THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815) AND NAPOLEON - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815) AND NAPOLEON

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  1. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815) AND NAPOLEON

  2. SOURCES • Dupuy, The Evolution of Weapons and Warfare, pp. 154-168 • Dupuy and Dupuy, The Encylopedia of Military History; pp. 730-769 • Fuller, A Military History of the Western World, Vol. II, Chronicles 12, 13, 14, 15; ch. 12-15; pp.370-542 • Montross, War Through the Ages, pp. 459-554 • Paret, Makers of Modern Strategy, pp123-142 (1986 Sequel) • Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp.320-358 • Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 179-187 • Mathews, French Revolution, pp. 2-15 • Roberts, The French Revolution, pp. 21-40

  3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Know and trace the transition from limited war to unlimited war during the French Revolution • Comprehend the uniqueness of the Revolution Army, the role of ideology in the levee en masse, & the problems of controlling such an army • Comprehend and relate the rise of Napoleon to the failure of the French Revolution • Know and discuss the impact of new technology on warfare in the Napoleonic period

  4. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Know and contrast Napolean’s victory at Austerlitz and his defeat at Waterloo • Comprehend and explain how the stalemate at sea and on land in 1805 dictated a strategy of economic warfare • Comprehend and explain how Napoleon’s Russian campaign underscored his weakness as a “grand strategist” • Know and list Napoleon’s major contributions to military thought

  5. PERIODS OF THE REVOLUTION • Five sub-periods distinguished by form of government • Estates • Legislative Assembly • National Convention • Directory • Consulate • First Empire

  6. ESTATES • General and Constituent Assembly • 5 May 1789 - 30 Sep 1791 • Government a limited, constitutional monarchy • Dominance of upper middle class

  7. LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY • 1 Oct 1791 - 21 Sep 1792 • Monarchy continued as before until suspended • Rising power of the lower class

  8. NATIONAL CONVENTION • 21 Sep 1792 - 25 Oct 1795 • Height of revolution • Convention called to frame new constitution • Abolished monarchy • Supported reign of terror, then overthrew it • Led resistance to foreign foes • War with Austria & Prussia politically endued toward democracy

  9. DIRECTORY • 26 Oct 1795 - 9 Nov 1799 • Middle classes recovered influence • Party divisions • General Bonaparte’s coup d-etat • Formed republic with Napoleon as Emperor

  10. CONSULATE • At first provisional, then definitive • 25 Dec 1799 - 20 May 1804 • Civil and military role, virtually of one man • Progress of French arms • Form still nominally republican

  11. FIRST EMPIRE • 20 May 1804 - 22 Jun 1815 • Napoleon made France the controlling power on the continent, but was finally overthrown

  12. BACKGROUND • Spirit of 18th Century • devoted to destruction and reformation of existing institutions • most notable manifestations: the attacks of French writers upon church and state • Agrarian conditions - peasantry mostly free but highly taxed; not downtrodden, but well-off enough to wish to better themselves

  13. BACKGROUND • Rise of the middle class • generally excluded from politics; growing richer; read and listened to philosophies • Unwieldy and inefficient machinery of government • irresponsible and unsuited to needs of state • taxation was inequitable • no representative assembly • Letters de Cachet - imprisoning without habeas corpus: served as anti-government propaganda

  14. BACKGROUND • Ever-growing deficit • proved impossible of reduction • May 1789: Louis XVI convened meeting of Estates General (represented 3 estates of French society - Nobles, Clergy and Commons) • Commons assumed title of National Assembly and undertook to reform government by formulating a constitution for a constitutional monarchy

  15. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 5 May 1789 • Meeting of Estates General • National Assembly formed by Commons • Members of Nobles and Clergy invited to join • Many joined the assembly

  16. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 23 Jun 1789 • Fruitless royal sitting • King ordered assembly to meet in 3 houses • Mirabeau (Provencial nobleman) elected principal orator of assembly by 3rd estate • King requested nobles & clergy join 3rd estate

  17. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 14 Jul 1789 • Concentration of troops near Paris • Rumors of kings intention to dissolve National Assembly • Dismissal of Necker • Storming and destruction of the Bastille

  18. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • Necker recalled • Lafayette commander of newly established National Guard • Rising of peasants against feudal lords • Beginning of emigration of nobles

  19. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 4 Aug 1789 • Voluntary surrender by representatives of nobles of all feudal rights and privileges to occur over period of years • 27 Aug 1789 • Declaration of rights of man, a bill of rights compounded from English and American precedents and from political theories current with the philosophies

  20. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 5-6 Oct 1789 - Outbreak of the mob of Paris • Liberal monarchical constitution: king could not declare war and conclude peace without consent of chamber • Ecclesiastic estates declared public property and notes issued under security of public lands

  21. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 14 Jul 1790 • National federation in Paris • Constitution accepted by king • Abolished hereditary nobility, titles, and coats of arms

  22. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • Power of clubs grow • Jacobins under Robespierre • Cordeliers under Danton, Marat, Desmoulins, Hebert • Feuillants - moderate monarchists separated from Jacobins - Lafayette and Bailly

  23. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • Sep 1790 • Fall of Necker • alliance between Mirabeau and court, who endeavored to stem revolution and prevent overthrow of throne • 2 Apr 1791 - Death of Mirabeau • 20 - 25 Jun 1791 - Flight of the king

  24. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY • 14 Sep 1791 • King accepts constitution • Annexation of Avignon and Benaissin to France • 30 Sep 1791 • Dissolution of Assembly

  25. LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY • 1 Oct 1791 • Legislative Assembly, 745 members elected by active citizens • still represented primarily middle class • 7 Feb 1792 • Alliance of Austria and Prussia against France

  26. NATIONAL CONVENTION • War of First Coalition against France • 20 Apr 1792 - France declares war on Austria - increases revolutionary excitement in Paris • 10 Aug 1792 - Storming of Tuileries by mob - king suspended from functions and confined • 20 Aug 1792 - Lafayette, impeached and proscribed, fled from army - Verdun taken by Prussians • 2-7 Sep 1792 - September massacres at Paris • 20 Sep 1792 - Battle of Valmy - French, under Dumouriey and Kellermann, defeated Prussians

  27. NATIONAL CONVENTION • 21 Sep 1792 • National Convention convened • Abolition of Monarchy - France declared a Republic • Dec 1792 - Trial of Louis XVI • 21 Jan 1793 - Execution of Louis XVI • 1 Feb 1793 - War declared against Great Britain, Holland, Spain

  28. NATIONAL CONVENTION • Reign of Terror - Robespierre gradually came to dominate the whole government • 23 Aug 1793-Levy of males; 14 armies raised • 16 Oct 1793 - Execution of Marie Antoinette • Nov 1793 - New army under Jourdan, Hoche & Pichegru • Dec 1793 - Retreat of Allies across the Rhine. French captured Worms and Speier, and took Toulon from British (first appearance of Napoleon Bonaparte as young artillery officer)

  29. NATIONAL CONVENTION • Mar 1794 - Robespierre succeeded in crushing rival powers • 27 Jul 1794 - Fall of Robespierre • 5 Mar 1795 - Treaty of Bassel between France and Prussia

  30. NATIONAL CONVENTION • 22 Aug 1795 - Constitution of 1797 - 3rd of revolution • Executing power: Directory of five, Council of Elders, and Council of 500 • First Term: 2/3 of each council taken from Nat. Conv. • General Bonaparte placed in charge of troops

  31. NATIONAL CONVENTION • 5 Oct 1795 • Paris royalists instigated outbreak of sections in opposition of 2/3 self protection measure of convention for 1st term council • Napoleon’s “whiff of grapeshot” led to complete victory for convention • 26 Oct 1795 • Convention dissolved • 1797 - Moderate legislative elected • End of war - coup d’etat

  32. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • Larger armies led to unlimited warfare • Emergence of democratic ideal; emphasis on individual freedom, equality & popular government • John Locke • Jean Jacques Rousseau - citizen had responsibility to fight in defense of country (not a logical thought for 18th century monarchies) • American Revolution and apologists • Conscription is unthinkable without this ideology (governed were now governing, had affirmative obligation to defend government)

  33. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • Ability to man, control, arm, feed large armies • Larger populations • Improved communications systems • Beginnings of mass production • Improved agricultural methods • Line formation of battle vs. the column • Line provided more firepower (muskets) • Column could break the line

  34. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • Military theories of Comptee Jacques de Guibert • Ordre mixte; combo of column (approach and maneuver) and line (fighting) • Breaking army into smaller units or divisions • advance along several routes • mass forces at precise time and place • Dispersion then concentration at critical time and place

  35. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • 13 Jul 1789 • Crowd seizes 28,000 muskets and some cannon from military storage depot • 14 Jul 1789 • Bastille stormed and governor lynched • Jul 1792 • Paris mob storms palace, massacres Swiss guard • Lafayette tries to get men to save king, they refuse and Lafayette goes over to Austrians • Louis XVI executed in 1793

  36. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • Lazare Carnot succeeded in gaining control of Revolutionary Army • Aug 1793 in charge of military affairs for committee of Public Safety • Emphasis on offensive in mass • Organized National Army • Foraging enhanced mobility • By 1794 French Army enjoyed both Mass and Mobility, Napoleon and 8 of his future marshals made general @ average age of 33

  37. IMPACT OF REVOLUTION • Armies created by revolution eventually made Bonaparte Emperor of France (back to autocracy) • Moderate legislature elected in 1797 desired end of war • 3 radical directors conspired with Bonaparte to arrange coup d’etat • In ensuing coup, Carnot escaped to Switzerland

  38. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY • Gribeauval’s artillery reforms • interchangeable parts • improved cartridges (ball and charge packed together) • Tangent sight • Ammunition wagons • By time of revolution, constant drill had made French clearly superior

  39. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY • Mobility and communication enhanced by improved roads and maps and signal telegraph • Napoleon, resistant to new weapons and technology, failed to make use of balloons and shrapnel

  40. NAPOLEON • First gained renown at age 24 • Command of artillery in 1794 siege of Toulon • Awarded temporary rank of Brigadier General (from Captain) • Oct 1795 - saved government of Directory by using guns against Paris mob (“whiff of grapeshot”) • Promoted by Directory - promised command of Army of Italy in 1796 • Read incessantly - Guibert, Voltaire, Rousseau, Frederick the Great

  41. FRENCH COLUMN VS. LINE

  42. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN • Directors feared his ambition - in Mar 1796 given command of Army of Italy • 45,000, ill fed, poorly equipped, four dispersed divisions and two smaller detachments • British blockaded coast, 2 smaller allied armies were widely separated beyond hills to north • Improved logistical organization & motivated men with promises of booty and glory

  43. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN • Commenced campaign • Burst from position along coast & separated two allied armies • fist surrendered, second fell back to Lombardy • Remained on strategic defensive • Blockaded Austrian force at Mantua, and defeated several Austrian armies approaching Mantua to give relief (used interior lines) • After seizing Mantua, moved into Austria quickly bringing them to terms • Won 12 victories in 12 months using rapid marches, flexibility in maneuver, & concentration of force

  44. NAPOLEON IN ITALY

  45. EGYPTION CAMPAIGN • Couldn’t defeat England at sea • Directory agreed to seize Egypt as base for further operations against England’s oriental empire • May 1798 - Sailed from Toulon w/35,000 veterans from Italian campaign • Captured Malta and arrived @ Alexandria on 1 July

  46. DURING MARCH ON CAIRO • Encountered 60,000 Mamelukes (superb cavalry force) in battle of pyramids • Napoleon’s efficient volleys of infantry and guns in checkerboard formation prevailed • Loaded muskets in inner ranks & passed up to soldiers in front, producing devastating fire

  47. EGYPTION CAMPAIGN • Fought in Egypt and Syria another 12 months • Realized further glory unlikely without reinforcements from France • Had received info that Directory was failing • Aug 1799 - relinquished command & returned to France • Strategically, Egyptian expedition made no sense • Victory offset by Nelson’s victory @ Aboukir Bay; Weak French Navy doomed campaign (SLOC)

  48. ULM and AUSTERLITZ • Napoleon turned Eastward • Third Coalition (Britain, Austria, Russia) formed against him, but forces still scattered • Main axis: Danube Valley running through Austria towards Prussia • Napoleon needed to strike first to prevent massing of 140,000 men at Ulm • Decided to strike Austrians at Ulm first, then move down Danube to deal with Russians