UNIT 6 , Part 1 The Extraordinary and Fantastic Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue Unit 6, Part 1
Unit 6, Part 1 MAIN MENU The Extraordinary and Fantastic (pages 1161–1180) The Machine Nurturer Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1161–1163) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Often ridiculed for not being an actual science, cryptozoology is the study of animals that may or may not exist. Cryptozoologists have studied such creatures as the okapi, a small, giraffe-like hoofed mammal that was actually discovered in the Congo; the yeti, or abominable snowman, which is only a creature of conjecture; and the Homo floresiensis, an extinct primate related to the original man, of which some remains have been discovered. In “One Legend Found, Many Still to Go,” William J. Broad discusses the field of cryptozoology.
BEFORE YOU READ Set a Purpose for Reading Read to discover the opposing ideas and events within the article “One Legend Found, Many Still to Go.”
BEFORE YOU READ Comparing and Contrasting Events and Ideas When you compare and contrast, you find the similarities and differences between two themes in one work, or those presented in two works of literature. To compare and contrast events and ideas, consider the major events and what they mean.
BEFORE YOU READ Comparing and Contrasting Events and Ideas As you read, take notes on the similarities and differences between the defining moments for mainstream scientists and those of cryptozoologists.
BEFORE YOU READ Comparing and Contrasting Events and Ideas Use a Venn diagram like the one below as a guide.
READING THE SELECTION The Extraordinary and Fantastic As you read, keep the following questions in mind. What creatures, beasts, or monsters do you enjoy reading about or watching in films? What do our monsters and mythological creatures tell us about ourselves? Answer:Answers will vary.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Identifying Genre William Broad offers his readers two categories of researchers: traditional scientists and cryptozoologists. What is alike and different about their professions? Answer:Scientists belong to science; cryptozoologists belong to science and to fantasy. While scientists are grounded in empirical facts, cryptozoologists combine fact with fantasy.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond • Do you believe that there is any truth to creatures such as the Loch Ness monster or “Champ,” the creature in Lake Champlain? Explain.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond Answer:Answers will vary. Some will cite that there have been sightings of mysterious creatures in these lakes. Others may think that stories of the creatures are strictly tales passed down from one generation to the next.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What is a cryptozoologist? (b) Do you think that they do important work? Why or why not?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) A cryptozoologist is someone who studies hidden, potential, or undiscovered, animals. (b) Answers will vary. Some will believe that, in order to preserve nearly extinct species or to understand the nature of animals, cryptozoologists are doing important work. Others may argue that only a few discoveries, such as the okapi and the coelacanth, have proven to be true. Other “discoveries” are purely imagined, such as unicorns or mermaids.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What are the “blobs” that interest scientists? (b) Why do you think people like to speculate about where the blobs originated from?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer:(a) The blobs are masses of old whale blubber. (b) Scientists like to speculate about the blobs, because science wants to find the origin and reasons for life. Laypeople, due to human nature, are curious about such mysteries.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • Do you think that the author supports human belief in imaginary creatures? Explain.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:The author points out what mainstream scientists think about some imaginary creatures, yet he does not attack cryptozoologists or berate their beliefs. He speaks of myths and folklore in terms of their historical origins. The author maintains a fairly objective tone toward the subject of imaginary creatures.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) The author writes that “psychologists say raw nature is simply a blank slate for the expression of our subconscious fears and insecurities.” What do you think this means? (b) What ideas in the selection oppose this one about psychology? Explain.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:(a) People have fears and worries that they want to define tangibly, and they use forms of nature to do so. (b) While human imagination is powerful, science is a more definitive authority. The author cites the opposing scientific and mythological/ fantastical explanations for the kraken, the blobs and other sea creatures.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • Naturalist Richard Ellis explains, “The sea being so deep and so large, I’m sure other mysteries lurk out there unseen and unsolved.” What relationship does this article suggest exists between science and the extraordinary and the fantastic? In what ways do the two complement each other?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:People may have seen unusual phenomena or creatures, such as the creature speculated to be in Lake Champlain. People then tend to embellish what they truly cannot know, as the narrator did to her dreams. Thus, the tales of fantastic creatures can become dreamlike, due to embellishments and exaggerations.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1164–1171) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Isaac Asimov Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story The following story takes a profound look both at humanity’s need for and fear of technology. Asimov uses a science-fiction backdrop to examine humanity’s immense potential to develop technology and the responsibilities that come with that potential.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story Before you read the story, think about the following questions: • How do you use technology in your everyday life? • Are there any technologies that frighten you? Explain.
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Asimov’s robot stories are some of the most influential in science fiction. Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, a set of directives written to control the behavior of artificial intelligences, such as robots and complex computers, are still referenced today by fiction writers and scientists.
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background In addition to being a character in “Robot Dreams,” protagonist Dr. Susan Calvin appears in a number of Asimov’s other robot stories. She is one of Asimov’s robot experts who take an active role in enhancing and advancing robotic intelligence and whose lives span the evolution of robots from fairly mindless automatons to complex, emotional beings.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading The Extraordinary and Fantastic As you read “Robot Dreams,” notice how Asimov explores the conflict between humanity and technology.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Analogy An analogy is a comparison that shows similarities between two things that are otherwise dissimilar. Recognizing an author’s use of analogies can help you better discern the meaning of or intention behind a particular comparison. As you read, notice Asimov’s use of analogies.
BEFORE YOU READ Activating Prior Knowledge From Star Trek to Star Wars, machines and robots have long figured prominently in literature and film. Activating your prior knowledge about a topic can enrich your understanding of a particular text.
Reading Tip: Using Prior Knowledge Use a chart like the one below to record what you know about robots and computers, how you know it, and what you learn from the story. BEFORE YOU READ Activating Prior Knowledge
BEFORE YOU READ gnarledadj. roughened and coarse from age or work; full of knots, as in a tree (p. 1166) Susan found it difficult to climb the old gnarled tree. dismantlev. to take apart (p. 1167) The workers dismantled the broken scoreboard in the gym so they could put in a new one. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
BEFORE YOU READ accordn. agreement; conformity (p. 1168) The candidate acted in accord with federal law when he turned down a contribution that was too large. precedencen. order of importance or preference; priority (p. 1168) Repairing the broken window takes precedence over buying baseballs. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
BEFORE YOU READ inertadj. not able to move (p. 1169) The detective examined the inert body lying on the floor. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
READING THE SELECTION The Extraordinary and Fantastic As you read keep the following questions in mind. How are robots used in this story? How might their usage contribute to Dr. Calvin’s reaction to this robot?
READING THE SELECTION Answer: They are used as workers for humans. They are present in large numbers in almost every location humans are. Dr. Calvin may fear that if other robots shared this robot’s feelings, then humans might be in danger.
READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the drawing on page 1166. This story approaches the possibility of humanity in robots. The drawing has a similar mood. Do you think machines have the possibility to become thinking or feeling beings. Why or why not?
READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Answer:You may note the ability computers have to solve problems, perform searches, run simulations, and so on. These acts could be seen as “thinking” or making decisions.
READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Analogy Read the text highlighted in purple on page 1167. What does this analogy say about Susan Calvin’s skill in robot science? Answer:It shows that Calvin’s skill in robot science is masterful, at the level of a legendary artist.
READING THE SELECTION The Extraordinary and Fantastic Read the text highlighted in tan on page 1167. Why might such a humanlike robot be especially valuable? Answer: A robot that can dream might provide scientists with vast insights into the nature of human dreams.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 1167.How does your knowledge about robotic self-awareness as portrayed in other media influence you reading of Elvex’s statement?
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer:Since robotic self-awareness in fiction usually carries a threat of violence or rebellion, Elvex’s statement seems potentially ominous.
READING THE SELECTION The Extraordinary and Fantastic Read the text highlighted in tan on page 1168.Why might this dream be dangerous for humanity? Answer: If the only law robots followed was one that told them to protect their own existence, they could lash out at people or let human beings come to harm.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Activating Prior Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 1169. What usually happens in stories and movies when robots and computers are not controlled? Answer:Uncontrolled robots and computers rebel against humanity and commit violent actions, sometimes even instigating all-out war.
READING THE SELECTION Writers Technique Allusion Read the second column on page 1169. An allusion is a reference made to a historic or cultural event that the author assumes readers will recognize. What is Asimov alluding to with the quote “Let my people go”?