UNIT 5, Part 2 Rescuing and Conquering Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
Unit 5, Part 2 MAIN MENU Rescuing and Conquering (pages 1035–1063) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1038–1042) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Jenny Leading Cloud Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Story “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock” is a White River Sioux legend that teaches a lesson about generosity. Before you read, think about the following questions: • Have you ever given something away and later wanted it back? • Do you believe that when something is given, it should be given forever?
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background For many years, American Indian groups recorded little cultural information. Instead, storytellers were charged with remembering stories, songs, and poems, which were passed orally from generation to generation. “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock” is a story from the oral tradition of the White River Sioux. Jenny Leading Cloud told this version in 1967 on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota. Leading Cloud’s tale includes techniques commonly found in American Indian myth, such as the use of animals and objects as characters.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Rescuing and Conquering Before you read “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock,” predict which character will do the rescuing and which one will do the conquering. As you read, note whether your predictions were correct.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Character Archetype Some types of characters frequently appear in literature across many cultures. Character archetypes include noble heroes, evil-hearted villains, and wily tricksters. As you read, examine the characters in “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock” and determine which ones are archetypes.
BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Structure Analyzing structure means examining the order or the pattern that a writer uses to present his or her ideas. Legends and other stories are often organized chronologically, or according to the sequence of events in the plot.
BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Structure Writers also use structural techniques, such as repetition, to help the reader follow the action. While reading “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock,” ask yourself why the storyteller chose to shape the story the way she did.
BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Structure Reading Tip: Sequencing It may be helpful to pay attention to the sequence of events as you read. Create a graphic organizer like the one on the next slide to keep track of the story’s events and to note any ideas the author emphasizes through repetition.
READING THE SELECTION Rescuing and Conquering As you read, think about the following question:How could a rock conquer a living animal? Answer:A rock is older and harder to destroy than a living animal. The rock symbolically conquers the animals by outliving them.
READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Character Archetype Read the text highlighted in purple on page 1040. What are some personality traits associated with Iya, the rock? Answer:Iya is powerful, wise, special, old, and strong.
READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Character Archetype Why would Native Americans choose a rock to represent these characteristics? Answer: Rocks are old and hard to break, so they would be associated with wisdom, strength, and power.
READING THE SELECTION Rescuing and Conquering Read the text highlighted in tan on page 1041. Why does the rock make this statement? What do you think will happen next?
READING THE SELECTION Answer:Iya says, “By no means the end,” because he does not consider the blanket incident over. He is probably already planning what he will do next. Students may speculate that the rock will get the blanket back and seek revenge for Coyote’s poor treatment.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Analyzing Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page 1041.How many times has Iktome called Coyote “friend”? Why does Iktome repeat this word?
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer:Iktome calls Coyote “friend” seven times. He repeats this word to emphasize the friendship between himself and Coyote, and to emphasize his attempt to help Coyote. In the end, however, Iktome abandons his friend, showing that actions speak louder than words. Ironically, the last time Iktome calls Coyote “friend” is just before he disappears and Iya rolls over Coyote.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond • (a) Do you agree or disagree with Coyote’s behavior? (b) How would you have acted in similar circumstances? Answer:Answers will vary.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What is the main conflict in the story? (b) What does Coyote’s behavior reveal about his character? Answer: (a) Iya refuses to give Coyote his blanket. (b) He is selfish and ill-tempered.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) What do Coyote and Iktome do after the rain and hail stop? (b) What does their behavior suggest? Answer: (a) They sun themselves, have a snack, and smoke. (b) They’re not worried about the rock.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) Where do Coyote and Iktome go to escape Iya? (b) What does Iya’s pursuit of Coyote and Iktome convey about the rock? Answer: (a) Into the river and into the timber (b) The rock has many powers and abilities.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) Compare the way Coyote and Iktome respond to the rock’s power. (b) Which character has a better understanding of Iya’s true nature? Explain. Answer:(a) Coyote mentions it once, but Iktome refers to it often. (b) Iktome seems to warn Coyote with his comments.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a)What kind of friend is Coyote? (b)Does he have good reasons for taking his blanket back from Iya? Answer:(a) Coyote is not dependable. (b) Yes, although he has no right to it.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • Why does the storyteller reveal Iktome’s identity as Spider Man near the end of the story? Answer:The storyteller prepares the audience for the next part of the story, when Iktome turns into a spider and disappears.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Rescuing and Conquering Connect • Coyote tries to be the conqueror in this story by reclaiming the blanket. Does his strategy work? Why or why not? Answer: Coyote’s strategy backfires. Iya, the rock, is the true conqueror in this story.
AFTER YOU READ Character Archetype In “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock,” the storyteller uses three different character archetypes—the trickster, the wise and powerful figure, and the foolish human.
AFTER YOU READ Character Archetype Tricksters, a common character archetype in American Indian myth, generate comic relief and conflict in a story. Tricksters sometimes function as heroes when their antics bring about positive changes or teach important lessons.
AFTER YOU READ Character Archetype • Match each character archetype with the appropriate character in the story. Answer:Coyote and Iktome are both tricksters; Iya, the wise and powerful figure; the rancher, the foolish human.
AFTER YOU READ Character Archetype 2. Explain how these archetypes relate to each character’s function in the story. Answer:Coyote and Iktome both stir up trouble. Iya’s actions relate to his role as wise and powerful figure. The rancher’s mistaking Coyote for a rug shows humans as foolish.
AFTER YOU READ Performing In a small group, dramatize “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock” or another trickster story. Create a script based on the story or improvise dialogue based on the characters and plot.
AFTER YOU READ Performing Practice your performance, paying attention to volume, pitch, pacing, enunciation, and gestures in order to share your story as effectively as possible with your audience. Perform your skit for the class.
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure Using chronological, or time, order, the storyteller presents events in the order in which they occur. “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock” comes from an oral tradition that uses repetition both to help the listener follow the story and to create a rhythm that helps the storyteller to remember details.
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure • What is the main structure of “Coyote, Iktome, and the Rock”? Where does the structure vary? Answer:Primarily chronological, with two examples of the storyteller directly addressing the audience
AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure • List two examples of repetition from the story. Answer:Possible answers include the repetition of the word “friend” and the thundering of the rock as it rolls after Coyote.
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. alternativen. a choice between things; one of the things to be selected demonstratev. to explain or make clear by using examples
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply • Did Coyote have an alternative to taking the blanket back from Iya? Explain. Answer:Coyote could have shared the blanket with Iya.
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply 2. What lesson about generosity did the story demonstrate? Answer:Generosity means putting others’ needs before one’s own.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1043–1052) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Vocabulary Workshop
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Brian Branston Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Myth The following myth relates the story of the theft of Thor’s hammer and the gods’ plan to recover it. Before you read the story, think about the following questions: • How far would you go to recover something important to you? • Is physical strength or cunning more important in resolving a conflict? Explain.
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Norse mythology is filled with gods, giants, dwarfs, and elves. The Norse god Thor is the protagonist of the story you are about to read. In Viking mythology, Thor is known as the strongest of the gods but far from the smartest. He is armed with the hammer Mjollnir, which was crafted by dwarfs in the underworld. Thor uses Mjollnir to defend the gods against their enemies, the frost giants. When Thor throws his hammer, it creates lightning and then returns to his hand. Many Vikings wore hammer amulets, perhaps as protection from storms at sea.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Rescuing and Conquering As you read this myth, notice the importance the characters place upon retrieving Thor’s hammer.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Plot Pattern Archetypes Plot pattern archetypes are story elements and themes common to a wide variety of cultures and stories. These archetypes are plotlines or story elements that appear throughout the history of literature, from ancient stories to contemporary movies.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Plot Pattern Archetypes An example of a plot pattern archetype is characters fooling dangerous and powerful enemies. As you read, look for possible plot pattern archetypes in the story.
BEFORE YOU READ Making Inferences About Characters Making inferences about characters means making reasonable assumptions about characters based on how they act and how they are described.