The Unification of Germany. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, 1789-1815. Exported the principles of liberty, equality and brotherhood ( Libert é , Egalité , Fraternité ) Broke the power of the old Monarchical regimes and states in Central Europe.
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This is the area in through which the German states were spread in 1800
a named human population
sharing an historic territory,
common myths and historical memories,
a mass public culture,
a common economy
and common legal rights and duties for all members.”
Anthony D. Smith, National Identity (Reno, Las Vegas, London) 1991, p. 14.
Instead, the group formed a German Confederation, which was a very weak body headed by Austria.
Demographic change (growing population, urbanization etc.)
Poor harvests leading to famine
Dissatisfaction with conservative political climate
The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they'll sleep at night. -- Otto von Bismarck
"Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied." -Otto von Bismarck
“The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions – that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by blood and iron.”
Otto von Bismarck
War over Schleswig-Holstein, 1864. Members of the Order of Saint John and Rauhe-Haus Friars collecting the wounded.
The Prussians surrounded Paris, set up their HQ at the Palace of Versailles, to the SW, and were able to bombard much of the city with Krupps' big new cannons.
Starved of news and communications with the rest of France, the city used the unused main-line railway stations and its precious reserves of coal-gas to make paper balloons, which volunteers used to take post out past the Prussians - a hazardous one-way trip.
Louis Napoleon as a friend of death.
"Nothing can be more absurd than the practice that prevails in our country of men and women not following the same pursuits with all their strengths and with one mind, for thus, the state instead of being whole is reduced to half." -Plato
Otto von Bismarck, 1886.
1862 – William I
Head of cabinet
1818 – Prussia eliminates tariffs
1866- 7 Weeks’ War;
Dissolved; Prussia takes Schleswig & Holstein
1848 – Revolution &
1870 - Franco-Prussian War;
1864 – Austria &
Germany defeat Denmark:
Austria takes Schleswig,
Prussia takes Holstein
1819 - Carlsbad Decrees
1844 – Zollverein includes
Almost all German states
“The support given to (socialists by workers) rests on the fact that the judgment of the masses is sufficiently stultified and undeveloped to allow them, with the assistance of their own greed, to be continually caught by the rhetoric of clever and ambitious (socialist) leaders.”