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Abnormal Psychology. Studying disorders of the brain that disrupt feelings, thinking, mood, ability to relate to others and behavior Bio psychosocial Model. How do you know you have a mental illness?. AXIS I: Current clinical syndrome (focus) AXIS II: Personality disorder/Intellectual delay

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Abnormal Psychology


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    1. Abnormal Psychology Studying disorders of the brain that disrupt feelings, thinking, mood, ability to relate to others and behavior Bio psychosocial Model

    2. How do you know you have a mental illness? AXIS I: Current clinical syndrome (focus) AXIS II: Personality disorder/Intellectual delay AXIS III: General medical condition AXIS IV: Life problems (legal, family, etc.) AXIS V: Global functioning scale (0-100) Diagnostic Statistical Manual 1st Edition: 1952- had 120 disorders 5th Edition: May, 2013- will have greater than 375 disorders No classification system is 100% Multi Axis System

    3. The “other” criteria…… • The behavior is disturbing to others • The behavior violates cultural standards • The behavior is disturbing to the individual • The behavior is irrational or indefensible • The behavior is maladaptive

    4. Be Cautious with labels….Labels hurt people Do these “labels” cause more harm then good? David Rosenhan study.

    5. Anxiety • Anxiety is the body’s reaction to stress • Anxiety is universal • Flight-Fight-Fear-Faint • Each person responds to anxiety differently • All ages • Symptoms: Some we feel, some we cannot feel, some are chronic • Multiple treatments available- Cultural differences in symptoms and treatments

    6. Phobia= Intense, irrational fear that interferes with everyday activities. • Fear can be of objects or events • Can have fear of fear (panic) • Most common phobia= Social Phobia (13% in lifetime, 8% within past year) • Early childhood fears frequently disappear without treatment. (study of 482 children; 40% have 7+ fears) • Phobias in children that continue until adulthood rarely disappear without treatment

    7. Agoraphobia= Fear of open spacesGreek translation= fear of the marketplace • Cause is unknown • Typically begins after a stressful experience or change • Begins with panic attack that is not associated with the earlier stressful event • Increases in panic • Lose freedom to move around- some become isolated

    8. Phobia Causes Treatment Desensitization Therapy Anxiety medication Over exposure • Genes • Classical conditioning • Overactive Limbic system • Misinterpretation of body signals

    9. Panic=Intense anxiety NOT activated by an even or object • Attack comes on suddenly • Attack reaches peak within minutes (lingering effects can last several hours) • Unpredictable (some exceptions) • Symptoms: racing heart, chest pain, sweating, dizzy, feeling of unreality, fear of loosing control, tingling, feeling of dying, feel they are loosing mind, oxygen drowning) • Onset: 25% of population will experience at least one panic attack. Typical onset is mid-late teens, early 20’s. • Effects more women than men (2x) • 3% of US population has panic diagnosis. (1.2% severe) • Approximately 20% of people with panic will experience depression during lifetime.

    10. Panic Causes Treatment Chemical benzodiazepine (short vs. long term) SSRI Cognitive/Behavior Talk therapy(change thinking) with desensitization techniques. (high success rate) Acceptance based therapy • Genetic Influence (increases with immediate family member) • Learned-Cognitive & Behavioral

    11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/OCD= Unwanted, repetitive thoughts, ideas, images (obsessions) that cannot be prevented without engaging in specific behaviors (compulsions) Compulsions= in the beginning they reduce anxiety- stop working Obsessions= Come from what you care about- cause anxiety Common Thoughts Germs Dirt Something undone Violence Religion Health May not know where the anxious thoughts come from Common Behaviors • Need to touch, tap, rub, count, check, clean • Mental rituals • Superstitious behavior • Excessive list making • Trichotillomania • Hoarding/collecting

    12. Who has OCD? • Many/most have some symptoms of OCD (1-3% lifetime) • 2-3% (1 in 50) are diagnosed with OCD • Ratio boys/girls about the same • Typically begins in adolescent/young adults • Typically begins after a very stressful event • Y-BOCS Checklist (over 16) used for diagnosis

    13. OCD Causes Treatment • Brain dysfunction: cingulate gyrus, basil ganglia, thalamus (create trouble regulating impulse control) • Reduced serotonin • PANDAS (age 3-puberty) • Classical Conditioning • Genes (none identified- strong family relationship)

    14. Treatment • SSRI (anti-depressant/anxiety) • Cognitive Behavior Therapy • Psycho Surgery

    15. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Persistent re-experience of a traumatic event(s) in thoughts/dreams- Natural or unnatural events • Difficulty sleeping • Outburst of anger • Irritability • Difficulty concentrating • Depression • Recurring nightmares • Intrusive thoughts • Alcohol/drug abuse

    16. Not all persons that experience trauma develop PTSD- Why? • Social Support (Vietnam vs Sept. 11th) • Coping strategies • Some personality characteristics increase likelihood- such as passive, sensitive

    17. Treatment • SSRI (anti-depressant/anti anxiety) • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (based on the idea that anxiety comes from a misinterpretation of bodily sensations AND the person has not found healthy ways of coping to stresses in life) • Eye Movement Desensitization Therapy • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Albert Ellis) Focus on changing irrational beliefs • Exposure therapy • Antibiotic

    18. Dissociative Disorders...Controversial/Rare • Dissociative Identify Disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder) • Dissociative Amnesia • Dissociative fugue Disorders of identify or sense of self. Involve memory loss and trauma

    19. Somatoform Disorders • Conversion disorder • Hypochondriasis Physical symptoms without apparent physical cause