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  1. Malaria By anne

  2. The tropical coast →copious amounts of rain (up to 30 feet). • In the northern→ much lower (Drought). South → warmer • West→mountains. cool Where the hell is Cameroon?

  3. Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. • Malaria is preventable and curable. • 4 typesofhumanmalaria: (based on vectors). Plasmodiumfalciparum P.vivax P.malariae P.ovale. • Plasmodiumfalciparum and Plasmodiumvivax are the most common. Plasmodiumfalciparumisthemost deadly. Mode of transmission • exclusively through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes • seasonal transmission • The intensity of transmission depends on the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment (weather). Risk Groups: young children (especially), pregnant women, elderly. Symptoms: fever, headache, chills and vomiting. Severe cases→ severe anemia, respiratory distress (metabolic acidosis), or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement. Key facts about malaria

  4. Life cycle of the parasite

  5. diagnosis: blood smear • Treatment: Drugs: Chloroquine (Aralen) → RESISTANCE Quininesulfate (Qualaquin) Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) Mefloquine Combinationofatovaquone and proguanil (Malarone) artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)→ BEST (Falciparum), monotherapy discouraged. Prevention: Vector control Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) Long-lasting insecticide impregnated nets (LLINs)→ preferred form of ITNs. Indoor spraying with residual insecticides Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides→most powerful way. effective for 3–6 months, depending on the insecticide used and the type of surface. DDT can be effective for 9–12 months in some cases. Longer-lasting forms of IRS insecticides are under development.Drugs can also be used for prevention. For travellers→chemoprophylaxis (suppression of the blood stage). Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women living in high transmission areas (WHO). For infants: 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with SP along with routine vaccinations.

  6. STATISTICS: >Malaria cases approx2,000,000-deaths 4,943 (esp children under 5) >leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Cameroon. >in 2008 show 14% of consultations in hospitals, 43% of deaths malaria related, ⅔ of hospitalizations of children under 5 and the same for pregnant women and deaths >45% of cases of absence from work or school are due to malaria. Anti-malaria campaign: 16 AUGUST 2011 • • Distribution of mosquito-treated nets (approx 2 million to pregnant women and children < 5) • treatment of malaria during pregnancy and the administration of the combine therapy treatment based on artemisinin., • training of nearly 15 000 community relays personnel in over 1500 health districts nationwide • Decreased cost of treatment: (for a single attack) now 70fcfa for a child and 1000 CFA francs per adult ‘’Thou shalt fight’’

  7. Additional info • Insecticide resistance • Vector control is highly dependent on the use of pyrethroids, which are the only class of insecticides used on currently recommended ITNs or LLINs. (DDT) • Blood diseases and malaria: • Patients with sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia (Hb S) are privileged because they have altered sticky knobs (deformed red blood cells) that interfere with the attachment phase and Plasmodium falciparum and the other forms of malaria have trouble with endocytosis.

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  9. Thank you.