Malaria continues to be important Tropical diseases effecting millions of humans ,A basic understanding of the disease can reduce the incidence of morbidity and mortality
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Professor of Microbiology
Mal’ aria or bad air
Malaria continues to be most important cause of fever and morbidity in the Tropical world
Malaria has been eradicated from Europe, Most of North America, USA South America Korea and Japan,
– Sporozoites are infective forms
1 Pre erythrocytic schizogony
2 Erythrocytic Schizogony
4 Exoerythrocytic schizogony
On maturation Liver cells ruputure
Liberate Merozoites into blood stream
Also adhere to the endothelial lining of Blood vessesl
Causes the obstruction, Thrombosis and Local Ischemias
Cycle repeats every 48 hours in
Repeats every 72 hours In
Malignant malaria can affect the brain and the rest of the central nervous system. It is characterized by changes in the level of consciousness, convulsions and paralysis.
In malignant malaria a large number of the red blood corpuscles are destroyed. Hemoglobin from the blood corpuscles is excreted in the urine, which therefore is dark and almost the color of cola.
( Called as recrudescence X relapse )
Parasites survive in erythrocytes Liver ?
5 Black water fever can lead to death
1. Cerebral Malaria
2 Algid malaria
3 Black water fever
patent starts sweating, concludes the episode
Cycles are frequently Asynchronous
Paroxysms occur every 48 – 72 hours
In P.malariae pyrexia may lost for 8 hours or more and temperature my exceed 410c
Blood smear stained with Giemsa’s stain
Quinine sulphate plus single dose of Combination Drug Pyramethamine and Sulphodoxine ( Fansidar )
1 Quinine plus Doxycycline or Tetracycline
2 Quinine plus Clindamycin
1 Mefloquine and Halofantril.
The current guidelance on issues related to Malaraia prevention can be searched at
http://www.cdc.gov ( travelers health )
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative and partner, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, published recent Phase 2 trial results showing that the vaccine candidate, RTS,S, has a promising safety and tolerability profile and reduces malaria parasite infection and clinical illness due to malaria. This was the first RTS,S vaccine trial in African infants.