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George Washington 1789-1797

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George Washington 1789-1797

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  1. George Washington 1789-1797 • Political Party – Federalist • Vice President – John Adams (1789-1797) • Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton (1789-1795) • Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson (1789-1793)

  2. George Washington • Inaugurated as the first President in New York City in April of 1789 • Established the following: • Departments of War, Treasury, and State • Office of the Attorney General • Cabinet

  3. George Washington – Domestic Policy • Judiciary Act of 1789 – established the judicial branch – created a Supreme Court, district courts • Bill of Rights – 1789 • The Battle of Fallen Timbers – 1794 • U.S. military defeat of native tribes in present day Ohio • Led to increased expansion west

  4. George Washington – Domestic Policy • Hamilton’s Financial Plan • Tariffs • Surcharges on imported goods • Tax on whiskey • In order to gain Jefferson’s support, the capital was moved to Virginia (modern day Washington D.C.).

  5. George Washington – Domestic Policy • Whiskey Rebellion – 1794 • Increased tax as a result of Hamilton’s financial plan enraged many citizens • Western Pennsylvania – attacks on tax collectors and formation of several armed resistance movements • Washington ordered militia from several neighboring states into Pennsylvania to stop rebellion • Personally traveled to Pennsylvania to oversee troop preparation • Rebellion ended quietly, Washington later pardoned those convicted of treason in the rebellion • Demonstrated the growing power of the federal government

  6. George Washington – Domestic Policy • Farewell Address – 1797 • Warns of maintaining national unity • Warns against split into “factions” or political parties • Warns against foreign entanglements

  7. George Washington – Foreign Policy • 1789 • Outbreak of the French Revolution • British encouraging Native Americans attacks on western settlers • Washington insists on neutrality – he believed that the new nation was too weak and unstable to fight another war so soon after the American Revolution

  8. George Washington – Foreign Policy • 1793 – France declares war on a host of European nations, including Great Britain • Jefferson and Hamilton take opposing viewpoints on assisting the French • “Citizen Genet” affair – French ambassador to the U.S., traveled throughout the U.S. in an attempt to garner support for the French • Washington demanded that Genet be recalled, which he ultimately was

  9. George Washington – Foreign Policy • 1793 • British announce that they will seize any ships trading with France, including ships from the United States • Several riots break out in U.S. cities • Washington suspends all American shipments overseas • British continuing to encourage insurgency on western borders of the United States

  10. George Washington – Foreign Policy • Washington sent John Jay, chief justice of the Supreme Court, to create a diplomatic solution to the issues with Great Britain • Result was Jay’s Treaty of 1794 • Signed on November 19, 1794 • Considered a weak treaty • Undermined freedom of trade on seas • Failed to compensate Americans for slaves taken during the revolution • Did not address the issue of impressment • Although not particularly happy with the outcome of the treaty, Washington signs it • Criticism of Washington’s administration increases as a result of the perceived failures of Jay’s Treaty

  11. George Washington – Foreign Policy • Pickney’s Treaty – 1795 • Spain gave the United States unlimited access to the Mississippi River valley • Access to the port city of New Orleans • Opened much of the Ohio River Valley to settlement and expansion • Considered the diplomatic highlight of the Washington administration

  12. George Washington - Legacy • Two – term precedent • Cabinet • “Unwritten Constitution” • Executive privilege • Supremacy of federal law • Collection of taxes • Executive restraint in regards to veto power

  13. John Adams – 1797-1801 • Political Party – Federalist • Vice President – Thomas Jefferson (1797-1801) • Wife – Abigail Adams

  14. John Adams – Domestic Policy • Adams content to leave domestic matters to Congress • Passage of Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 • Created as a means of preventing the French from harming American foreign policy • Three of laws aimed at immigrants, who tended to vote Democratic-Republican; the party of Jefferson • Required the naturalization period for immigrants to be extended from 5 to 15 years • Alien Act – allowed for detention of enemy aliens in times of war without trial • Sedition Act – outlawed conspiracy to prevent the enforcement of federal laws; punished subversive speech with fines and imprisonment

  15. John Adams – Domestic Policy • Criticism of the Sedition Act – mostly as a result of targeting those newspaper editors critical of the Adams administration • Stamp and house taxes protested by small farmers – Pennsylvania – Frie’s Rebellion • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions – 1798 • States had authority to determine legitimacy of federal law • Issues of states rights

  16. John Adams – Foreign Policy • Following the creation of Jay’s Treaty, which the French viewed as an alliance between the U.S. and Great Britain, the French began seizing American ships carrying British goods • Adams sought a diplomatic solution to the crisis, sending 3 commissioners to come to an agreement to end the conflict • Attempt by French minister to secure a bribe from the American diplomats, became known as the XYZ Affair • Navy Department created as a result of the conflict with France • Outbreak of the Quasi-War with France • Resolved with a new treaty between France and the United States in 1799

  17. Election of 1800 • Adams, a Federalist, ran for re-election against his Vice President, Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, which would become known as the Jeffersonian Republicans • Split within the Federalist Party resulted from criticism of Adams handling of the Quasi-War with France • Jeffersonians upset with the creation of a standing army, navy, and the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were perceived as violations of republican government

  18. Election of 1800 • Jefferson criticized for being a revolutionary because of his support for France during their revolution • Adams was criticized for being a “monarchist” • Adams attacked by members of his own party, including Alexander Hamilton • Jefferson wins the election, ushers in “Republican” government, much different than Adams view of government • In order to maintain a Federalist view of government, Adams appoints several Federalist judges to the courts prior to Jefferson’s inauguration. • These became known as “midnight appointments” which ultimately led to the court case Marbury vs. Madison of 1803.

  19. Thomas Jefferson – 1801-1809 • Political Party – Democratic-Republican • Brought the republican view of government to the presidency

  20. Thomas Jefferson – Domestic Policy • Respect to individual states rights • Significant decrease in size of the U.S. military • Encouragement of agriculture • Repeal Alien and Sedition Acts • Decrease in the national debt • Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801

  21. Marbury vs. Madison - 1803 • Jefferson's secretary of state, James Madison, had refused to deliver a last-minute justice of the peace commission to William Marbury, a wealthy land speculator in Washington, D.C., who was appointed in the final hours of the Adams administration. Marbury, claiming that his appointment could not be denied him, petitioned for a writ of mandamus, or a formal order of delivery, compelling delivery of the commission.

  22. Marbury vs. Madison - 1803 • Supreme Court denied the writ, although it acknowledged that the petitioners were entitled to their commissions • Declared a portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, thus establishing the principle of Judicial Review • Republican Congress repeals Judiciary Act of 1801 • Chief Justice John Marshall

  23. Thomas Jefferson – Foreign Policy • War with Barbary pirates led Jefferson to rethink his policy of reduction of the military • Spain ceded Louisiana to France in 1800, Jefferson began the process of purchasing New Orleans and possibly West Florida • Napoleon, needing funds to finance his war with Great Britain, offered to sell the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. for $15 million • Doubled the size of the U.S. • Jefferson must adapt his view of the Constitution, a “loose” vs. a “strict” view of a president’s power • Lewis and Clark sent to explore the new territory

  24. Thomas Jefferson – Foreign Policy • Impressment crisis with the British • British ships began forcing American soldiers into service on British ships during their war with France • Jefferson banned all British ships from U.S. ports, ended trade with Europe – negative impact on American economy • Non-Intercourse Act – banned trade with only England and France • Lays the groundwork for the War of 1812

  25. James Madison – 1809-1817 • Political Party – Democratic-Republican

  26. James Madison – Domestic Policy • Domestic issues take a backseat to foreign issues during Madison’s presidency • Stressed neutrality in English-French conflict • Debate over whether to grant 1st Bank of the United States another charter for 20 years • Opposed by “old” Republicans, who viewed bank as unconstitutional • Opposed by anti-British Republicans, who objected to the stock in the bank owned by the British • Opposed by state banks • Failure to re-charter bank led to financial difficulties during the War of 1812

  27. James Madison – Foreign Policy • Continued British policy of impressment led Congress to begin military preparations • April 1812 – 90 day embargo • June 1812 – U.S. declaration of War on Great Britain • Impressment • British provided arms to Native Americans who were attacking U.S. settlers • Trade restrictions

  28. James Madison – Foreign Policy • War of 1812 • “2nd War of Independence” • U.S. attempt to seize British Canadian territory – plan fails, parts of U.S. territory fall to the British • Tide of war begins to turn in 1813 • Hartford Convention 1814-1815 – Federalist opposition to Madison’s conduct of the War of 1812, threat of secession? Led to the end of the Federalist Party as a national organization • Battles with Natives in Canada – William Henry Harrison • Andrew Jackson led militia against Natives in Mississippi Territory (Alabama)

  29. James Madison – Foreign Policy • 1814 – British ships raid American ports • British capture Washington D.C., burn White House • Invasion stalls in Baltimore’s, the British can not get through Fort McHenry – inspiration for the “Star-Spangled Banner” • Battle of New Orleans – Jackson defeats British forces • Treaty of Ghent ends war

  30. Impact of War of 1812 • Increase in American pride and nationalism • Significantly decreased Native American threat in the Northwest territory • Political fame for those who fought in the war • Andrew Jackson • William Henry Harrison

  31. James Monroe – 1817-1825 • Political Party – Democratic-Republican • “Era of Good Feelings”

  32. James Monroe – Domestic Policy • Monroe embarked on a presidential tour of the country following his inauguration • Monroe was a popular president, and with the decline of the Federalist party, this led to what is historically known as the “Era of Good Feelings” • John Quincy Adams – Secretary of State • John C. Calhoun – Secretary of War

  33. James Monroe – Domestic Policy • Panic of 1819 • 1st major depression since the 1780s • Caused by declining agricultural prices, imports and exports • State banks declare bankruptcy • High unemployment and foreclosures • Depression ended by 1823

  34. James Monroe – Domestic Policy • Missouri Compromise – 1820 • “American System” – system of internal improvements designed to improve trade and the U.S. economy • Cumberland Road (National Road) – tolls placed in 1822 • Transition from the 1st party system in American politics (Federalists and Democratic-Republicans) to the 2nd party system (Democrats and Whigs)

  35. James Monroe – Foreign Policy • Pursued aggressive foreign policy • Attempted to improve relations with the British • Demilitarization of Great Lakes • Fixed U.S. – Canada border • Joint U.S.-British occupation of Oregon

  36. James Monroe – Foreign Policy • Andrew Jackson – invasion of Spanish Florida to prevent Native raids on white settlers • Adams – Onis Treaty of 1819 • Spain gives up control of Florida territory, and claims in Louisiana and Oregon • U.S. gives up claims in Texas territory

  37. James Monroe – Foreign Policy • Monroe Doctrine • Latin American revolutions admired by the U.S., Monroe hesitates to formally recognize new nations for fear of war with Spain • Rumors that European countries might help Spain regain control of former colonies • December 2, 1823 – Monroe gives his annual message to Congress • Became the basis for the Monroe Doctrine

  38. Monroe Doctrine - 1823 • Reiterated traditional U.S. policy of neutrality regarding European wars and conflict • U.S. would not accept re-colonization of any nation by its former European master • Non-interference with existing European colonies in America • European countries should no longer consider the Western Hemisphere open to colonization • Primarily aimed at Russia which was attempting expansion on the northern Pacific coast • Supported by the British and the Royal Navy • 1st significant U.S. foreign policy statement

  39. John Quincy Adams – 1825-1829 • Political Party - considered a Democratic-Republican • Vice President – John C. Calhoun • One of only two pairs of father and son to serve as President of the United States

  40. Election of 1824 “The Corrupt Bargain” • John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, William Crawford, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson all compete for nomination • John C. Calhoun drops bid and focuses on vice presidency • 1st time popular vote matters, states began choosing presidential electors by popular vote in 1824

  41. Election of 1824 • Jackson wins popular vote, followed by Adams, Clay and then Crawford • In Electoral College votes, Jackson fell 32 votes short of the majority required • Electoral Votes • Jackson – 99 • Adams – 84 • Crawford – 41 • Clay – 37

  42. Election of 1824 • House of Representatives met to decide presidency amongst top 3 candidates • Henry Clay eliminated from contention, but held considerable influence as Speaker of the House • Following the election in the House, Adams won the presidency, with support from Clay and his followers • Clay later named Secretary of State • Jackson claims “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay • Jackson resigns from Senate and immediately begins preparations for a presidential run in 1828

  43. John Quincy Adams – Domestic Policy • Support for the “American System” a national economy focused on internal improvements • Northern factories would produce finished products received from the South and the West • Harbors, roads, canals constructed during his presidency

  44. Tariff of Abominations - 1828 • Protective tariff • High tariffs placed to protect mid-Atlantic and Western agricultural interests • Tariffs placed on wool, flax, molasses, spirits • Restrictive on textile imports • Damaging to British manufacturers whom Southern planters depended on • Vice President Calhoun (from South Carolina) asserted that states had right to nullify federal laws that were harmful to state interests

  45. John Quincy Adams – Foreign Policy • Increased commercial treaties with nations such as Denmark, Brazil, Norway, Sweden • Failure to send delegates to Panama Congress due to opposition from Congress • Success as Secretary of State led to few major issues for Adams to deal with as president

  46. 1828 Election • Jackson participated in a campaign for the presidency immediately following the 1824 election • Senator Martin Van Buren of New York led to campaign for Jackson • Jackson and Van Buren focus on preservation of the union, states rights, majority rule • Adams supporters take the name National-Republicans • Extremely personal attacks by both campaigns aimed at the other • Jackson wins in a landslide, by a margin of 95 electoral votes • Regional votes – New England – Adams, South and West for Jackson

  47. Andrew Jackson – 1829-1837 • Political Party – Democrat • Vice President – • John C. Calhoun (1829-1832); Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)

  48. Domestic Policy • Creation of the “Spoils System” – rewarding political supporters with jobs in his administration • “American System” – 2 efforts to focus on the creation of a national economy • Protective tariffs • Internal improvements • Jackson originally supported while in Congress, becomes opposed as President due to increasing sectionalism • Presidential vetoes of bills associated with the system, including the veto of the Maysville Road bill in 1830

  49. Indian Removal • Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks still occupied large portions of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee at the beginning of Jackson’s presidency • Jackson believed in assimilation or removal • Conflict between Cherokees and the state of Georgia

  50. Indian Removal • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Exchange land west of the Mississippi River for land on the east coast of the U.S. • Pay costs of Indian transportation • Cherokee tribe resist until the end • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia in 1831 and Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, the Supreme Court upheld the tribes' independence from state authority • State of Georgia ignored the rulings, supported by Jackson • Forced exodus of Cherokees results in the “Trail of Tears”