Chapter 6 Federalist Vs Democratic- Republican. First Political Parties By J. Renee Glenn, JD American History. George Washington Speech. Father of America. George Washington Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the Constitution
First Political Parties
J. Renee Glenn, JD
What were George Washington’s major achievements while in the Presidency?
George Washington’s Cabinet
Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton – Treasury Secretary
General Henry Knox – Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph – Attorney General
The split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two political parties: Federalist & Democratic-Republicans.
“Let it be remembered that civil liberty consist, not in a right to every man to do just what he pleases, but it consist in an equal right to all citizens to have, enjoy, and do, in peace, security & without molestation, whatever the equal & constitutional laws of the country admit to be consistent w/ the public good.”
Washington retires from office after being irritated by party politics & attacks on his character.
Washington’s Farewell Address
“The unity of government . . . is a main pillar in the edifice [foundation] of your real independence . . . of your tranquility @ home, your peace abroad; of your safety, of your property, of that very liberty which you so highly prize.”
“It (parties) agitates (stirs up) the Community w/ ill-founded jealousies & false alarms; kindles the animosity (anger) of one . . . Against another. . . .it opens the door to foreign influence & corruption . . .”
“Where the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths (if we leave religion out of it), which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?”
“Cherish public credit. . . .One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible. . . Avoid the accumulation of debt. . . .”
“It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances w/ any portion of the foreign world . . .”
“. . . Avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, & which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty.”
Who won the election of 1796?
= undeclared war at sea was called the Quasi-War.
First Coast Guard, known as “the cutters”, was established in 1790.
Null & Void
Election of 1800
Federalist supported Burr resulted in tie votes more than 30 times
this map, who won the election of 1800?
Judiciary Act of 1801
1803 – Marbury v. Madison – est. the Court’s right of judicial review – the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional & to strike down laws that were not.
Impressment was the primary cause of the War of 1812.
The reason is simple:
Warships must remain fully manned during wartime. If, after a sea battle, a warship needed more sailors, a British merchantman could be stopped and sailors drafted. This was deemed more practical than having a warship break off from duty and return to a British port to draft more sailors.
And that was the problem. America had the largest neutral fleet on the seas. The attitude of the Royal Navy was, Once an Englishman, always an Englishman. The British navy refused to recognize British subjects could become naturalized American citizens nor would it honor American sailors as neutrals. This was not the official position of the British government, however it refused to do anything about it for years.
Jefferson and the War of 1812, http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nevadamercantile.com /jparker/History%2520101/War%2520of%25201812.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nevadamercantile.com/jparker/History%2520101/Section%252015A.htm&h=768&w=668&sz=78&tbnid=sylgn0ykVdTJxM:&tbnh=141&tbnw=122&hl=en&start=13&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwar%2Bof%2B1812%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DG
Timeline of Events
1807 – The Chesapeake Incident
1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe
1812 – U.S. declares war.
1813 – Battle of Lake Erie
1813 – Battle of the Thames
1814 – March on Washington, D.C.
1814 – Battle of Baltimore (Fort McHenry)
1814 – Treaty of Ghent
1815 – Battle of New Orleans
Americans demoralized, but also angry. This becomes the last major battle the U.S. will lose to the British
Red Sticks vs. White Sticks
confederation to end the encroachment onto Indian lands and their ways of life.
Agreed to align themselves Refused to fight against the
w/ Britain Americans
1813 – Red Sticks attack a group of White Sticks @ Tuckabatchee
8/30/1813 – Ft. Mims – Red Sticks attack the “fort” killing several hundred settlers (including women & children)
1813 – Andrew Jackson comes to Alabama – his volunteers attacked Red Stick & burned their villages to the ground, mistakenly killing some friendly tribesTimeline leading to Horseshoe Bend
Red Sticks – intercepted by militia@ Burnt Corn Creek on their way home, successfully fought back & forced militia to retreat
Up Hudson River
The story of our Star Spangled Banner goes like this:
On September 13, 1814, the British wanted to destroy Fort McHenry by exploding it with rockets and bombs. Key was there watching Fort McHenry. He was a lawyer who hap been captured by the British and put in their ship's jail. But, he had a window and wrote about everything he saw.
Key knew that as long as the flag was still there that we hadn't given up. All night, he watched and saw the "rockets red glare" and the "bombs bursting in air." In the morning, the torn up American flag was still there. He decided upon the appropriate name, the Star Spangled Banner and put it to the rhythm of a saloon song.
—Francis Scott Key, 1814
O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there.O say, does that star-spangled banner yet waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream:'Tis the star-spangled banner: O, long may it waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
And where is that band who so vauntingly sworeThat the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,A home and a country should leave us no more?Their blood has wash'd out their foul footsteps'
pollution.No refuge could save the hireling and slaveFrom the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
O thus be it ever when free-men shall standBetween their lov'd home and the war's desolation;Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued landPraise the Pow'r that hath made and preserv'd us a nation!Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,And this be our motto: “In God is our trust!”And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall waveO'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
The Stars & Stripes flag gained two more two stars & two more stripes in 1795, after Kentucky & Vermont joined the Union. This flag flew over Fort McHenry during the War of 1812 & inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The Star-Spangled.”
Congress realized that a flag would become too large if a stripe were added for every new state. They decided to keep the stripes at 13 – one for each of the original colonies- & add a star for each new state.
Congress approved the first official flag on June 14, 1777. In 1818 Congress decided that there would always be 13 stripes. Stars would be added on July 4th in the year following the state’s admission to the Union. The exact shades of red & white were standardized in 1934.
Patent – a writing securing to an inventor for a term of years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention; a written document making a conveyance or transfer of public lands