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China: Unit 9 Part One. Hannah Ibele. Before the Revolution. 2 groups emerged from divisions: GMD or the National People’s Party (led by Chiang Kai-shek) and the communists (led by Mao Zedong) Both organized armies Both idolized Sun Yat-sen and accepted the 3 People’s Principles

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before the revolution
Before the Revolution
  • 2 groups emerged from divisions: GMD or the National People’s Party (led by Chiang Kai-shek) and the communists (led by Mao Zedong)
  • Both organized armies
  • Both idolized Sun Yat-sen and accepted the 3 People’s Principles
  • Chiang supported businessmen and alliances with foreign countries
  • Mao supported peasants and stressed the importance of community organization
the struggle for power
The Struggle for Power

Chiang Kai-shek/GMD

  • Had conservative values and a diverse array of professional connection
  • Commander-in-chief of GMD’s National Revolutionary Army
  • Fought against the warlords, Japanese, and communists
  • Foreigners made lots of investments
  • 1920s – unionization of workers led to violence from employers
  • Had many early military victories, but alienated the peasants and the communists won them over

Mao Zedong/Communist Party

  • Goals: strong unified china, improvement of people’s livelihood
  • Personal experience limited to China
  • Little experience in Western business
  • Organized peasants and workers with local solutions, little industrialization, and appropriate rural technology
  • Peasants violently overthrew landlord
  • Long March: guerilla army
  • Improved women’s lives, no selling them for wives
  • Leadership remained mostly male
the long march and the fight against the japanese
The Long March and the Fight against the Japanese
  • Communists attacked by GMD, Mao led 80,000 men and 35 women on a strategic retreat (370 days, 6000 miles)
  • Mao became the unquestionable leader of communist party and army during the march
  • Established a capital in Yan’an and rebuilt soviet structure (redistributed land, encouraged handicrafts, arts, and schools)
  • Peasant-centered economy with dictatorial, benevolent leadership
  • Communists fought guerilla-style against Japanese
  • Jiang seemed less nationalistic than Mao and less willing to fight the Japanese, more willing to compromise
  • Jiang cooperated with communists to fight Japan after being kidnapped by communists (1936)
  • Temporary truce in 1945, then brutal civil war resumed
  • 1945: Communist forces defeat GMD
  • By 1949, GMD members are driven to Taiwan out of China
policies of communist china
Policies of Communist China
  • Most important: redistribute land, women can hold land, use appropriate technology, produce and equally distribute basic necessities, universal literacy
  • Social networks supported by government suppressed vices (Opium use, prostitution)
  • “Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom” (1956-1957)
    • 5 year plan to double industrial output
    • Public expression and gov’tcritacismencouraged
    • Late 1957: Policies shifted to squash protests
  • The “Great Leap Forward” (1957-1960)
    • Terminated small enterprise, people moved to farms
    • Economic catastrophe
    • Local small scale industries
  • Cultural Revolution (1966-1969)
    • Remove bureaucrats from party
    • Red Guard formed by army and students, professors etc, exiled to villages
    • Little Red Book published, creativity squashed, economic chaos, anarchy reigned
recovery and international relations
Recovery and International Relations
  • Red Guard suppressed, relations with the United States improved
  • Industrialization, steel production increased
  • Agriculture neglected, barely enough produced to feed country, growing population
  • Relations with USSR
    • Fought over ideology
    • 1960: USSR recalled technical advisors to China
    • No diplomatic relations after 1962
    • 1985 – diplomatic relations normalize (Gorbachev)
  • Relations with United States
    • Began with hostility
    • 1970s – Mao and Nixon normalize relations
  • Relations with E. Asia
    • Fear and resented neighbor, many Chinese minorities murdered
  • Relations with India
    • India and China both see themselves on the top of the third world