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  1. Employee satisfaction and commitmentPrepared for UHS 2062 students at UTM SKUDAI

  2. JOB RELATED ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOURS • Assessing employee attitudes and behaviours about their jobs is one of the major tasks of IO psychologist. • Among the most commonly studied job related attitudes are job satisfaction and organizational commitment. • Although job satisfaction and organizational commitment are two distinct construct, they closely related.

  3. JOB RELATED ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOURS • Research shows highly positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. ( Arnold and Feldman, 1982; O’Driscoll, Ilgen and Hildreth 1992; Stumpf and Hartman, 1984 in Riggio 2009) • Part of the reason of the highly positive correlation is due to the desire to avoid cognitive dissonance.

  4. JOB RELATED ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOURS • Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are affected by many factors such as ( Riggio , 2009) : • Type and variety of work • Autonomy given in the job • Level of responsibility • The quality of social relationships at work • Compensation • Chances for promotion and growth/advancement in the organization

  5. JOB RELATED ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOURS • There appears some consensus that: • Organizational values influence organizational commitment • Perceived equity rewards influence job satisfaction. • Organizational commitment becomes less if the chances of finding another job somewhere else is big.

  6. Job Satisfaction • Job satisfaction consists of the positive and negative feelings and attitudes about one’s job. • The global approach views job satisfaction as an overall construct. • The facet approach views job satisfaction as made up of individual elements, or facets.

  7. Job satisfaction and commitment • Job satisfaction and commitment are multifaceted. • Examples of job satisfaction facets are pay, supervision, coworkers, promotion, work facility, worksite, work policy etc • An employee may be satisfied with one facet, (such as pay) but not another ( such as work facility).

  8. Job related attitudes • Although 2 different constructs, job satisfaction and organizational commitment are highly correlated and result in similar employee behaviours. • In general, satisfied employees show positive behaviours.

  9. Satisfaction & org. commitment • Meta analyses show that satisfied employees tend to be : • committed to the organization, and thus less likely to be absent; • stay with the organization , • punctual, engage in helpful behaviours etc. .

  10. Is it true that the “happy workers are productive workers?”

  11. Job satisfaction and performance • The relationship between job satisfaction and performance is not consistent across people or jobs. • E.g: For complex jobs, there is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance, than jobs of low or medium complexity .

  12. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance • Meta-analyses indicate a moderate correlation between job satisfaction and performance (Judge et al., 2001). • The Porter-Lawler model (1968) states that job satisfaction and performance are not directly linked, but are related when workers perceive fairness in receipt of work-related rewards.

  13. Organizational Commitment • Organizational commitment consists both attitudes and behaviours. • Attitudes include: • acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, • Willingness to exert extra effort on behalf of the organization, and • A desire to remain with the organization.

  14. Organizational commitment • Commitment related behaviours include organizational citizenship behaviours ( OCB) • OCB consists of efforts by employees to promote the organization, its image as well its goals (Riggio, 2009). • OCB are positively correlated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment ( Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine and Bachrach, 2000 in Riggio 2009) • Employees engaged more in OCBs are less likely to turnover compared to those not engage in OCBs ( Chen, Hui and Sego, 1998)

  15. Organizational commitment and OCBs • Employees engaged more in OCBs are less likely to be absent ( Lee, Mitchell, Sablynski, Burton and Holtom, 2004 in Riggio 2009) and are more safety conscious ( Gyekye and Salminen, 2005 in Riggio 2009) • OCBs also have interactive effects: • Supervisors notice OCBs and tend to give more positive appraisals.

  16. Organizational commitment • There are three motivational facets to organizational commitment ( Meyer and Allen, 1997): • Affective commitment • Continuance commitment • Normative commitment • ( Read Aamodt, 2010 for details )

  17. Affective commitment • Affective commitment is the extent to which an employee wants to remain with the organization, cares about the organization and is willing to exert effort for the organization.

  18. Continuance commitment • Continuance commitment is the extent to which the employee believes s/he must remain with the organization due the time, expenses and effort that has been pun into it. • Continuance commitment is also due to the difficulties in finding another job.

  19. Normative Commitment • Normative commitment: • The extent the employee feel obliged to the organization, and thus feels that s/he must remain with the organization.

  20. What causes employees to be satisfied with and committed to their jobs?

  21. Perspectives to the study of job satisfaction and commitment • Personality perspective • Environmental perspective • Interactional perspective

  22. Personality Perspectives

  23. Individual Differences in Employee Satisfaction • Important Findings • Consistency across jobs • Consistency across time • Relationship between life satisfaction and job satisfaction • Due to: • Genetic predispositions • Core self-evaluations • self-esteem • self-efficacy • internal locus of control • optimism/positive affectivity

  24. Individual Differences and Job Satisfaction • Personal predisposition to satisfied or dissatisfied may be one of the reasons of job satisfaction. • Individual difference theory posits that job satisfaction variation is due to the personal tendencies to enjoy/not to enjoy jobs. • UtilisingIndividual difference theory , satisfaction across jobs is consistent.

  25. Personality variables • Genetic predispositions • Core-self evaluations

  26. Genetic Predisposition • Genetic predisposition (30%), a study by Arvey et. al.1989, 1994), due to the presence of inherited personality traits such as “negative affectivity”. • Genetic predisposition studies are controversial and received lots of criticism

  27. Core self evaluations • A series of personality variables seem to be related to job satisfaction, meaning that some type of personalities have tendency to be satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs. • Judge, Locke and Durham ( 1997) hypothesized that four ( 4) personality variables are likely to be satisfied with their jobs ( and their lives).

  28. Core Self-Evaluations • Personality variables are likely to be satisfied with their jobs ( and their lives): • Emotional stability • Self-esteem • Self efficacy • External /internal locus of control

  29. Core Self-EvaluationJudge and Bono (2001) Meta-Analysis

  30. Your Predisposition to be Satisfied: measures • Interest Inventory • Life Satisfaction Measure • Core Self-Evaluation • self-esteem • locus of control • affectivity • Job Satisfaction History

  31. Others: Culture and intelligence etc • Culture plays great role • Intelligence…and if you are too “ smart”, you won’t be hired. • What about gender?, • Race? • Age?

  32. What are the other antecedents of job satisfaction?

  33. Environment and Interactional Perspectives

  34. Satisfaction with other aspects of life • A number of researchers theorize that job satisfaction is consistent across time AND also to the extent which a person is satisfied with all other aspects of life. • People who are satisfied with their jobs tend to be satisfied with life; thus supports the theory that job satisfaction is significantly correlated with life satisfaction. Vice versa. A very important finding. • Fancy using “John Travolta method”?

  35. Job expectations and satisfaction etc • When job expectations are not being met, job satisfaction is low and employees have the intentions to leave the jobs; consistent with discrepancy theories. • Meta-analysis by Wanous, Poland, Premack and Davis (1992) conclude that when employees’ expectations are not met, the result is lower job satisfaction, decrease in organizational commitment and increased intent to leave the organization.

  36. Job expectations and satisfaction etc • On the contrary, Irving and Meyer (1994) found most employees’ experiences on the job are most related to job satisfaction. The difference between their expectations and their experiences was only MINIMAL LY related to job satisfaction.

  37. Other antecedents of Job satisfaction are: • Good Job-organization fit • Job facets • Fairness and equity • Opportunities for challenge and growth • Job rotation, job enlargement and job enlargement

  38. Job Facets • Are the tasks enjoyable? • Do the employees enjoy working with their supervisors and coworkers? • Are coworkers outwardly unhappy

  39. Are Rewards And Resources Given Equitably? • Equity Theory • Components • inputs • outputs • input/output ratio • Possible Situations • underpayment • overpayment • equal payment

  40. Organizational Justice • Distributive justice • Procedural justice • Interactional justice

  41. Correlations with Perceptions of JusticeColquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, and Ng (2001)

  42. Is There a Chance for Growth and Challenge? • Enriched jobs • Variety of skills needed • Employee completes entire task • Tasks have meaning • Employee has input/control • employee receives feedback • Methods • Job rotation • Job enlargement • Job enrichment

  43. Have Surprises • Order lunch for everyone • Let everyone leave an hour early • __________________ • __________________ • __________________ • __________________

  44. Assign the Right Tasks to the Right People • People have different interests • People have different skills

  45. Measuring Job Satisfaction and Commitment

  46. Measuring Job Satisfaction • Job satisfaction can be assessed by asking how employees feel about their job, either by using questionnaire or interview. • The most widely used self-report measures are the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). • The MSQ measures satisfaction with 20 job facets, including supervisor competence, working conditions, task variety, and chances for advancement. • The JDI measures satisfaction with five job facets: the job itself, supervision, pay, promotions, and coworkers.

  47. JOB SATISFACTION: OTHER SCALES • Faces Scale • Job in General Scale • Nagy Satisfaction Scale • Custom designed inventories