MALARIA • History • The disease • How people get Malaria ( transmission) • Symptoms and Diagnosis • Treatment • Preventive measures • Where malaria occurs in the world
History Discovery of the Malaria Parasite (1880):Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Discovery That Mosquitoes Transmit Malaria Parasites (1897-1898):Ronald Ross
What is malaria? • It ’s a disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. • In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. • 4 kinds of malaria parasites : Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
How is Malaria transmitted? • Infected mosquito's bites (only infective female Anopheles mosquito). • Other rares cases : *blood transfusion, *organ transplantation, *needles, syringes, *mother to her unborn child( congenital malaria)
Symptoms • More commonly, the patient presents a combination of the following symptoms: *Fever, chills * Headaches, sweats * Nausea and vomiting * Body aches * General malaise
Diagnosis • Microscopic examination of blood films because each of the four parasite species has distinguishing characteristics(it’s the most economic, prefered, and reliable diagnosis ). • Antigen detection teststhat require only a drop of blood (In areas where microscopy is not available, or where laboratory staff are not experienced at malaria diagnosis ).
Treatment • Treatment for malaria depends on several factors: the species of malaria causing infection, severity of infection, the age of the infected individual… • There are several families of drugs used to treat malaria: * Chloroquine(therapy and prophylaxis) * Quinine (Therapy only) *Doxycycline(Therapy and prophylaxis)
Prevention • Personal measures to avoid mosquitoes: *Sleeping under bed nets * Wear protective clothing ( for example Wear light-coloured because dark colours attract mosquitoes). *Using insect repellent • Antimalarial medication (prophylaxis) • There is currently no malaria vaccine approved for human use.
Where malaria occurs in the world • Malaria is found in warmer regions of the world, in tropical and subtropical countries including Americas, Asia and Africa(malaria-risk areas). • Malaria causes about 400–900 million cases of fever • approximately 1 to 3 million deaths annually • this represents at least one death every 30 seconds.