Washington’s “Life Mask” Washington’s “Death Mask”
George Washington and his first cabinet. Washington's Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, and his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, were in controversy over fiscal policy early in Washington's administration. L to R Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State; seated Henry Knox, Secretary of War; Edmund Randolph, Attorney General & Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury.
The First Congress Consistently strengthened the new National government; Created departments of War, State and Treasury Agreed to a Bill of Rights Judiciary Act 1789 Established the Supreme Court, Along with district courts.
Created a government made up of the best minds of his time Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State and Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury
These two men strongly disagreed about the proper relationship between the federal government and state governments Hamilton proposed a National Bank -- Jefferson and James Madison argued that the Constitution allowed Congress only those powers specifically granted to it
Hamilton's plan called for the federal government to assume the states' debts Plan clearly favored Northern banks Northern states also had more remaining debt than Southern states
Alexander Hamilton1755-1804 “A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.”Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson1743-1826 “Paper is poverty,... it is only the ghost of " money, and not money itself." --Thomas Jefferson to Edward Carrington, 1788. ME 7:36
Had a deep faith in the common People Distrusted special privilege Wished to lower voting qualifications Believed the common man often acted foolishly Thought rich, well educated people should rule Wanted to raise voting requirements Origins of the two party system Jefferson VS Hamilton
Favored weak central government and strong state Gov. Favored more democratic gov than Britain Wanted to reduce Fed employees Thought indiv. Liberties must be protected by law Strict interpretation of constitution Favored Strong Central Govt. US Gov. should be modeled after Britain Wanted more Fed. Employees Thought individual liberties had to be restricted at times Loose interpretation of constitution The Structure of Government Jefferson Vs Hamilton
Agriculture is backbone of US Did not support giving govt. aid to trade, finance and mfg. Wanted to eliminate internal taxes Wanted to pay off national debt. Wanted a balance of agriculture, trade and Mfg. Favored giving govt. aid to trade, finance and mfg Wanted to maintain internal taxes Wanted to use national debt to establish credit Economics Jefferson VS. Hamilton
Believed We Owed it to France to back them Thought we should back our mother country Foreign Policy Jefferson vs. Hamilton
Made up of artisans, shopkeepers, frontier settlers and small farmers Was strongest in the south, in the southwest and on the frontier Consisted of bankers, Manufacturers , Merchants, Professional people and wealthy farmers Had the most support in New England and along the Atlantic coast. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party Hamiltonians Federalist Party
I. Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians A. Hamilton's views--Man is irrational, corrupt, and guided by base instincts. 1) Sovereignty must rest with a strong central government insensitive to the popular will 2) Government's function is maintain order in a potentially chaotic society. It needs to be remote and secure from the people's emotional uprisings. B. Jefferson's views--man is rational, capable of self-improvement. 1) Government exists to protect man's natural rights to life, liberty, and happiness. 2) The greatest threat to man's freedom is tyrannical government. It needs to be limited in its powers and completely responsive to the needs and desires of the people. 3) State governments should have greater power because they are less likely to be despotic.
National Debt Foreign debt $11 million State Debt $12 million National debt $12 million To France and Spain War Debt
How did it end differently than Shay’s rebellion? Part of Hamilton’s plan was a Tax on Whiskey. 2000 armed men rose up to protest the excise tax that was part of Hamilton’s plan. Washington and 13,000 troops responded. Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
II. Hamilton's Financial Plan A. Protective tariff to stimulate industry B. Willingness to assume debts of states C. Willingness to assume Confederation's debts D. Establishment of a national bank. Purposes: 1) Repository of national assets 2) Issue paper money based on assets 3) Source of investment capital E. Whiskey Excise Tax--burden fell on western farmers 1) Whiskey Rebellion (1794)--2000 armed men 2) Washington leads militia to put down revolt
III. Jeffersonian Opposition to Hamilton's Plans A. Strict constructionist view--creation of U.S. Bank exceeded Congressional authority B. 10th Amendment forbids the national government exercising powers not delegated to it. C. Commercial and manufacturing interests favored over farming interests.
1789-1815 And the Age of Napoleon
France The U.S. had a treaty with France. (1778) When the French revolution became radical, there was a debate over whether we should still support France. Washington declared American Neutrality.
The Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 A Proclamation Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent Powers; G. Washington - April, 1793
Securing Our Borders The Jay Treaty Settled claims with British in the west Pinckney Treaty Spain gave us lands in Florida free navigation of the Mississippi river. France gets Mad!!!
Jay's Treaty The Treaty eliminated British control of western posts within two years, established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures, and provided America a limited right to trade in the West Indies.
Pinckney’s Treaty The U.S. was granted free navigation of the Mississippi River from Spain. Three year access to the port of New Orleans. U.S. and Spanish border set at 31st parallel.
Washington’s Farewell “In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations--Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western -- whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is real difference of local interests and views.” “Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other.”
“The XYZ Affair” The XYZ Affair cartoon depicts the United States as a maiden being victimized by the French Directorate while Britain sits aloof on a hill and European leaders discuss America’s plight.
President Adams Sectionalism- What is it ? Adams tried to avoid war in France. He sent delegates to Meet with a French official named Talleyrand. Three French officials demanded a bribe of $250,000 before they would talk. Called the affair As a result… XYZ
Millions for defense, but not one cent for Tribute!
The Alien and Sedition Acts What were they? Who created them? How were they used?
Who wrote them? What did they say? The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Compact theory Nullification
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves RESOLVED, That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support the government of the United States in all measures warranted by the former. ….That the General Assembly doth also express its deep regret, that a spirit has in sundry instances, been manifested by the federal government, to enlarge its powers by forced constructions of the constitutional charter which defines them; …and inevitable consequence of which would be, to transform the present republican system of the United States, into an absolute, or at best a mixed monarchy. …That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition Acts" passed at the last session of Congress;
The 12th Amendment The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--
Marbury v Madison James Madison Secretary of State
“Revolution of 1800” • Jefferson- Reduced Size and Control of the Federal Government • Reduced the Federal Budget and Debt • Repealed the Whiskey Tax • Cut Military Spending by One-Half • Kept Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Neutrality between Britain and France maintained
What to do about France? • Spain coerced by Napoleon to sign a treaty with France – giving France control of the Louisiana Territory • France/Napoleon hope to create a “New France” Empire in the Americas – this could end the U.S.’s access to the Mississippi and New Orleans • Toussiant L’Ouverture overthrew the French in Haiti BLOCKING this from happening (Haiti would act as a launch for a new French Empire
France cont’d Jefferson sends delegates to negotiate a purchase of New Orleans – for up to $10 Million. • Due to war with Great Britain, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand offers ALL of Louisiana for $15 BEFORE we make an offer, France is desperate for $. • U.S. nearly DOUBLES in size • Is this CONSTITUTIONAL?