malaria n.
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  1. MALARIA dEviL_Abx

  2. MALARIA • Is an acute and chronic parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitos and it is confined mainly to tropical and subtropical areas. dEviL_Abx

  3. dEviL_Abx


  5. ETIOLOGIC AGENT • The disease is caused by four species of protozoa • Plasmodium falciparum (Malignant tertian) • Plasmodium vivax (Benign tertian) • Plasmodium malariae (Quartan) • Plasmodium (ovale) dEviL_Abx

  6. 1. The primary vector of malaria is the female anopheles mosquito: • It breeds in clear, flowing, and shaded streams usually in the mountains. • It is bigger in size than the ordinary mosquito. • It is brown in color. • It is night-biting mosquito. • It is usually does not bite a person in motion. • It assumes a 36 degree position when it alights on walls, trees, curtains, and the like. dEviL_Abx

  7. MODE OF TRANSMISSION • The disease is transmitted mechanically through the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. • It can be transmitted parenterally through blood transfusion. 3. On rare occasions, it is transmitted from shared contaminated needles. 4. However transplacental transmission of congenital malaria is a rare case. dEviL_Abx

  8. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS • Paroxysms with shaking chills • Rapidly rising fever with severe headache • Profuse sweating • Myalgia , with feeling of well-being in between • Splenomegally, hepatomegally • Orthostatic hypotension dEviL_Abx

  9. 7. Paroxysms may last for 12hrs, then, maybe repeated daily or after a day or two. 8. In children: A. Fever maybe continuous B. Convulsion and gastrointestinal symptoms are prominent c. splenomegally dEviL_Abx

  10. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE: 1.Malarial smear 2.Rapid diagnostic test(RDT) dEviL_Abx

  11. Signs and Symptoms of malaria dEviL_Abx

  12. NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: a. The patient must be closely monitored. b. Intake and output should be closely monitored to prevent pulmonary edema. c. During the febrile stage, tepid sponges, alcohol rubs, and ice cap on the head will bring the temperature down. d. Application of external heat and offering hot drinks during chilling stage id helpful. dEviL_Abx

  13. e. Provide comfort and psychological support. f. Encourage the patient to take plenty of fluids. g. As the temperature falls and sweating begins, warm sponge baths maybe given. h. The bed and clothing should be kept dry. • Watch for neurologic toxicity(from quinine infusion) like muscular twitching, delirium, confusion, convulsion, and coma. j. Evaluate the degree of anemia. k. Watch for any signs especially abnormal bleeding. l. Consider severe malaria as medical emergency that requires close monitoring of vital sings. dEviL_Abx

  14. PREVENTION AND CONTROL • Malaria cases should be reported. 2. A thorough screening of all infected persons from mosquitoes is important. 3. Mosquito breeding places must be destroyed. 4. Homes should be sprayed with effective insecticides which have residual actions on the walls. dEviL_Abx

  15. 5. Mosquito nets should be used especially when in infected areas. 6. Insect repellents must be applied to the exposed portion of the body. 7. People living in malaria-infested areas should not donate blood for at least three days. 8. Blood donors should be properly screened.. dEviL_Abx