Nigeria. Great Britain. Russia. China. Iran. Mexico. Political Institutions. AP Comparative Government Unit IV Part 1. Review Definition: State. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area.
Nations with unicameral legislatures.
“I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat”- Winston Churchill
Being prime minister is a lonely job... you cannot lead from the crowd. Margaret Thatcher
Whitehall pictured in 2012, with The Cenotaph and Monument to the Women of World War II in the middle of the street, and the clock tower housing Big Ben in the background.
“The Home Office was born out of the barrel of a gun. It was created to prevent public disorder after troops shot dead nearly 300 people after rioting... in 1780”Whitehall Bigwigs
"The India Office is a miniature Government in itself.”
“The Chancellor of the Exchequer is…entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can."
Unless the fates be faulty grownAnd prophet’s voice be vainWhere’er is found this sacred stoneThe Scottish race shall reign.
The Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice Jack Straw
He has made a written ministerial statement in which
he has announced a new structure for the Ministry of Justice.
The Supreme Court was established in 2009 to achieve a complete separation between the United Kingdom’s senior Judges and the Upper House of Parliament, emphasizing the independence of the Law Lords and increasing the transparency between Parliament and the courts.
Courts are the final arbiter between the citizen and the state, and are therefore a fundamental pillar of the constitution.
In August 2009 the Justices moved out of the House of Lords (where they sat as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords) into their own building on the opposite side of Parliament Square.
They sat for the first time as a Supreme Court in October 2009.
The Politburo Standing Committee, makes up of the top leadership of the Communist Party in China
Wang Qishan: WAANG chee SHAN (-aa as in father, -ng as in sing -ch as in church)
Member of the Standing Committee
Premier of the State Council
The NPC is partially composed of a permanent body called the Standing Committeeof the National People’s Congress
When the NPC is not in secession, the Standing Committees can enact amendments and additions to laws passed by the NPC
The Central Committee is elected by the National Party Congress.
When the National Party Congress is not in session, the Central Committee leads all the work of the Party and represents the CPC outside the Party.
It is elected for a term of five years.
Legislation is also created at more local levels by the people’s congresses of provinces, municipalities, autonomous areas and cities.
The Constitution provides the structure, authority, and duties of the Local People’s Congresses
opening meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing
The Premier, Wen Jiabao, called yesterday for reforms that would allow more public scrutiny to address the "problem of over-concentration of power with ineffective supervision".
The term cadre refers to a public official holding a responsible or managerial position, usually full time, in party and government.
The 7 May Cadre Schools were set up in late 1968, in accordance with Mao Zedong’s directive.
A cadre may or may not be a member of the CCP, although a person in a sensitive position would almost certainly be a party member.
One by one, the 7 May cadre schools were closed down; they ceased to exist after the Cultural Revolution.
Cadres and intellectuals, "sent down" from the cities, would perform manual labor and undergo ideological reeducation.
Cadres would take turns to go the villages or grass-roots levels to gain first-hand experience in productive work.
Judges being sworn in at a court in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province. Photo: Reuters
Strictly speaking, China's judicial system only refers to people's court system.
Generally thought to lack Rule of Law
Trying cases that have the greatest influence in China, hearing appeals against the legal decisions of higher courts
Supervising the work of local courts and special courts at every level
Giving judicial explanations of the specific utilization of laws in the judicial process that must be carried out nationwide.
The president of the Supreme People's Court is elected by the NPC and remains in office for no more than two successive terms with each term of five years.
The deputy presidents of the Supreme People's Court, members of the judicial committee, presiding judges of affiliated courts and their deputies, and judicial officers are appointed and recalled by the Standing Committee of the NPC.
The Higher People's Courts are courts of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government.
A higher people's court deals with cases of the first instance assigned by laws and decrees, cases of the first instance transferred from people's courts at the next lower level, cases of appeals and of protests lodged against judgments and orders of people's courts at the next lower level, and cases of protests lodged by people's procuratorates.
Lawyers for Apple Inc. argued for its right to use the iPad trademark in China on Wednesday March 1, as a higher court began a crucial hearing that could result in sales of the wildly popular tablet computer being halted throughout the Chinese mainland
The Higher People's Court of Guangzhou is hearing an appeal by the U.S. firm after a lower court ruled in favour of debt-laden Chinese tech company Proview Technology (Shenzhen), which says it owns the trademark in China.
They are the courts established in capitals or prefectures in the provincial level.
The scope of jurisdiction by an intermediate people's court covers cases of first instance assigned by laws and decrees, cases of first instance transferred from the basic people's courts, and appealed and protested cases from the lower court.
The basic courts, as the lowest level, are normally located at the county, municipal districts and autonomous counties.
The basic people's court adjudicates all criminal and civil cases of the first instance except where the law provides otherwise.
Besides trying cases, a basic people's court is also responsible for settling civil disputes, handling minor criminal cases that do not require formal handling, and directing the work of the people's mediation committees.
Enrique Peña Nieto
Each US dollar has been calculated at 9,095 rials.
AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa 1960 - 1966
Chief Benjamin NnamdiAzikiwe October 1, 1963 – January 16, 1966
Major General Johnson Thomas UmunnakweAguiyiIronsi January 16, 1966 – July 29, 1966
General Yakubu Gowon August 1, 1966 – July 29, 1975
General Murtala Ramat Mohammed July 29, 1975 – February 13, 1976
General OlusegunAremuOkikiola Matthew Obasanjo February 13, 1976 – October 1, 1979
ShehuUsmanAliyuShagari October 1, 1979 – December 31, 1983
Major-General MuhammaduBuhari December 31, 1983 – August 27, 1985
General Ibrahim BadamasiBabangida August 27, 1985 – August 27, 1993
Chief Ernest AdegunleOladeindeShonekan August 26, 1993 – November 17, 1993
General SaniAbacha November 17, 1993 – June 8, 1998
General AbdulsalamiAlhajiAbubakar (rtd.) June 9, 1998 – May 29, 1999
General (rtd.) OlusegunAremuOkikiola Matthew Obasanjo May 29, 1999 – May 29, 2007
Umaru Musa Yar'Adua 29 May 2007 – May 2010
Goodluck Jonathan May 2010-present
(This body is seeking legitimacy and a purpose !)
The constitution prescribes that the Government of Russia, which corresponds to the Western cabinet structure, consist of a prime minister (chairman of the Government), deputy prime ministers, and federal ministers and their ministries and departments.
Within one week of appointment by the president and approval by the State Duma, the prime minister must submit to the president nominations for all subordinate Government positions, including deputy prime ministers and federal ministers.
**President cannot dissolve a Duma that has issued an impeachment vote, OR within one year of election.