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Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican. First Political Parties By J. Renee Glenn, JD American History. George Washington Speech. Father of America. George Washington Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the Constitution

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Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican

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chapter 6 federalist vs democratic republican

Chapter 6Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican

First Political Parties


J. Renee Glenn, JD

American History

father of america
Father of America
  • George Washington
    • Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the Constitution
    • Friends urged him to run for president
      • Believed he would make an excellent leader
      • Agreed because he felt it was his duty
    • January 1789 – delegates from the 11 states that had ratified the Constitution formed the 1st electoral college – made up the electors who vote for president
    • Washington unanimously elected
      • John Adams – 1st Vice-President
the 1 st president
The 1st President

What were George Washington’s major achievements while in the Presidency?

  • Northwest frontier war w/ Native Americans was won
  • Britain surrendered its forts in the Northwest
  • Spain opened the Mississippi to American commerce

George Washington’s Cabinet

Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State

Alexander Hamilton – Treasury Secretary

General Henry Knox – Secretary of War

Edmund Randolph – Attorney General

who are bush s cabinet members
Who are Bush’s Cabinet members?
  • Homework – part 1 Print out or write out a list of President Bush’s current cabinet members
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • 1791 – 10 Amendments to the Constitution goes into effect
    • 1st 8 – offered safeguards for individual rights against actions of the federal government
    • 9th – states that people have rights other than the ones listed
    • 10th – states that powers not specifically reserved for the Federal Government would be reserved for the states
a snapshot of america in 1790
A Snapshot of America in 1790
  • Nearly 4 Million Americans
  • Most lived in rural areas & worked on farms
  • Some lived in towns as craftspeople, laborers, or merchants
    • Farmers wanted fair tax laws & the right to settle western lands
    • Merchants wanted simpler trade laws
    • Manufacturers wanted laws to protect them from foreign competition
  • Only New York City & Philadelphia had populations greater than 25,000
  • New York City served as the 1st U.S. capital
financing our new government
Financing Our New Government
  • By 1789 the government needed additional monies to continue to operate
    • Faced a national debt – money the U.S. owed to lenders
      • Owed $11.7 million to foreign creditors
      • Owed $40.4 million to U.S. Citizens
    • Some Revolutionary debt was in the form of bonds – certificates that represent money
      • These bonds had been issued w/ the promise of interest
    • Bondholders feared that the government would not buy back the bonds
      • Speculators (individuals who bought the bonds @ a low value in hopes the value would rise) – purchased the bonds from individuals for below value prices
2 very different plans
2 very different plans
  • James Madison & Alexander Hamilton developed 2 very different plans to help finance the government
  • James Madison felt the government should raise money by taxing imports from other countries
  • Tariff of 1789
  • Made all importers pay 5% of value of their cargo when they landed in the U.S.
  • Shippers required to pay a tax depending on how much their ships carried
  • Angered many Southern planters; began feeling the government didn’t have their best interest in mind
hamilton s financial program
Hamilton’s Financial Program
  • Born in the West Indies
    • Went to American colonies for his education
      • Practiced law
  • Secretary of Treasurer under Washington’s administration
  • Wanted to pay off the foreign debt immediately
    • Buy back bonds @ full prices
  • Bank of the U.S. (founded 1791, closed 1811)
    • Believed that bond owners would have a stake in the government’s success & be willing to loan $$ in the future
  • Supported the Tariff of 1789
    • Believed in the government’s ability to borrow money
jefferson madison
Jefferson & Madison
  • Opposed this Hamilton’s plan because they felt that paying “full-value” on bonds would reward the speculators
  • Southerners were upset because Northerners owned the bonds while the tax money used to pay off the debt would come from the South.
    • 1790 Southerners were convinced to vote for Hamilton’s plan in return for the relocation of the U.S. capital to a southern location called the District of Columbia
hamilton s plan passes
Hamilton's Plan Passes
  • Hamilton also asked Congress to create a national bank so that the government could manage its debts & interest payments
    • Objections
      • Southerners felt on the Northerners could afford the bank’s stock
      • Madison felt Congress couldn’t est. a bank because it was not with in the Constitution’s enumerated powers – powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution
bank of the united states
Bank of the United States
  • Hamilton argued that the bank fell under the “elastic clause” (necessary & proper clause) – powers that are implied & not specifically mentioned in the Constitution
  • Congress passes the bill forming the bank
whiskey rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
  • 1791 – Hamilton proposes a tax on the manufacturing of American whiskey
    • Passed by Congress
    • Outraged western farmers
  • Result:
    • Whiskey Rebellion begins – 1794
      • Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion
hamilton vs jefferson
Hamilton Vs. Jefferson

The split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two political parties: Federalist & Democratic-Republicans.

washington s foreign policy
Washington’s Foreign Policy
  • France Revolution – (French Civil War) began in 1789, shortly after Washington was inaugurated
    • Americans were divided over the French Rev.
      • Federalist opposed it because of the violence
      • Republicans supported it because of the fight for liberty
  • 1793 – French declared war on Britain
    • Forced Washington to issue a proclamation stating that the U.S. would remain neutral – friendly & impartial between the 2
    • British navy intercepted neutral ships, including American ships carrying goods to France
jay s treaty
Jay’s Treaty
  • Wanting to avoid war, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to find a solution
  • Gave Britain the right to seize American cargo heading to France
  • Britain gave America “Most Favored Nation” status – would not discriminate against when they traded w/ Britain
  • Set the w/drawal of British soldiers from posts in the American west
  • Est. a commission to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. & Canada
  • Est. a commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures & Loyalist losses during the American Revolution
americans object
Americans object . . .
  • Missing from the treaty
    • a refrain from arrest the arrest of American ships
    • impressment of American seamen
  • Hamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in N.Y.
    • Senate ratified w/ provision limiting trade in the British West Indies
    • Washington reluctantly approves
  • Raised concerns in Spain
    • Felt that the British & Americans might join forces to take over Spanish holdings in N. Am.
fallout over treaty
Fallout over Treaty
  • Although still admired, Washington came under sharp attack
  • John Jay resigned from the Supreme Court
  • Led to Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)

“Let it be remembered that civil liberty consist, not in a right to every man to do just what he pleases, but it consist in an equal right to all citizens to have, enjoy, and do, in peace, security & without molestation, whatever the equal & constitutional laws of the country admit to be consistent w/ the public good.”

~John Jay

pinckney s treaty 1795
Pinckney’s Treaty 1795
  • Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty w/ Spain
    • Recognized U.S. borders @ the Mississippi & the 31st Parallel – northern border of Florida (Spanish possession)
    • Agreed to allow the U.S. free navigation of MS River to the Gulf of Mexico & granted the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years
    • Both nations agreed not to incite Na. Am. Attacks against each other
  • Supported by Western farmers
western expansion
Western Expansion
  • Americans moved in large numbers to the area between Appalachian Mountains & the MS River because of abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, & a variety of fish game.
    • Increase of white settlers led to tension w/ Na. Am.
  • Little Turtle – chief of the Miami people of the Northwest Territory - formed a confederacy of several Na. Am. Groups against the white settlers.
    • After 2 battles in which American troops were defeated, Na. Am. Resistance was put down by AM. Troops under General Anthony Wayne
  • 1795 – 12 Na. Am. Nations signed the Treaty of Greenville.
    • Na. Am. Gave up parts of what later became Ohio & Indiana for a yearly payment of $10,000 from the federal government.
      • Treaty allowed for more settlers to move into the region
washington s farewell address
Washington’s Farewell Address

Washington retires from office after being irritated by party politics & attacks on his character.

Washington’s Farewell Address

  • Listed the benefits of the federal government

“The unity of government . . . is a main pillar in the edifice [foundation] of your real independence . . . of your tranquility @ home, your peace abroad; of your safety, of your property, of that very liberty which you so highly prize.”

  • Warns against the party system

“It (parties) agitates (stirs up) the Community w/ ill-founded jealousies & false alarms; kindles the animosity (anger) of one . . . Against another. . . .it opens the door to foreign influence & corruption . . .”

Continued . . .
  • Stressed the importance of religion & morality

“Where the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths (if we leave religion out of it), which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?”

  • Warned against misuse of public credit

“Cherish public credit. . . .One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible. . . Avoid the accumulation of debt. . . .”

  • Warned against permanent foreign alliances

“It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances w/ any portion of the foreign world . . .”

  • On an over-powerful military establishment

“. . . Avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, & which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty.”

election of 1796
Election of 1796



Who won the election of 1796?

xyz affair
XYZ Affair
  • French, angry over Jay’s Treaty, stopped American ships & seized goods while en route to Britain.
    • Federalist called for war against France
    • Instead, Adams sent negotiators to France.
    • Tensions increased. Why?
      • France demanded bribes from the Americans before they would negotiate, in what became known as the XYZ Affair
quasi war w france
Quasi-War w/ France
  • 1798 – Congress suspended trade w/ France & ordered the navy to capture French ships.

= undeclared war at sea was called the Quasi-War.

  • Convention of 1800 - negotiations w/ France led to an agreement
    • U.S. gave up all claims against France for damages to American shipping.
    • France released the U.S. from the Treaty of 1778

Quasi-War ENDED!!

fyi the cutters
FYI - The Cutters

First Coast Guard, known as “the cutters”, was established in 1790.

alien sedition acts
Alien & Sedition Acts
  • Federalist pushed through 4 laws know as the Alien & Sedition Acts – were designed to destroy Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans
  • Stated:
    • 3 were aimed @ aliens – people living in the country who are not citizens
      • Immigrants could not become citizens for 14 years (rather than 5), thus weakening the republican party. (Why? French & Irish immigrants tended to vote republican.)
      • Gave the President the power to imprison or deport immigrants deemed dangerous to the U.S. w/out a trial.
    • Prevented Sedition – an incitement leading to a rebellion.
      • Made it unlawful to say or print anything false or scandalous against the government or its officers.
    • Results:
      • These Sedition Acts virtually destroyed the First Amendment rights outline under the Constitution.
      • Bolstered support for the republicans in 1800 election.
states respond
States respond . . .

Null & Void

  • VA – introduced interposition – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.t did something unconstitutional , the state could interpose between the fed’l gov.t & the people to stop the illegal action
  • Kentucky – advanced the theory of nullification – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.’t passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify the law or declar it invalid
a hot race
A Hot Race . . .

Election of 1800

  • Closely contested & revealed a flaw in the system for selecting a president
    • Each state chooses electors who cast 2 votes
      • 1 for president
      • 1 for vice-president
    • Jefferson & Burr had same # of electoral votes
      • Constitution states the House of Representatives votes for president when there is a tie
election results
Election Results

Who won?

Federalist supported Burr  resulted in tie votes more than 30 times

    • Hamilton urged his followers in the Federalist Party to vote for Jefferson  another tie resulted
    • Feb. 1801 – Jefferson promised NOT to dismantle Hamilton’s financial system
    • Jefferson won the presidency by 1 vote
  • Result: proved that power in the U.S. could be peacefully transferred
1800 presidential election
1800 Presidential Election





Based upon

this map, who won the election of 1800?

jefferson takes office
Jefferson Takes Office
  • Had a less formal style of presidency
  • Did not over-turn all of the Federalist policies
  • tried to integrate Republican ideas into policies that the Federalist had already put in place
  • Began paying off the federal debt
  • Cut government spending
  • Did away w/ the Whiskey tax, and . . .
  • Planned to use local militia instead of a standing army
midnight judges
Midnight Judges

Judiciary Act of 1801

  • Passed by the Federalist majority
    • Created 16 new federal judges
      • Before leaving office – Adams appointed Federalist to these new positions


    • Jefferson & Republicans were unhappy that Federalist controlled the courts
      • After taking office – Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 – doing away w/ the “midnight judges” & their offices
  • Justice Samuel Chase’s impeachment – est. clear guidelines that judges couldn’t be removed from office simply because Congress disagreed w/ their decisions
marbury vs madison
Marbury vs. Madison

John Marshall

  • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  • Appointed by John Adams
  • Served for 34 years
  • Made the S. Ct. a powerful & independent branch of the fed.’ gov.t


1803 – Marbury v. Madison – est. the Court’s right of judicial review – the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & to strike down laws that were not.

louisiana purchase
Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson supported the idea of the U.S. expanding west – believed that a republic could survive only if most people owned their own land
  • 1800 French leader Napoleon Bonaparte convinced Spain to give LA back to France
    • He wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North America
    • U.S. feared that French control of the region would block U.S. western expansion
      • French control of New Orleans could interfere w/ American trade along the Mississippi River
    • Jefferson told the U.S. Ambassador to France to make an offer to buy New Orleans & West Florida from France
louisiana purchase cont
Louisiana Purchase, Cont.
  • A surprising offer –
    • French officials offered to sell all of Louisiana to the United States.
    • Why?
      • France needed the money to finance a war against Britain.
      • Napoleon also hoped that U.S. control of Louisiana could challenge Britain’s power in North America
    • U.S. purchases Louisiana for $15 million
      • Jefferson feared that he did not have the constitutional power to buy Louisiana, but agreed to the purchase because it was the country’s best interest
    • Louisiana Purchase of 1803 almost doubled the size of the U.S.
lewis clark expedition47
Lewis & Clark Expedition
  • Prior to the purchase, Jefferson sent Meriweather Lewis & Lt. William Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory
    • May 1804 – the expedition set out from St. Louis, in present day Missouri
    • Sacagawea, a Shoshone Native American woman, assisted the group
      • They crossed Great Plains & Rocky Mountains – reaching the Pacific in November 1805
      • Returned – September 1806
      • Expedition Results:
        • Taught about western lands & paths
        • Est. relations w/ several Native American groups
        • Collected valuable scientific information
define the following words
Define the following words:
  • Impressment
  • Embargo
  • Non-Intercourse Act
  • War Hawks
  • Nationalism
war of 181250
War of 1812
  • Causes:
  • Britain's refusal to surrender western forts promised to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris
  • Belief that Britain was arming North American Indians fighting against Americans on the western frontier.
  • Stopping of American ships by the Royal Navy on the high seas to search for deserters: i.e. British warship Leopard stopped the American warship Chesapeake to search for deserters; the Chesapeake refused & 3 Americans were killed
war of 1812 causes continued
War of 1812 – causes continued
  • Impressment of seamen – forced enlistment of men - who had been born as British subjects; later naturalized as American citizens
  • Trade embargo by France and Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, which resulted in the seizing of hundreds of American merchant ships.
summary of reasons
Summary of Reasons . . .
  • Interference with American trade
  • Impressment of American sailors
  • Military aide to American Indians
  • Support of War Hawks
trade interference
Trade Interference . . .
  • 1803 – Britain & France are @ war
  • Britain & France passed laws to stop the U.S. from trading with its enemy
  • Britain stopped & seized American ships
  • Britain began the policy of impressment
the embargo act of 1807
The Embargo Act of 1807. . .
  • Citizens called for a ban on trade with Britain in response to their violations of America’s neutrality
  • Passed by congress and banned all trade w/ foreign nations
  • Damaged America’s economy
  • Non-Intercourse Act passed; replaced the Embargo Act
  • NIA – banned trade only w/ Britain & France, along w/ their colonies; Napoleon dropped trade restrictions against U.S.; ban on Britain remained
  • Stated U.S. would resume trade w/ the first side to stop violating America’s neutrality
Impressment . . .

Impressment was the primary cause of the War of 1812.

Why impressment?

The reason is simple:

Warships must remain fully manned during wartime. If, after a sea battle, a warship needed more sailors, a British merchantman could be stopped and sailors drafted. This was deemed more practical than having a warship break off from duty and return to a British port to draft more sailors.

3 reasons to impress
3 Reasons to Impress
  • There were three common methods of impressing:
  • In British ports, press gangs made the rounds of inns, taverns, brothels, and ships in port "drafting" sailors for service. Generally, such drafting was done by applying a stout club firmly to the skull of the impressed sailor and carrying him to the ship.
  • At sea, a British Man-of-war could stop any British merchantman and impress sailors to fill crew vacancies and obtain needed provisions to carry on the patrol.
  • Under the Rules of War of 1756, the British Navy had the right to stop vessels at sea, including neutral ships at sea, and remove any British subjects found on board to serve in the British Navy.
Cont. . . .

And that was the problem. America had the largest neutral fleet on the seas. The attitude of the Royal Navy was, Once an Englishman, always an Englishman. The British navy refused to recognize British subjects could become naturalized American citizens nor would it honor American sailors as neutrals. This was not the official position of the British government, however it refused to do anything about it for years.

Jefferson and the War of 1812, /jparker/History%2520101/War%2520of%25201812.jpg&imgrefurl=

tecumseh native american alliance w britain
Tecumseh & Native American alliance w/ Britain
  • Shawnee Chief
  • Born near Springfield, OH
  • Later moved to Indian territory to escape American settlers
  • Furious over Native American lands being ceded to U.S. by the Delaware & Potawatomi tribes
  • During War of 1812, allied himself with the British
  • Battle of Tippecanoe – Indian defeat caused him to lose much of his support
  • Killed during the Battle of Thames
  • Shawnees forced to retreat to land west of the MS river
war hawks
War Hawks . . .
  • Congressional leaders who supported war with Britain; saw war as the only option
  • Led by Henry Clay
  • Other leaders:
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Fleix Grundy
  • Supported by the South & West
    • British trade restrictions hurt Southern planters & Western farmers
    • Blamed the British for conflicts w/ Native Americans
  • Felt it would help to expand the US borders
  • Won support in Congress, who declared war for the first time in U.S. History


the war hawks
The War Hawks
  • The U.S. declares war -- 1812
  • Congress calls for war, and President Madison agrees.
  • The British realize they’ve gone too far, and send a peace commission with an offer to pay for damages, but the ambassadors arrive too late. The U.S. has just declared war.
  • The North (which relies on foreign trade) accuses Madison of starting the war for no good reason. The war is nicknamed "Mr. Madison’s War."

Timeline of Events

1807 – The Chesapeake Incident

1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe

1812 – U.S. declares war.

1813 – Battle of Lake Erie

1813 – Battle of the Thames

1814 – March on Washington, D.C.

1814 – Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry)

1814 – Treaty of Ghent

1815 – Battle of New Orleans

washington burns 1814
Washington Burns1814
  • Main facts:
  • British navy sails up Potomac, easily captures and burns U.S. capital.
  • President Madison and wife, Dolley barely escape. She manages to save the only painting of President Washington
  • British sea power made it easy to sail a whole army within 60 miles of D.C.
  • British naval commander, George Cockburn, (Coburn) enjoyed burning things – destroyed three Maryland towns on the road to D.C.
  • His soldiers were vets from the war against Napoleon – easily overcame the local militia and marched into the capital.
fyi 1812
FYI - 1812
  • Dolley Madison refused to leave until she rescued a portrait of George Washington and a copy of the Declaration of Independence.
  • British burned every government building.
  • Cockburn led his men into the House of Representatives and held a mock vote about whether to burn the Congress. The men approved.
  • British used "Congreve rockets" in battle to scare the enemy. The rockets never hit anything, but they streaked overhead with a loud noise and looked very impressive.
  • Results:
    • Americans demoralized, but also angry. This becomes the last major battle the U.S. will lose to the British
washington burns
Washington Burns . . .
  • Poorly trained militia attempts to defend the Capitol
  • Cockburn led his men into the House of Representatives and held a mock vote about whether to burn the Congress. The men approved.
  • Dolley Madison refused to leave until she rescued a portrait of George Washington and a copy of the Declaration of Independence.
  • British used "Congreve rockets" in battle to scare the enemy. The rockets never hit anything, but they streaked overhead with a loud noise and looked very impressive.
  • The British head to Baltimore
  • British abandoned the city after bombarding them throughout the night – heavy casualties inflicted upon them by the Baltimore militia
  • Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner
  • Battle of Lake Champlain – American victory
  • Hartford Convention – New Englanders call for constitutional amendments to increase their region’s political power; they still opposed the war
  • Results:

Americans demoralized, but also angry. This becomes the last major battle the U.S. will lose to the British

advantages disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages. . .
  • U.S. Licensed private ships to attack the British merchant ships
  • @ Beginning of war, British navy was scattered far from the U.S.
  • Well trained U.S. sailors
  • New warships; carried more cannons that most British ships
  • American navy had fewer than 20 ships
  • The British had hundreds of ships
  • Began to patrol the waterways along the U.S. coast and their trade routes
  • British began blocking U.S. ports
alabama s part in the war of 1812 horseshoe bend
Alabama’s Part in the War of 1812 Horseshoe Bend
  • Early 1800s - Upper Creek Indians living in present-day Georgia & Alabama were very upset by the continuing advancement of white settlers onto their lands.
  • Tribal leaders advised self-control and also urged neutrality in the developing rift between the United States & Britain.
  • 1811 - the great Shawnee leader Tecumseh urged all Native Americans to halt the movement of white settlers into their territory
red sticks vs white sticks
Red Sticks vs White Sticks
  • He later visited the southern tribes
    • Supposedly left “red sticks” w/ those who supported him
    • Cherokee, Chickasaw & Choctaw refused to join him
    • Creek tribes were split

Red Sticks vs. White Sticks

  • He urged the formation of a

confederation to end the encroachment onto Indian lands and their ways of life.

  • He won many ardent supporters among the younger warriors.

Agreed to align themselves Refused to fight against the

w/ Britain Americans

november 1811
November 1811
  • William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indian Territory assembled a force to march against Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brother
    • The Native American forces struck 1st – Battle of Tippecanoe
      • Casualties ran high; America won
      • Many Native Americans fled to Canada
        • Including Tecumseh
timeline leading to horseshoe bend

1812 – Congress declares war on Britain

1813 – Red Sticks attack a group of White Sticks @ Tuckabatchee

1813 –

1813 –

8/30/1813 – Ft. Mims – Red Sticks attack the “fort” killing several hundred settlers (including women & children)

1813 – Andrew Jackson comes to Alabama – his volunteers attacked Red Stick & burned their villages to the ground, mistakenly killing some friendly tribes

Timeline leading to Horseshoe Bend

Red Sticks – intercepted by militia@ Burnt Corn Creek on their way home, successfully fought back & forced militia to retreat

horseshoe bend
Horseshoe Bend
  • Jackson's reputation began to take on legendary status during the Creek War.
  • Sent (along w/ his militia) by Gov. Willie Blont to Alabama in order to avenge the massacre @ Ft. Mims
    • They attacked the Red Sticks wherever they encountered them
    • Often burned their villages to the ground
    • Mistakenly attacked some friendly tribes
    • Established Ft. Deposit south of Montgomery & Ft. Strother southwest of Gadsden as supply bases
    • Continued attacks through the fall & winter of 1813
horseshoe bend continued
Horseshoe Bend, Continued
  • A large group of Red Sticks assembled together, constructing a fort along a horseshoe-shaped bend in the Tallapoosa River
    • 1000 warriors gathered under the leadership of Chief Menewa – longtime opponent of white settlement in the area
    • March 27, 1814 – Jackson attacked the Red Stick stronghold
    • His army contained approximately 1,500 soldiers & 600 Native Americans
    • Fierce fighting took place·
      • Tallapoosa nicknamed – river of blood·
      • 800 Red Sticks killed
      • ·American lost fewer than 50 men
      • ·Battle made Jackson a legend
  • When his militia unit was disbanded, he received a commission as a Major-General in the U.S. Army.
    • Without authorization, he led his forces across the international boundary into Florida and seized a Spanish fort at Pensacola (November 1814).
horseshoe bend72
Horseshoe Bend . . .

horseshoe bend the results
Horseshoe Bend – the Results
  • The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was significant in several ways:
    • The power of the Upper Creek was broken and the brief Creek War came to a close.
    • The tribe was forced to relinquish more than 23 million acres of their homeland and move farther west.
    • Extremely rich lands taken from the tribes in Georgia and Alabama were quickly opened to white settlers.
    • The area rapidly became a prime source of cotton - engine of the Southern economy, and helped to revive the flagging institution of slavery.
horseshoe bend andrew jackson
Horseshoe Bend & Andrew Jackson
  • Jackson's reputation began to take on legendary status during the Creek War.
  • When his militia unit was disbanded, he received a commission as a major-general in the U.S. Army.
  • Without authorization, he led his forces across the international boundary into Florida and seized a Spanish fort at Pensacola (November 1814).
  • Soon thereafter, Jackson achieved national fame in a heralded victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815).
invasion of canada
Invasion of Canada . . .
  • Bank of the United States – had been closed down the year before - charter had not been renewed; the U.S. gov’t. had no where to borrow money
  • Private bankers made it difficult to borrow money; they opposed the war & would not loan money to the gov’t.
  • Madison decided to invade Canada anyhow from:


Niagara Falls

Up Hudson River

    • All 3 attacks failed
  • Why conquer Canada?
    • Western farmers thought seizing Canada would end Native American attacks
  • The U.S was unable to successful invade Canada
beginning of the end
Beginning of the end . . .
  • 1814 – Napoleon’s empire collapsed
  • Enabled the British to send more of their navy & troops to the United States.
  • Strategy –forced the U.S. to make peace
    • Navy would attack American cites along the coast
    • March south into New York from Montreal, cutting New England off from the rest of the U.S.
    • Seize New Orleans & close the Mississippi River to western farmers
war of 1812 quick review
War of 1812 - Quick Review. . .
  • 1814 – British fleet enters the Chesapeake Bay, lands near D.C.
    • Poorly trained militia attempts to defend the Capitol
    • President Madison & other Government officials leave the city
    • The White House & Capitol building are set ablaze – destroying both
  • The British head to Baltimore
    • British abandoned the city after bombarding them throughout the night
    • heavy casualties inflicted upon them by the Baltimore militia
    • Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner
  • Battle of Lake Champlain – American victory
  • Hartford Convention – New Englanders call for constitutional amendments to increase their region’s political power
    • they still opposed the war
francis scott key
Francis Scott Key

The story of our Star Spangled Banner goes like this:

On September 13, 1814, the British wanted to destroy Fort McHenry by exploding it with rockets and bombs. Key was there watching Fort McHenry. He was a lawyer who hap been captured by the British and put in their ship's jail. But, he had a window and wrote about everything he saw.

Key knew that as long as the flag was still there that we hadn't given up. All night, he watched and saw the "rockets red glare" and the "bombs bursting in air." In the morning, the torn up American flag was still there. He decided upon the appropriate name, the Star Spangled Banner and put it to the rhythm of a saloon song.

star spangled banner
Star Spangled Banner

—Francis Scott Key, 1814

O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there.O say, does that star-spangled banner yet waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream:'Tis the star-spangled banner: O, long may it waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!



And where is that band who so vauntingly sworeThat the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,A home and a country should leave us no more?Their blood has wash'd out their foul footsteps'

pollution.No refuge could save the hireling and slaveFrom the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O thus be it ever when free-men shall standBetween their lov'd home and the war's desolation;Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued landPraise the Pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a nation!Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,And this be our motto: “In God is our trust!”And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

the american flag aka old glory
The American flag . . . AKA “Old Glory”

The Stars & Stripes flag gained two more two stars & two more stripes in 1795, after Kentucky & Vermont joined the Union. This flag flew over Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 & inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The Star-Spangled.”

Congress realized that a flag would become too large if a stripe were added for every new state. They decided to keep the stripes at 13 – one for each of the original colonies- & add a star for each new state.

Congress approved the first official flag on June 14, 1777. In 1818 Congress decided that there would always be 13 stripes. Stars would be added on July 4th in the year following the state’s admission to the Union. The exact shades of red & white were standardized in 1934.

war ends treaty of ghent
War Ends . . . Treaty of Ghent
  • December 24, 1814, signed; ending war
  • Restored prewar boundaries
  • Did not mention neutral rights or impressment
  • No territories changed hands
  • What did it do?
    • Increased America’s prestige overseas
    • Generated a new sense of patriotism & national unity

Patent – a writing securing to an inventor for a term of years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention; a written document making a conveyance or transfer of public lands