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Nigeria. Great Britain. Russia. China. Iran. Mexico. Political Institutions. AP Comparative Government Unit IV Part 1. Review Definition: State. A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area.

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political institutions


Great Britain





Political Institutions

AP Comparative Government

Unit IV Part 1

review definition state
ReviewDefinition: State
  • A state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area.
  • These may be nation states or sub-national states, or in some cases supernational organizations.
the foundation of the state
The Foundation of the State
  • The “STATE”
    • Most dominant political unit
    • No higher authority
political institutions and structures


Great Britain





Political Institutionsand Structures
  • Key Questions:
    • Who are the rulers?
    • What are the rules to control them?
    • Who controls AND WHY?
    • How are they Controlled?
institutions in a state
Institutions in a State
  • A state usually includes:
    • A set ofinstitutionsthat claim the authority to make the rules that govern the exercise of coercive violence for the people of the society in that territory
    • Status as a state often depends in part on being recognized by a number of other states as having internal and external sovereignty over it.
how do states gain and keep control
How Do States Gain and Keep Control?

Four theories

  • By Force
  • By Evolution
  • By Divine Right
  • Through Social Contract
    • Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu…
review from ap government
Political Institutions

Executive Branch

Can also include the Military

Can also include the Bureaucracy

Legislative Branch

Judicial Branch

Linking Institutions

Political Parties

Interest Groups

The Media

Review from AP Government

The Executive Branch

  • Head of State
    • President
    • Dictator
    • Monarch
  • Head of Government
    • Prime Minister
    • Premier
    • Chancellor
head of state or chief of state
Head of State or Chief of State
  • Usually serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state.
  • His or her role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted the head of state in the country's laws and constitution.
head of state or chief of state1
Head of State or Chief of State
  • Charles de Gaulle described the role he envisaged for the French president when he wrote the modern French constitution.
    • He said the head of state should embody "the spirit of the nation" for the nation itself and the world: une certaine idée de la France (a certain idea about France).
  • Today many countries expect their head of state to embody national values in a similar fashion
head of government
Head of Government
  • The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet.
    • Is the “Leader of the Government”
  • Process functions includes:
      • Initiates/sets policy
        • Domestic and Foreign
      • Enhances policy
      • Enforcement of policy
head of government and state
Head of Government AND State
  • In presidential republics or monarchies, the head of government may be the same person as the head of state, who is often a president (of the republic) or a monarch.
  • Example: The United States
functions of executive
Functions of Executive
  • Leader of State
    • Communicator of State Ideals
    • Implementation of Policy
    • Dynamism
      • Sets pace and enhances political structure
executives as bureaucrats
Executives as Bureaucrats
  • Functions
    • Enforcement of laws, implement rules
    • Monopolizes outputs
    • Elaborates policy
    • Adjudicates policy
    • Spokesperson for special interest group
      • Interest aggregation
    • Communication function
      • Is it responsive?
how can executive power be controlled
How Can Executive Power be Controlled?
  • Through Checks and Balances!
  • These agents of Control include:
    • Voting (where this is available)
    • Approval of budgets
    • Investigative Courts
    • Mass media reports
    • Interest groups
    • Internal advisory commissions
    • Whistle blowers
the legislative branch
The Legislative Branch
  • An assembly of elected representatives
  • 75% of 180 states have one
      • Congress
      • Chamber
      • Diets
      • Parliament
        • House of Commons
      • Majiles
  • Elected by “popular” vote
    • Accountable
    • Legitimate

Russian Duma


Nations with bicameral legislatures.     

Nations with unicameral legislatures.     

No legislature

functions of legislative branch
Functions of Legislative Branch
  • Enact Legislation
  • Debating Forum
  • Amend Legislation
  • Formulation of policy
    • Input comes from outside
      • the voters
review how is power balanced between the executive and legislative branches
ReviewHow is Power Balanced Between the Executive and Legislative Branches?

Presidential Systems

  • Separation of powers between Executive and Legislative branches
    • May be Dictatorship or Democracy
    • May be
      • Direct
      • Indirect – Representative Gov’t

Parliamentary Systems

  • Merger of Executive and legislative branches with a PM selected by the majority party
    • Also may be Dictatorship or Democracy
    • May be
      • Direct
      • Indirect – Representative

The Judicial Branch

  • Courts establish the “Rule of Law” for the society
    • Court system is based on who possesses the legitimate power of the government.
  • Authoritarian systems drive the judicial process.
    • *Democratic systems will have checks and balances that will separate the three branches.
classifying institutions and structures
Classifying Institutions and Structures
  • Key Questions:
    • Who/which institution is in control?
      • Why are they in control?
      • How do they control?
      • When did it occur?
    • How does it work?
      • Are there checks/balances?
      • How does it work?
      • If not why not?
    • Are there rules to control the dominant player?
      • Who made the rules? When?
      • Do they work?
british government traditions
British Government Traditions
  • Who Should Govern? What should Government Do?
    • Trusteeship Theory
      • “The governments job is to govern”
      • Best interests of the masses
    • Interest Group Theory- Collectivism
      • Balance the needs of the people
      • Loyalty Prevails – England First
    • Individualist Theory
      • Parties should represent people rather than organized groups
        • The “Unions shall prevail” attitude was dismantled by the New Labour
british government traditions1
British Government Traditions
  • The PM Connection to the Crown
    • The PM is the "Head of Her Majesty's Government"
    • Queen provides “Formal assent” to all laws passed in Parliament
      • An age-old tradition of approval
    • No criticism of Parliament from Crown in public is allowed
    • The Crown can dissolve Parliament
      • Hasn’t been done since 1834
w hat about this no constitution business
What about this no Constitution business?
  • The UK constitution is not in a single, written document, but is drawn from legislation, treaties, judicial precedents, convention, and numerous other sources.
  • Two Basic Rules
    • The Rule of Law
    • The Supremacy of Parliament
great britain government
Great Britain Government
  • A unitary government
    • A melding of the Executive and Legislative branches
  • Parliament
    • A deliberate assembly of one nation for one interest, that of the whole -- more ceremonial than efficient or effective”
  • Fact -- The “Executive Branch” can secure every passage of its legislation
    • 97% of Whitehall’s bills are passed!
british prime minister and deputy prime minister
British Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister

“I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat”- Winston Churchill

  • David Cameron
    • Conservative Party ( Tories)
  • Nick Clegg
    • Liberal Democrats

Being prime minister is a lonely job... you cannot lead from the crowd. Margaret Thatcher

the prime minister
The Prime Minister
  • Prime Minister
    • “ First Among Equals”
    • Party leader
    • Chairman of cabinet
    • Major campaigner of policy
  • Patronage - vital weapon
    • selects all 20 cabinet members
  • Selects Cabinet
    • secures the close union and complete fusion of the executive and legislative branches
      • Majority party dictates
gb s prime minister
GB’s Prime Minister
  • PM needs cabinet support, not electorate.
    • Apex of unitary government but cabinet positions are not fixed. . .
  • PM’s Power determined by events of state
  • Goal - maintain a good government . . . no matter what the posting.
the power of whitehall
The Power of Whitehall
  • Insures that the government’s position is passed
    • Superior political power and flexibility
    • No constitution to inhibit but rules by constitutional principles

Whitehall pictured in 2012, with The Cenotaph and Monument to the Women of World War II in the middle of the street, and the clock tower housing Big Ben in the background.

whitehall bigwigs

“The Home Office was born out of the barrel of a gun. It was created to prevent public disorder after troops shot dead nearly 300 people after rioting... in 1780”

Whitehall Bigwigs
  • Home Office
    • Home Secretary
  • The Foreign Office
    • Foreign Secretary
  • Treasury
    • Chancellor of the Exchequer

Teresa May

"The India Office is a miniature Government in itself.”

William Hague

“The Chancellor of the Exchequer is…entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can."

George Osborne

the house of commons
The House of Commons
  • 650 members
  • Led by a speaker- John Bercow since 2009
  • Term of office -- 5 years MAX
  • Division of power between the majority and the minority.
    • Party Line + whip
  • Goal -- “Don’t hurt the party”
    • Its function is to approve policy, not make policy
legislating in the uk
Legislating in the UK
  • MP’s in House of Commons deliberate and debate the details of policy. . . not what policy but how to implement the policy
    • Purpose is to discuss legislation, not make it. . .
    • Legislation is made in Whitehall.
debate in house of commons
Debate in House of Commons
  • Debates express “moods” of HC.
    • If legislation passes, debate was effective.
    • Debate functions to “weigh one’s peers.”
  • Debates allow minority to scrutinize administration
    • If the populous doesn’t like it. . . they can seek out the ombudsman to express dissent
minister s of parliament mp s
Minister’s of ParliamentMP’s
  • MP’s are used to “feel out” legislation – Publicize the issues!
  • Articulate political ideas – debating forum
  • H of C is a place to mobilize support
    • MP is not a legislator
    • Can’t go against party line
    • Can oversee how the bureaucracy manages policy endeavors
      • Has oversight function
the house of lords
The House of Lords
  • A hereditary body formerly with inherited seats
  • Can initiate or amend legislation
  • Not elected. . . Selected
    • Not a cross-section of representation
    • Appointed “peers” hold office
    • The inherited “hereditary” seat holders were abolished 1999
    • The “law” lords were made up of HC retirees, all appointed
    • Was considered Supreme Court of Great Britain until 2009
the house of lords1
The House of Lords
  • Power is limited
    • Delay common’s enactments up to a year . . . but no veto power
  • Always “conservative” body made up of retired MP’s who are favored by PM
the cabinet
The Cabinet
  • Secures the close union and complete fusion of the executive and legislative branches
    • Apex of unitary government
  • Cabinet positions are not fixed
    • Majority party dictates
    • PM needs cabinet support, not electorate.
  • Power determined by events of state
  • Goal of Cabinet
    • To maintain a good government . . . no matter what the posting.
    • PM must watch out for the Shadow Cabinet
      • The Minority Party’s Leadership
parliament policy making
Parliament- Policy Making
  • Good policy is one that government finds acceptable to administer and publicly defend
    • Lawmaking is resource of the government.
  • Parliament averages only 85 bills per year
    • Most legislation updates old laws
  • Taxes
    • 30% of earnings-- socialism is expensive!!
  • 1/3 of workforce works for government
  • 1/2 of society on the DOLE (welfare rolls)
do they really need one
Do they really NEED one?
  • It has been suggested that the British Constitution can be summed up in eight words: What the Queen in Parliament enacts is law.
    • This means that Parliament, using the power of the Crown, enacts law which no other body can challenge.
  • Parliamentary sovereignty is commonly regarded as the defining principle of the British Constitution.
    • This is the ultimate lawmaking power vested in a democratically elected Parliament to create or abolish any law.
The British unitarysystem is beginning to look like a federalsystem
  • Devolution towards Scotland and Northern Ireland
  • Whig initiatives.
  • More freedom for local governments
    • London mayor is now elected official.
  • Reform in House of Lords
  • Electoral reform
  • A Bill of Rights???
the new supreme court created in 2009
The 'new' Supreme Court (Created in 2009)
  • The Supreme Court is the same body as the old “Law lords” in a new courtroom (without their wigs) and no voting powers in the House of Lords
  • Powers
    • All the UK Supreme Court can do is issue a 'statement of incompatibility' against govt. legislation that concerns human rights
    • They have been the final court of appeal for Human Rights Act (HRA) cases in the UK since 1998, which can still be appealed further to the European Court of Human rights.
other changes to system
Other Changes to System??
  • For change to occur
    • Party in power has to reduce its own power
    • Is that likely?
  • Conservatism doesn’t breed change. . .
    • Parliament has total sovereignty + can change the law at any time to suit its needs. . .can that change?
  • EU Law can circumvent Parliament law
  • Electoral system bashes third parties . .
    • That will come next unit. . . 
the stone of scone or stone of destiny
The Stone of Scone (or Stone of Destiny)
  • A stone placed inside the coronation chair upon which British monarchs are crowned
  • Scottish kings were formerly crowned on the stone AND it used to sit under the coronation chair in London’s Westminster Abbey, until Thursday, November 14, 1996.
  • The stone is now on display in Edinburgh Castle, with the intention to shuttle the stone to Westminster Abbey for future coronations of the British monarch.

Unless the fates be faulty grownAnd prophet’s voice be vainWhere’er is found this sacred stoneThe Scottish race shall reign.

traditions of the state opening of parliament
Traditions of the State Opening of Parliament
  • The State Opening ceremony dates from the opening in 1852. But parts of the ceremony can be traced back to even earlier times, when the monarchy and Parliament were on less than congenial terms.
    • The speech is read in the House of Lords because no monarch has set foot in the House of Commons since 1642, when Charles the First entered the Commons and tried to arrest five MPs.

The hostage MP

    • Before the Queen travels to Parliament from Buckingham Palace, certain traditional precautions are taken. A member of the government is held at Buckingham Palace to guarantee the safe return of the monarch. The hostage is released upon the safe return of the Queen.
  • Searching the cellars
      • The Yeomen of the Guard search the cellars of the Houses of Parliament, in a tradition that dates back to the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, when Guy Fawkes was arrested while preparing to blow up Parliament. 
  • Black Rod
      • The official known as Black Rod is sent to the Commons to summon MPs to attend the speech. The door is at first slammed in his face and MPs do not reopen it until he knocks on the door with his staff of office. MPs then follow Black Rod and the Speaker to the Lords Chamber.
new in 2009
New in 2009
  • The UK added a Supreme Court in 2009
  • The judicial function of Parliament ended in 2009, when an independent UK Supreme Court was established.

The Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice Jack Straw

He has made a written ministerial statement in which 

he has announced a new structure for the Ministry of Justice.

the uk supreme court
The UK Supreme Court

The Supreme Court was established in 2009 to achieve a complete separation between the United Kingdom’s senior Judges and the Upper House of Parliament, emphasizing the independence of the Law Lords and increasing the transparency between Parliament and the courts.

Courts are the final arbiter between the citizen and the state, and are therefore a fundamental pillar of the constitution.

formerly part of the house of lords
Formerly Part of the House of Lords

In August 2009 the Justices moved out of the House of Lords (where they sat as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords) into their own building on the opposite side of Parliament Square.

They sat for the first time as a Supreme Court in October 2009.

role of the uk supreme court
Role of the UK Supreme Court
  • The final court of appeal for all United Kingdom civil cases, and criminal cases from England, Wales and Northern Ireland
    • hears appeals on arguable points of law of general public importance
    • concentrates on cases of the greatest public and constitutional importance
    • maintains and develops the role of the highest court in the United Kingdom as a leader in the common law world
impact of the supreme court
Impact of the Supreme Court
  • The impact of Supreme Court decisions extend far beyond the parties involved in any given case, shaping our society, and directly affecting our everyday lives.
  • For instance, in their first legal year, the Justices gave landmark rulings on:
    • access to legal advice for Scottish suspects
    • the rights of gay asylum seekers
    • and the weight to be given to pre-nuptial agreements.
what major institution holds the key in great britain1
What major institution holds the key in Great Britain?
  • Parliament!
  • The melding of the Executive and Legislative Branches
constitution of 1982
Constitution of 1982
  • The formal structure of government is based on the State Constitution adopted on December 4, 1982, by the National People's Congress (NPC), China's highest legislative body.
    • The 1982 Constitution superseded three previous state constitutions--those of 1954, 1975, and 1978.
constitution of 19821
Constitution of 1982
  • The 1982 Constitution is a lengthy, hybrid document with 138 articles. Large sections were adapted directly from the 1978 constitution, but many of its changes derive from the 1954 constitution.
  • Specifically, the new Constitution deemphasizes class struggle and places top priority on development and on incorporating the contributions and interests of nonparty groups that can play a central role in modernization.
    • Rings with egalitarianism, but . . . .
frameworks china
  • Power of State
  • Power of Party
  • Power of Army
chinese communist party
Chinese Communist Party
  • The Communist Party of China (CCP or CPC) was founded on July 1, 1921 in Shanghai, China.
    • After 28 years of struggle founded the People's Republic of China in 1949.
the 7 top ccp officials in the politiboro standing committee
The 7 Top CCP Officials in the Politiboro Standing Committee
  • Xi Jinping - Head of China's Communist Party and chairman of China's Central Military Commission
  • Li Keqiang - Premier (in March)
  • Zhang Dejiang - Head of National People's Congress
  • Yu Zhengsheng - Head of Chinese People’s Consultative Conference
  • Liu Yunshan - Head of Propaganda Department
  • Wang Qishan - Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
  • Zhang Gaoli - Executive Vice Premier

The Politburo Standing Committee, makes up of the top leadership of the Communist Party in China

  • Xi Jinping:SHEE jin PING (-sh as in ship, -j as in Jack, -i as in sit, -ng as in sing)
  • Li Keqiang: LEE kuhchee-AANG (-ee as in street, -aa as in father, -ch as in church, -ng as in sing)
  • Zhang Dejiang: JAANG duh jee-AANG (-j as in Jack, -aa as in father, -ng as in sing)
  • Zhang Gaoli: JAANG gow LEE (-j as in Jack, -aa as in father, -ng as in sing, -ow as in now)

Wang Qishan: WAANG chee SHAN (-aa as in father, -ng as in sing -ch as in church)

  • Liu Yunshan: LYOH yuen SHAN (-ly as in million, -oh as in no, -ue as in French vu)
  • Yu Zhengsheng: YUE jung SHUNG (-ue as in French vu, -j as in Jack, -u as in bun, -ng as in sing)
china executive branch
ChinaExecutive Branch
  • Xi Jinping- Head of China's Communist Party and chairman of China's Central Military Commission
  • Li Keqiang- Premier
  • Zhang Dejiang- Head of National People's Congress
  • Yu Zhengsheng- Head of Chinese People’s Consultative Conference
xi jinping current roles
Xi Jinping- current roles
  • General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee
  • Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission
state council
State Council
  • The State Council (or Central Government) is the highest organ of Chinese executive branch.
    • Concentration of power but still needs party support
  • Politburo rules party, influences government

Li Keqiang

Member of the Standing Committee

Premier of the State Council

the state council
The State Council
  • The State Councilis the government of the PRC.
    • It is the highest organ of state power, and of state administration
  • The State Council consists of:
    • Premiers, Vice-Premiers, State Councilors, Ministers in charge of ministries, Ministers in charge of commissions, Auditor-General, and the Secretary-General.
  • The State Council’s term of office is five years.
central military commission
Central Military Commission
  • The Constitution also established the Central Military Commission(CMC), a organizational body empowered to direct the armed forces of China.
    • The Constitution does not enumerate the duties and powers of this governmental unit, as it does with the others.
  • It does, however, establish that the CMC is responsible to the NPC, supporting the idea that the NPC is the highest organ of state power.
china legislative branch
ChinaLegislative Branch
  • National Peoples Congress
  • The NPC is the unicameral body vested with the authority to establish the lawsin China.
  • This is a ratifying body, not deliberating body, a forum for special interest groups
    • 2,987 members (largest in the world)
    • Term 5 years
    • Meets once a year
    • Unicameral
  • Function
    • Amend legislation
    • Appoints/selects President and VP of PRC with a caucus system format (Quanxi)
china legislative branch1
ChinaLegislative Branch

The NPC is partially composed of a permanent body called the Standing Committeeof the National People’s Congress

When the NPC is not in secession, the Standing Committees can enact amendments and additions to laws passed by the NPC

china legislative branch2
ChinaLegislative Branch

The Central Committee is elected by the National Party Congress.

When the National Party Congress is not in session, the Central Committee leads all the work of the Party and represents the CPC outside the Party.

It is elected for a term of five years.

china legislative branch3
ChinaLegislative Branch

Legislation is also created at more local levels by the people’s congresses of provinces, municipalities, autonomous areas and cities.

The Constitution provides the structure, authority, and duties of the Local People’s Congresses

march 2010
HuJintao (C, Front), Wu Bangguo (2nd R, Front), WenJiabao (2nd L, Front), JiaQinglin (1st R, Front), Li Changchun (1st L, Front), Xi Jinping (2nd L, Back), Li Keqiang (2nd R, Back), He Guoqiang (1st L, Back) and Zhou Yongkang (1st R, Back) March 2010

opening meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing

china regional governments
China- Regional Governments
  • Standing Committees at every level …the epitome of local control
  • Regional Governments
  • Provinces
  • Prefectures
  • County Townships
    • Production brigades
    • Production teams
china bureaucracy
China- Bureaucracy
  • Largest in the world
  • Chinese citizens can’t hold both a political and government post
  • Cadres- Public officials
    • An attempt to decentralize power
    • Generally not trusted (2010 Golf Scandal)

The Premier, Wen Jiabao, called yesterday for reforms that would allow more public scrutiny to address the "problem of over-concentration of power with ineffective supervision".


The term cadre refers to a public official holding a responsible or managerial position, usually full time, in party and government.

The 7 May Cadre Schools were set up in late 1968, in accordance with Mao Zedong’s directive.

A cadre may or may not be a member of the CCP, although a person in a sensitive position would almost certainly be a party member.

great leap forward movement
Great Leap Forward Movement

One by one, the 7 May cadre schools were closed down; they ceased to exist after the Cultural Revolution.

Cadres and intellectuals, "sent down" from the cities, would perform manual labor and undergo ideological reeducation.

Cadres would take turns to go the villages or grass-roots levels to gain first-hand experience in productive work.

china judicial branch
ChinaJudicial Branch
  • The judicial system of the PR consists of the:
    • The Supreme People’s Courts
    • The Higher People’s Courts
    • The Intermediate People’s Courts
    • The Basic People’s Courts
      • The Basic People’s Courts are comprised of more than 3,000 courts at county level, which are further subdivided into about 20,000 smaller units referred to as people’s tribunals
china s court system
China’s Court System

Judges being sworn in at a court in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province. Photo: Reuters


Strictly speaking, China's judicial system only refers to people's court system.

Generally thought to lack Rule of Law

role of china s supreme court
Role of China’s Supreme Court

Trying cases that have the greatest influence in China, hearing appeals against the legal decisions of higher courts

Supervising the work of local courts and special courts at every level

Giving judicial explanations of the specific utilization of laws in the judicial process that must be carried out nationwide.

supreme court terms
Supreme Court Terms

The president of the Supreme People's Court is elected by the NPC and remains in office for no more than two successive terms with each term of five years.

The deputy presidents of the Supreme People's Court, members of the judicial committee, presiding judges of affiliated courts and their deputies, and judicial officers are appointed and recalled by the Standing Committee of the NPC.

the higher people s courts
The Higher People's Courts

The Higher People's Courts are courts of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government.

A higher people's court deals with cases of the first instance assigned by laws and decrees, cases of the first instance transferred from people's courts at the next lower level, cases of appeals and of protests lodged against judgments and orders of people's courts at the next lower level, and cases of protests lodged by people's procuratorates.

higher people s court case
Higher People’s Court Case


Lawyers for Apple Inc. argued for its right to use the iPad trademark in China on Wednesday March 1, as a higher court began a crucial hearing that could result in sales of the wildly popular tablet computer being halted throughout the Chinese mainland

The Higher People's Court of Guangzhou is hearing an appeal by the U.S. firm after a lower court ruled in favour of debt-laden Chinese tech company Proview Technology (Shenzhen), which says it owns the trademark in China.

the intermediate people s courts
The Intermediate People's Courts

They are the courts established in capitals or prefectures in the provincial level.

The scope of jurisdiction by an intermediate people's court covers cases of first instance assigned by laws and decrees, cases of first instance transferred from the basic people's courts, and appealed and protested cases from the lower court.

the basic people s courts
The Basic People's Courts

The basic courts, as the lowest level, are normally located at the county, municipal districts and autonomous counties.

The basic people's court adjudicates all criminal and civil cases of the first instance except where the law provides otherwise.

Besides trying cases, a basic people's court is also responsible for settling civil disputes, handling minor criminal cases that do not require formal handling, and directing the work of the people's mediation committees.

what major institution holds the key in china1
What major institution holds the key in China?
  • The Party!
  • Since Mao, control of the Communist Party is key to maintaining control in China
mexico central government
Mexico- Central Government
  • A Federal system established like the U.S. but highly centralized
    • President + Party = POWER!
    • Coalition of interests –
      • Co-optation (small group influence- related to patron-client)
      • crime
  • Political centralism
    • Has deep roots and a long tradition
  • Main Problem
    • The Mexican government can’t run the people like a dictatorship and the people can’t control the government.
mexico federal system
Mexico- Federal System
  • Federal government controls 85% of revenues.
  • Mexico City spends 45% of budget
  • Muncipio Libre
    • “Free autonomous” local governments
      • Not really!
    • 32 states are divided by political interests.
    • PAN has garnered its support base in local governments
mexican presidential system
Mexican Presidential System
  • Powerful office with
    • Six year term (Sexenio)
    • BUT No Re-election
    • Must be 35 years old
    • Must be natural-born citizen of natural-born or naturalized citizens
      • The candidate cannot have held a cabinet post or a governorship, nor have been on active military duty during the six months prior to the election.
      • Priests and ministers of religious denominations are barred from holding public office.
mexican presidential system1
Mexican Presidential System
  • Presidents are directly elected by a simple majority of registered voters in the thirty-one states and the Federal District.
  • The president holds the formal titles of chief of state, head of government, and commander in chief of the armed forces
the mexican presidency
The Mexican Presidency
  • Critics have pejoratively labeled the presidency the "six-year monarchy" because of the seemingly unchecked power that historically has resided in the office.
    • There is NO vice-president
  • Much of the aura of presidential power derives from the president's direct and unchallenged control over both the state apparatus and the ruling political party, the PRI.
power of the mexican president
Power of the Mexican President
  • Constitutional powers
    • His veto cannot be overridden!
  • President initiates, vetoes and decrees legislation
  • System restricts his changes
    • Pendulum politics (i.e. Portillo’s nationalization of banks in 1982)
  • National Consultative Committee
    • Made up of all ex-presidents

Enrique Peña Nieto


mexico executive branch
Mexico- Executive Branch
  • President handpicks cabinet
    • 20 members
    • Ministry of Government most powerful
  • President selects successor
    • El Tapado(The Hidden One)from small pool of cabinet officers until Vicente FOX was elected in 2000.
  • Did Vicente Fox “select” one in 2006?
  • Felipe Calderon in 2012??
mexican patron client relationship
Mexican Patron-Client Relationship
  • Mexican president is the “supreme client” of the client-patron system
    • It follows the camarilla (political clique) who vie for presidential power
  • Cabinet positions conciliates the losers
    • Loyalty to office but not similar ideology
mexican bureaucracy
Mexican Bureaucracy
  • Very Powerful institution in Mexico
    • PRI influenced in past and even today
    • Controls municipalities/cities
    • Uses Mordida and the spoils system
  • The PRI bureaucrats also used the “Three Pillars of Society” to control the government by dividing the power and then uniting and merging the factions
  • Major parts of PRI
    • Campesinos (farmer or land worker)
      • Peasants -- “Drunk” with Revolutionary fervor
      • Land reform -- National Peasant Confederation (CNC interest group)
    • Labor/labor unions
    • Military
mexican bureaucracy1
Mexican Bureaucracy
  • The Mexican Bureaucracy has to deal with poverty and debt
    • Oil ( since the 1970’s) makes money and also expectations
      • PEMEX oil company largest
    • Economy is “concentrated” in a few key areas
  • Presidential success + the economy is now tied together!
  • Free trade status important-NAFTA
mexican legislature
Mexican Legislature
  • A bicameral system that was updated by Constitutional changes in 1993
    • Senate-128 members- 6-year terms
      • 96 elected in state lists; 32 by PR
    • Chamber of Deputies 500 members with a 3 year term.
      • 300 Direct-election seats; 200 by PR
    • Both bodies used to be PRI controlled but now filled with both PDR and PAN legislators.
  • The changes meant more seats for oppositional parties
    • Senate at least 1/3 for non-PRI seats
    • Chamber of Deputies no party will earn more than 300 of the 500 seats
mexican legislature1
Mexican Legislature
  • Term limits
    • No consecutive re-election to legislative seats
  • Function of Institution was originally used to Legitimize the Presidency
    • A symbol to the people that the government will be responsible.
  • BUT 80% of President’s legislation was passed pre-2000.
    • BUT this has changed since 2000 and Fox and Calderon have experienced a non-conformist legislature.
fox news latino january 2012
Fox News Latino January 2012
  • Mexican lawmakers said they would formally complain to the attorney general's office Tuesday after finding hidden microphones believed to have been used to spy on the lower house of Congress.
    • `The listening devices were found "in quite a lot of offices, listening to and checking the activities of lawmakers," said Armando Rios Piter, president of the house's political coordination committee, on Televisa channel.
  • It was unclear who was responsible but lawmakers would release further information when possible, a statement from the lower chamber said.
mexico s judicial branch
Mexico’s Judicial Branch
  • The judicial branch of the Mexican government is divided into federal and state systems.
  • Mexico's highest court is the Supreme Court of Justice, located in Mexico City.
    • It consists of twenty-one magistrates and five auxiliary judges, all appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate or the Permanent Committee.
  • Mexican supreme court justices must be Mexican citizens by birth, thirty-five to sixty-five years old, and must have resided in Mexico and held a law degree during the five years preceding their nomination.
mexican judicial system
Mexican Judicial System
  • Spanish law with a sprinkling of U.S. common law
  • Court system is elaborate
    • Supreme Court
      • 21 Justices
      • 4 Chambers
      • Highly politicized!!
  • Corruption has always infiltrated the system
    • Drug trade pays off in many cases
what major institution holds the key in mexico1
What major institution holds the key in Mexico?
  • Political Parties AND The Executive Branch
  • Since 1917, control of Mexico was linked to political party
    • PRI 1917-2000
  • 2000 and beyond
    • Uncertainty
what major institution holds the key in iran1
What major institution holds the key in Iran?
  • Islamic Law!!!
  • The delicate melding of a theocracy and a democracy
an islamic republic
An Islamic Republic
  • Iran is a constitutional Islamic republic with a theocratic system of government where ultimate political authority is vested in a learned religious scholar, the Supreme Leader.
  • Shia Islam is the official religion of Iran, and Islamic law is the basis of the authority of the state.
  • The Iranian Constitution guarantees freedom of worship to Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, though they are sometimes the subject of discrimination and repression.
iran a theocratic democracy
Iran – A Theocratic Democracy
  • Theocracy versus Democracy
    • A theocracy needs a belief system intact
    • A democracy believes in co-existence between diverse groups.
    • Democracies think anybody can become an elite
    • Theocracies promote religious elites.
  • Iranian sovereignty needs both democratic ideals and theocratic conformity
    • An intense complicated relationship!
iranian institutions
Iranian Institutions
  • A mixture of Persian culture and Islam’s plethora of assemblies
    • Many parallel organizations – Political and religious centered.
  • Clerics and Revolutionary Guard watches the army and vice versa.
  • So who rules?
    • That depends on what the decision is and the timing
executive branch
Executive Branch
  • President
    • A universally elected office holder.
      • He needs a majority vote
    • Term – four year with two term limit
    • Powers
      • Selects cabinet members
      • Presents legislation
      • But shares rule with Supreme Leader
iranian supreme leader
Iranian Supreme Leader
  • Chosen by the Assembly of Religious Experts.
  • Trustee of community
    • Ensures that all laws conform to Islam.
  • Can overrule and dismiss President
    • Appoints head of judiciary and ½ of the members of the Guardian Council
    • Names top military commanders.
  • Once, the highest ranking cleric, today and “established” member of the clergy.
the guardian council
The Guardian Council
  • 12 member council (6-yr term) that can veto legislation when it runs counter to Islamic dogma.
    • Theoretically, an upper house of parliament.
    • Screens all political candidates.
  • Composition
    • Six clerics and six lawyers who are selected by judiciary w/ approval by Parliament
assembly of religious experts
Assembly of Religious Experts
  • Popularly elected but must possess cleric pedigree.
    • Composed by 86 men who drafted 1979 Iranian Constitution.
  • Evaluates performance of Supreme Leader
expediency council
Expediency Council
  • Purpose
    • Maintain the public interest (maslahat) of the state.
  • Serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country.
    • Institution created in 1988
    • 32 political personalities who resolve disputes .
    • A co-democratic, co-theological body.
    • 3 year term
  • Comprised of
    • 3 government leaders
    • 6 Guardians
    • 23 Supreme Leader appointees
  • Has the authority to mediate disputes between Majles and the Council of Guardians
iranian legislative branch
Iranian Legislative Branch
  • Majles- Islamic Consultative Assembly
    • 290 deputies
    • Unicameral
    • Four year term by direct and secret ballot.
  • Feisty political arena that has taken on a non-clerical representation
  • Purpose is to make statutes, not shari’a.
    • Investigative body-
    • Selects 6 of 12 members of Guardian Council.
  • Can remove cabinet members w/ vote of no confidence. . .except President!!
iranian judicial branch
Iranian Judicial Branch
  • Conservative body
    • Institutes censorship
  • Supreme Leader appoints head of judiciary
    • A cleric
  • Clerics interpret law
    • Shari’a is dominant.
  • Penal Code
    • Retribution law
  • But state interests have intervened to temper zealous judicial clerics.
    • Imprisonment has replaced corporal punishment as sentencing of choice.
  • Hezbollahs and Bazaari’s establish vigilante justice
iranian bureaucracy
Iranian Bureaucracy
  • Controlled by president
    • Nationalized industry, including oil.
  • Learning Islam is a way into the budgetary coffers.
    • Senior ministries are dominated by clerics
2008 09 budget
2008-09 Budget
  • Iran's parliament has approved a bigger budget for 2008-09 totaling the equivalent of $310 billion, despite fears this will further stoke inflation in OPEC's second biggest producer.

Each US dollar has been calculated at 9,095 rials.

iranian military
Iranian Military
  • The Iranian military is a Pahlavi institution (named for the Shah)
  • The Supreme Leader dictates this group.
  • Revolutionary Guards keep a close eye and “protects” the Republic
  • The Iranian military protects the borders
    • A strange relationship!
the revolutionary guard
The Revolutionary Guard
  • The Iranian Revolutionary Guard was formed in May 1979, almost immediately after the revolution
  • It was set up by the then Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini to be the guardian of the revolution.
  • The Revolutionary Guard was supposed to be a people's army and was supposed to mobilize the people of Iran in front of any foreign attacks to Iran.
  • Now the Revolutionary Guard is something like a political party:
    • Have 80 seats in the parliament
    • Have more than half of the members of the cabinet.
    • Like the KGB because they have secret services
    • Like a cartel or trust.
religious demography and diversity
Religious Demography and Diversity
  • Religion has always played a major role in Nigerian society, where there is a strong relation between ethnic and religious identity.
    • Muslims account for nearly 50 percent of the population.
    • Approximately 40 percent of Nigerians are Christians
    • The remaining 10 percent practice indigenous beliefs
religious demography and diversity1
Religious Demography and Diversity
  • Islam largely dominates the country's northern region, home of the Hausa and Fulani ethnic groups.
  • Christianityis the prevalent religion in the south among the Yoruba and Igbo tribes, although the southwesterly Yorubaland contains a more diverse group of religions.
  • The mid-section of Nigeria remains mostly neutral, with neither religion a majority.
nigerian institutions
Nigerian Institutions
  • An excellent model of presidentialism, be it a military leader (or an occasional democratic-elected leader).
    • Legislatures often discarded by military leaders.
  • Once a parliamentary system following the GB’s unitary ways
    • Now a federal system following the U.S.’s presidential model
  • It is now the Fourth Republic derived from the ethnic hierarchies prevalent through out Nigeria.
the executive
The Executive
  • North has dominated Executive branch since the end of colonial period
  • Ethnic Pluralism has hampered central presidential rule
  • Creating Presidential Zones (zoning out) has been offered as an alternative but “rent-seeking” might interfere
  • Politicians seek personal gain from powerful positions.
the president
The President
  • Popularly elected head of state and government
    • “Protector of Last Resort”
    • Also commander in chief.
    • Term – 4 yrs w/ two term limit.
  • Functions
    • Ceremonial and Administrative
    • Appoints ministers (w/ Senate confirmation) but must represent all 36 states.
  • Federal Executive Committee
    • Ensures all laws are enacted nationwide
president head of state duration of term
President / Head Of StateDuration Of Term

AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa 1960 - 1966

Chief Benjamin NnamdiAzikiwe October 1, 1963 – January 16, 1966

Major General Johnson Thomas UmunnakweAguiyiIronsi January 16, 1966 – July 29, 1966

General Yakubu Gowon August 1, 1966 – July 29, 1975

General Murtala Ramat Mohammed July 29, 1975 – February 13, 1976

General OlusegunAremuOkikiola Matthew Obasanjo February 13, 1976 – October 1, 1979

ShehuUsmanAliyuShagari October 1, 1979 – December 31, 1983

Major-General MuhammaduBuhari December 31, 1983 – August 27, 1985

president head of state duration of term1
President / Head Of StateDuration Of Term

General Ibrahim BadamasiBabangida August 27, 1985 – August 27, 1993

Chief Ernest AdegunleOladeindeShonekan August 26, 1993 – November 17, 1993

General SaniAbacha November 17, 1993 – June 8, 1998

General AbdulsalamiAlhajiAbubakar (rtd.) June 9, 1998 – May 29, 1999

General (rtd.) OlusegunAremuOkikiola Matthew Obasanjo May 29, 1999 – May 29, 2007

Umaru Musa Yar'Adua 29 May 2007 – May 2010

Goodluck Jonathan May 2010-present

the 6 nigerian geopolitical zones
The 6 Nigerian Geopolitical Zones
  • North-Central
    • Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau, and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • North-Eastern
    • Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe.
  • North-Western
    • Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara.
  • South-Eastern
    • Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo.
  • South-South
    • Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo and Rivers.
  • South-Western
    • Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo.
power of the north central and north west zones
Power of the North-Central and North West Zones
  • The North-Central Zone
    • Generals Yakubu Gowon
    • General Ibrahim Babangida
    • General AbdusalamAbubakar
  • North-West Zone
    • General Murtala Mohammed
    • General MuhammaduBuhari
    • General SaniAbacha
    • General AlhajiShehuShagari
    • President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua.
proposed constitutional rotation of offices
Proposed Constitutional Rotation of Offices
  • The following 6 offices shall rotate among the six geo-political zones
    • The office of the President
    • The office of the Vice President
    • The office of the Prime Minister
    • The office of the Deputy Prime Minister
    • The office of the President of the Senate
    • The office of the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • Had the above provisions been incorporated in the 1999 Constitution, two of the six geopolitical zones would already have produced a President of Nigeria and a third zone would have been looking forward to producing the President in the next dispensation.
  • The present controversy or argument as to which geopolitical zone or group of geopolitical zones or region should present the President would have been more manageable.
the executive1
The Executive
  • Under Nigeria’s federal system, states receive large shares of the nation’s oil revenues and have budgets rivaling those of other African nations.
  • Those budgets can prove to be tempting targets for graft in Nigeria, a West African nation consistently ranked as having one of the most corrupt governments in the world
president jonathan dealing with terrorists in january 2012
President Jonathan dealing with terrorists in January 2012


  • President Goodluck Jonathan made a trip to Kano following the devastating bomb attacks by BokoHaram, which left more than 150 people dead.
  • He went to the military hospital and also met the Emir of Kano and promised to defeat the perpetrators of the attacks on the city.
  • The militant Islamist group says it was responsible for the attack.
nigerian legislature the national assembly
Nigerian Legislature- The National Assembly
  • National Assembly is bicameral (U.S. model)
    • Senate – 109; 3 per state + 1 Fed Cap
    • House – 360 reps
    • Male dominated body
  • Both Popularly elected w/ 4 yr terms
    • It approves the budget
    • It can invoke impeachment proceedings.
  • Passes laws w/ assistance from President
    • Not a divided government
    • President is patron of the Executive Branch, who disperses the budget.

(This body is seeking legitimacy and a purpose !)

nigerian judicial branch
Nigerian Judicial Branch
  • Hierarchy of courts with Supreme Court at the top
    • Follows British model.
    • Common law courts AND Shari’a courts
  • Problems
    • Political appointees can rob the judiciary of its independence.
    • Military tribunals have circumvented the legal process, belittling the concept of “rule of law”.
nigerian military
Nigerian Military
  • An intimidating national force.
    • Six of 13 rulers have been Generals
  • A great deal of ethnic based patronage, pacifies the pluralism.
    • Almost more effective than political parties in gaining support.
  • Been involved recently in peacekeeping operations in and around Africa.
  • Is it the only institution that works?
what major institution holds the key in russia1
What major institution holds the key in Russia?
  • The Executive!!
    • FYI, as in most authoritarian societies controlling the Military is key to maintaining control in Russia
executive branch1
Executive Branch
  • “FEDERAL” system – created in 1991
    • Really a Unitary system with a federal title
    • Original the constitution provided “dual leadership” between the Federal Assembly and the President.
  • Like France, Russia’s government has a prime minister who is selected by the president to rule the Federal Assembly.
executive branch2
Executive Branch
  • The winning candidate requires an absolute majority of the total vote.
    • If no candidate secures this majority in the first-round ballot, then a second-round run off election must be held three weeks later in which the only contestants are the two front-running candidates in the first round.
    • The first President of Russia, Boris N. Yeltsin was elected on June 12, 1991, by the nation-wide vote, and on July 10 was inducted into office.
    • In 2000, Vladimir Putin, was elected by the nation-wide vote and was sworn in again on May 7, 2004.
president of russia terms and qualifications
President of Russia Terms and Qualifications



  • Originally limited to two 4-year terms
  • Now limited to two 6-year terms
  • A candidate for president must be a citizen of Russia, at least thirty-five years of age, and a resident of the country for at least ten years.
  • If a president becomes unable to continue in office because of health problems, resignation, impeachment, or death, a presidential election is to be held not more than three months later.
    • In such a situation, the Federation Council is empowered to set the election date.
executive branch3
Executive Branch
  • President -- supported by strong military
    • Government requires the confidence of the Parliament/Duma
    • President appoints Prime Minister w/ approval of Duma.
      • If Duma doesn’t approve after 3 attempts
      • Dissolve Duma and hold new elections.


the russian cabinet
The Russian Cabinet

The constitution prescribes that the Government of Russia, which corresponds to the Western cabinet structure, consist of a prime minister (chairman of the Government), deputy prime ministers, and federal ministers and their ministries and departments.

Within one week of appointment by the president and approval by the State Duma, the prime minister must submit to the president nominations for all subordinate Government positions, including deputy prime ministers and federal ministers.

executive powers russia
Executive Powers: Russia
  • PM and President relationship is a variable and flexible situation.
    • PM handles economics
    • President handles foreign policy initiatives and security.
  • Council of Ministers handles every day affairs and is run by premier.


executive branch4
Executive Branch
  • Parliament can issue a “no vote of confidence.”
    • If it happens twice, President can dissolve Duma and hold new elections

**President cannot dissolve a Duma that has issued an impeachment vote, OR within one year of election.


the russian bureaucracy
The Russian Bureaucracy
  • Typical bureaucratic hierarchy
    • But the Oligarchs attempt to subvert!
  • Party and Government were together under Soviet System BUT NOWpatronage gives advantages to those in power.
    • Party provides leadership
    • Government administrates and implements policy
    • KGB (Now its the SVB) has watchdog committees in place to oversee
    • The Rule of Law is used to reflect party line
russia s legislative branch
Russia’s Legislative Branch
  • The Federal Assembly (led by party factions)
  • Uses a Bicameral System
    • State Duma (Lower House) 450 members
      • Originates most legislation
      • Led by Council of Duma.
      • State Duma can override Federation chamber with 2/3 vote.
    • Council of Federation (Upper House)
      • Council of Federation is represented with at least two deputies
      • Population determines membership..
      • Checks the State Duma
        • Tax and budget preparer
        • Receives bills from State Duma
state duma lower house
State Duma (Lower House)
  • Beginning with the 2007 election, all 450 Duma members are elected on party lists in a single nationwide constituency under proportional representation (Art. 3). (This replaces the mixed-member system which existed from 1993 to 2003).
  • Following an amendment to the law in spring 2009, parties winning more than 5% but less than 6% get one seat each; parties with more than 6% but less than 7% get two seats each. These seats are allocated before distributing the remaining seats to parties passing the 7% threshold.
  • There is no minimum turnout for a valid election. In previous Duma elections, it was 25 percent
  • Only political parties registered as such under the parties law of 11 June 2001 are allowed to put up candidates, although up to 50% of each list can be made up by candidates who are not members of the party concerned.
  • http://www.russiavotes.org/duma/duma_election_law.php
council of federation upper house
Council of Federation (Upper House)
  • 178 Members (2 Representatives from each of Russia’s 89 Oblasts
    • The Federation Council approves draft laws passed by the Duma.
    • It has the right to vote down a law and send it back to the Duma for reconsideration up to three times.
    • If the Duma does not wish to reconsider the law it can bypass the council with a two thirds majority vote.
russia judicial system
Russia- Judicial System
  • Unitary system of law
    • Presidential authority is an issue.
  • Constitutional Courthas Judicial Review over constitutional issues
    • Supreme Court cannot challenge constitutionality . . .no judicial review
russian judicial system
Russian Judicial System
  • The system of general jurisdiction courts includes
    • the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
    • regional level courts
    • district level courts
    • justices of the peace.
  • The federal judicial institutions are the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Superior Court for Arbitration.
  • Judges of those courts serve for life.
  • The Federation Council appoints all federal judges on the recommendation of the president.
russian minister of justice
Russian Minister of Justice
  • Currently, Presidential decrees (ukazy) are common but…
    • Advocacy lawyers getting better.
    • Statutory reforms are getting better
    • Secret police still prevalent
  • Russian law gives unlimited authority to the head of its judiciary to strike down any legislation it determines to be unconstitutional
  • Those judges are position currently elected by secret ballot
    • A proposal under discussion inside the Kremlin would make the head judge an appointment of parliament, potentially subjecting it to the political whims of powerful politicians and less able to provide a check against government overreach.
which of the six government performs this task the best
Which of the six government performs this task the best?
  • Definition
    • The Rule of Law
    • A neutral device to mediate disputes between citizens and that also holds the government accountable and responsible
great britain
Great Britain
  • Tradition of consensual rule
  • Establishing civil rights for its people.
  • “Going Public” keeps Govt honest- Question Hour
  • Allows minority dissent
  • Ombudsman promote oversight
  • Trusteeship of government
  • Anti-social crimes, not anti-political except for Ireland.
  • “The need to know still dominates right to know”
  • Evolving criminal system as laws attempt to keep up with market society.
  • Discipline commissions politically oriented. Law is not neutral
  • Reliance on military to keep the peace
  • Law is often seen as bourgeoisie.
  • Relies heavily on capital punishment.
    • Verdict first, trial second. . .
    • Many political prisoners.
  • Co-optation system (political appointments) promotes corruption
  • Single party to multiple parties has caused problems with system
  • Bribes known as the Mordida (the bite) needs to be replaced by decent wages.
  • Drug wars and organized crime is skyrocketing
  • Public security is non-existent
  • Supreme Court justices can only serve for 15 years
  • Not a government of laws. . . but of men
  • Poverty promotes corruption and depraved environment
  • Constitutionally based.
  • Elaborate judicial system
  • The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the Judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the supreme court and the chief public prosecutor.
  • The Supreme Court’s rulings are final and cannot be appealed
  • Common law is finding a foundation as the society develops.
  • A Shar'ia-dominated justice system has spurned westernization.
  • Rule of men is dominant political force.
  • The president used to be the head of the supreme court
  • The first court with no ties to colonial era was created in 1973
  • Constitution in 1999 created an “independent court system” with independent but appointed justices
  • Elaborate court system leaves open rule of law options
    • If current elected president can rid the system of graft and corruption and military stays out of politics.
  • Redistribution of the wealth creates a middle class.
  • Hopes for a future when ethnic pluralism can be overcome by nationalistic tendencies.
  • A constitution that is slowly evolving.
  • Authoritarian government prevails.
  • Power struggles and even violence can dominate political decisions.
  • Constitutional Court (19) - Referees conflicts w/ President and Duma
  • Functioning electoral process (Duma)
    • Multiple parties
  • “Procuracy” – Federal bureaucrats ran the to commercial courts
    • Elaborate judicial process left over from Soviet-era
  • New law codes promoting civil rights.
assigned research
Assigned Research
  • Compare and contrast
    • the political power of the Executive Branch
    • WITH the restraints on the exercise of executive power in your assigned country.
  • You must include reference to institutional and non-institutional factors that enhance or limit the power of different executives.