding.
Emotional Development • Imprinting • Inherited tendencies/responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in their environment • Konrad Lorenzo discovered that baby geese become attached to their mother, or what they think is their mother, in an instant. • Surrogate mothers • Harry Harlow studied and tested the bond between mother and child using monkeys. • Human Infants • When an attachment is formed between mother and child, disruption can be disturbing to the infant. • Stranger anxiety/ separation anxiety
Parenting Styles • Authoritarian- Parents attempt to control, shape, and evaluates the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set code of conduct. • Democratic/Authoritative- children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives. • Permissive/Laissez-faire- Children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non-punishing, accepting attitude toward children.
Social Development • Socialization- the process of learning rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live. • What is acceptable and unacceptable? • Gender has different rules to follow. • learning what rules apply and when you can bend them • Freud’s theory of psychosexual Development • All children are born with strong sexual and aggressive urges. • Identification- the process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same sex parent. • Boys have the same values and morals as their father • Sublimation- the process of reducing sexual impulses into learning tasks. • Sexual desires are pushed into the background and child learn new skills by exploring the world.
Social Development • Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development • He recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, but also feels that social acceptance is also important. • We all face numerous crises as we grow up and it helps shape us one way or another • Erickson and Freud both believe that learning social rules is much different then riding a bike • Kohlberg • Studied moral reasoning in children and adolescences by presenting the children with different dilemmas. • Kohlberg’s six stages of development were created once he questioned the reasoning behind the way the children solved the dilemmas. • In order to reach the highest form of Moral development you must see the view points of different people.