Adjective and Adverb Tim, Rooney, and Rebecca
Adjective and Adverb Use • Showing Comparison with Modifiers
Regular Comparison of Adjectives • Nearly all one-syllable adjectives show the comparative from by the addition ofer and the superlative form by the addition of est Examples • tall(positive)-taller(comparative)-tallest(superlative) • high(positive)-higher(comparative)-highest(superlative) • blue(positive)-bluer(comparative)-bluest(superlative) • warm(positive)-warmer(comparative)-warmest(superlative)
For Two-Syllable Adjectives • some two-syllable adjectives take er and est especially those that end in y,ly, and le. EXAMPLE • funny(positive)-funnier(comparative)-funniest(superlative) • lovely(positive)-lovelier(comparative)-loveliest(superlative) • sleepy(positive)-sleepier(comparative)-sleepiest(superlative) • noble(positive)-nobler(comparative)-noblest(superlative)
Other Two-Syllable Modifiers Other two-syllable modifiers sound awkward with er and est and use more and most to make comparisons. Adjectives with three or more syllables make comparisons using more and most EXAMPLES • famous(positive)-more famous(comparative)-most famous(superlative) • complex(positive)-more complex(comparative)-most complex(superlative) • elegant(positive)-more elegant(comparative)-most elegant(superlative) • problematic(positive)-more problematic(comparative)-most problematic(superlative)
Absolute Comparative and Superlative of Adjectives • the comparative and the superlative are sometimes used in an "absolute" • sense-that is, without any intention of specific comparison to other things usually this absolute sense is indicated by certain expressions that have become idons in English. EXAMPLES • ABSOLUTECOMPARATIVE we lived in a lower-income housing development. • ABSOLUTE SUPERLATIVE He told me the saddest story.
Mark the correct adjective from the choices in parentheses. • 1. Kremlin is a (secure, securer) area in a Russian city. • 2.the name Kremlin is (more recognizable, most recognizable) than the Russian word Kremlin, from which the name comes. • 3.the (famousest, most famous) Kremlin is in Moscow. • 4.moscow's Kremlin has a (long, longer) history of government than • on might think, dating back to the 1100s. • 5.when the soviet union collapsed in 1991, the Kremlin again because the • (official, more official) center of Russian government activity.
Write the correct form of the adjective in parentheses. • ( ) 1. Russia is (famous) for its contributions to the arts. • ( ) 2. Russians were involved in artistic endeavors from practically the beginning, the (early) days of their history. • ( ) 3. But their efforts became (noticeable) to the outside world in the 1800s than they had been before. • ( ) 4. Religion, western thought, and local customs have all shaped the russian arts so that it is difficult to tell which was (influential). • () 5. for example, Russian architecture shows the (strong) influence of the byzantine church in the onion-shaped domes of its cathedrals. • ( ) 6. however, buildings from the time of peter I with their baroque style show (great) ties with the west than with the eastern church.
Regular comparison of Adverbs • many adverbs do not show comparison and therefore do not change form, but others have the same changes for comparison that adjectives have. Most dictionaries give you help as to whether to use er and est or more and most. One reliable rule is that • adverbs made from adjectives by the addition of ly always take more and most, • never er and est.
EXAMPLES • late(positive)-later(comparative)-(the) latest(superlative) • slowly(positive)-more slowly(comparative)-(the) most slowly • easily(positive)-more easily(comparative)-(the) most easily • cautiously(positive)-more cautiously(comparative)-(the) most cautiously
Irregular comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs • some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. The • forms of these modifiers do not follow a regular pattern.
EXAMPLES • good(adjective, positive)-better(comparative)-best(superlative) • well(adverb, positive)-better(comparative)-(the)best(superlative) • much(adjective, positive)-more(comparative)-most(superlative) • many(adjective, positive)-more(comparative)-most(superlative)
Mark the correct adjective or adverb from the choices in parentheses. • 1. Of all his classes this year, Slava likes geography (better, best). • 2. Because he is from Russia, he studied the chapter on his home • (carefully, more carefully) than the other chapters. • 3. Russia is two and a half times (larger, more larger) than the United states. • 4. Russia covers (more, most) of the eastern half of Europe and stretches across the northern third of Asia • 5. Russia contains (many, most）mountain ranges, including the Tien Shan, Ural, Altai, and Caucasus Mountains. • 6. The Caucasus mountains contain the (most high, highest) • peak in Europe.
Write the correct form of the modifier in parentheses. • ( ) 1.Russia is (truly) a land of superlatives. • ( ) 2.It can claim to be the most unusual or the (good) in many aspects. • ( ) 3. As the world's largest country, Russia can claim (much) land area than any other countries do , for it has the greatest number of neighbors-fourteen • ( ) 4.Russia must conduct its foreign affairs (carefully) than many other countries do, for it has the greatest number of neighbors-fourteen. • ( ) 5.Possibly the (bad) part of having so many neighbors is that many of them are potentially dangerous. • ( )6.The city of St. Petersburg can (proudly) claim the distinction of being the world's northernmost city of ever one million people.
Problems with Modifiers • Avoiding Double Comparisons • Never use both er and more to form the comparative or both est and most to form the superlative. Using both is an error called a double comparison • Incorrect : This soup taste more better than yesterday’s. • Correct : This soup taste better than yesterday’s. • Avoiding Double Negatives • In standard English we use only one negative word to make a sentence. The use of another negative word along with adverb is not called a double negative. To correct a double negative, replace one of the negative words • Incorrect : I didn’t solved nothing in the test. • Correct : I did solve nothing in the test. OR I didn’t solve anything in the test.
Avoiding Double Comparisons • EXAMPLES • My computer is more better than yours. • Carrie is the most funniest girl in our school. • Kate is more prettier than Corinne. • “Transformer 1” is more better than “Transformer 2.” • I like Soccer more better than Basketball. • Tulip is the most cutest flower ever. • Dan didn’t show nothing to me.
Avoiding Double Negatives • EXAMPLES • I don’t have nothing to give you today. • Justin won’t go to nowhere. • Pastor Lisa didn’t spoke nothing to us. • You shouldn’t have nothing to say. • Mom didn’t give me nothing for my birthday. • Jane isn’t cooking nothing for her husband’s dinner. • Joyce won’t be not coming to the party.
Distinguishing Between Adverbs and Predicate Adjectives • In the sentence pattern S-LV-PA, the linking verb is directly followed by a predicate adjective, not by an adverb. However, some verbs that can be linking verbs in one sentence transitive or intransitive in another sentence.
Linking Verb and Predicate Adjective John looked upset with his sister. Intransitive Verb and Adverb John looked nervously at his teacher. Linking Verb and Predicate Adjective The tree grew tall and strong Adverb, Transitive Verb, and Direct Object The gardener always grew several tomato plants .
Citations • All source from BJU PRESS, Writing and Grammar Second Edition 10 • pp.217-223