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The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement

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The Civil Rights Movement

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  1. The Civil Rights Movement Chapter 25

  2. Brown v Board of Education • Dred Scott v Sanford • Plessy v Ferguson • McCulloch v Maryland What court case upheld the principle of ‘separate but equal’? 3 of 27

  3. 1865- the Civil War ended • 13th Amendment (1865)- officially ended slavery • 14th Amendment (1868)- identified who was a US citizen & specified that all US citizens have “equal protection of the laws”. • 15th Amendment (1870)- states may not interfere with any man’s right to vote= gave black men the vote. Origins of the Civil Rights Movement

  4. 1896-Plessy v Ferguson – established “separatebut equal” segregation (segregation by law)- mostly in the South. • * “Jim Crow Laws” • De facto segregation – segregation by custom (no law)- popular in the north • Poll taxes, literacy tests, lynching • Niagara Falls Movement • NAACP (1909)worked to end segregation. Origins of Civil Rights Movement

  5. NAACP- (1939-1961) led by attorney Thurgood Marshall; fought segregation, lynching. • Thurgood Marshall- later 1st black justice on Supreme Court • CORE- Congress of Racial Equality (1942)- used “sit-ins” to fight against segregation. • *Brown v Board of Education (1954) • Called for desegregating public schools • Overturned Plessy v Ferguson’s ‘separate but equal’ The Beginnings

  6. 1956 • 101 Southern members of Congress • Denounced the ruling in Brown, as a clear abuse of judicial power & pledged to reverse it • Encouraged white Southerners to defy the Supreme Court Southern Manifesto

  7. Became National leader of the civil rights movement • At age 26 Led Montgomery Bus Boycott • In response to Rosa Parks • Huge success with desegregation immediately • Influenced by Gandhi – non-violent protest • Civil Disobedience – essay written by Henry David Thoreau. • Can disobey a law if it is unjust Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  8. 1955- Rosa Parks- arrested for sitting in the “white section” of the Montgomery public transit. • Martin Luther King Jr. –chosen to lead a boycott of the public bus system in Montgomery, Alabama. • **King’s methods – passive non-violent resistance; “Civil Disobedience” • Boycott lasted 1 year; Supreme Court ruled in Park’s favor. • Montgomery bus transit system desegregated. **The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955

  9. *Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • Established by King (1st president) • Group of black ministers with goal of ending segregation & encouraging blacks to vote Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  10. 1957- Governor Faubus ordered troops to Little Rock High to prevent 9 African Americans from entering Importance: Governor had used the National Guard to oppose the federal government *Little Rock 9

  11. Result: Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock to enforce federal law Little Rock 9

  12. 1st civil rights law since Reconstruction • Created a Civil Rights division within the Department of Justice (federal government can seek court injunctions against anyone interfering with an ind. Right to vote). • Created US Commission on Civil Rights- investigate voting rights violations • * SCLC- began a push to register 2 million new African-American voters. The Civil Rights Act of 1957

  13. 1960- The Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-IN- 4 African-American students from NC A&T sat at the white lunch counter of Woolworth’s. • Next day- 29 more students appeared at the lunch counter • End of the week- 300 students • End of the Month- the movement spread to 54 cities (9 states). Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) formed April 1960; attracted young people. • Marion Barry-John Lewis 1st leaders • 1960-1965- played a role in desegregation of public facilities • Sent young volunteers into the Deep South to register African-Americans to Vote. The Sit-In Movement

  14. “African Americans have had 350 years of cooling off and if they cooled off anymore they would be in a deep freeze” *The Voter Education Project • SNCC- sponsored to register African-Americans in the South to vote. • 1964- local officials in Mississippi murdered 3 SNCC workers • CORE- sponsored • *Freedom Riders • Integrated bus ride from NC to Mississippi • 1962-Kennedy ended bus segregation federally

  15. *George Wallace • 1963-Governor of Alabama • Blocked African Americans from entering the University of Alabama • Federal officials forced him to move • James Meredith • Wanted to attend the University of Mississippi • 1962-JFK sent 500 federal marshals to escort him

  16. Martin Luther King Jr. wanted to push for a Civil Rights Law to be passed • Chose Birmingham- violent place • Bull Conner- former head of Police running for Mayor • King arrested Letter from a Birmingham Jail • King wrote to white leaders • Explained why his use of non-violent protests • After MLK’s release- Bull Conner & Police used dogs, fire hoses, & clubs on protestors while Americans watched on TV. **Kennedy ordered a new Civil Rights bill be written up Southern Senators threatened to filibuster. Birmingham Protests (1963)

  17. August 28, 1963 • Purpose- urge Congress to pass a Civil Rights law • 200,000 demonstrators march on Washington • Dr. King’s “I have a dream” speech March on Washington

  18. **Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Filibustered for 87 days in the Senate & finally passed • Prevention of racial discrimination • Segregation is illegal • Required businesses to end discrimination in the workplace • *24th Amendment • Outlawed poll taxes in federal elections

  19. 1965-Demonstrations to register to vote • 2,000 arrested • March from Selma to Montgomery (50 miles) • Bloody Sunday • Marchers beaten by state troopers as they crossed the bridge out of Selma "I was hit in the head by a state trooper with a nightstick... I thought I saw death."—John Lewis, SNCC The Selma March

  20. Federal examiners sent to register African-Americans & oversee elections • Suspended literacy tests • Result- more than 250,000 African-Americans registered to vote. Martin Luther King Jr. won the Nobel PeacePrize (1965) The Voting Rights Act (1965)

  21. Racism & poverty still persistent • Los Angeles- 1965 • Due to police brutality • 34 killed, 900 injured • $30 million property damage • Race riots erupted all over the country • Urban blacks saw the changes for Southern blacks – they wanted the same • *Kerner Commission • Detailed study of urban riots • Blamed white society & racism for problems in inner cities Watts Riots

  22. Dr. King & wife moved into apartment in Chicago. • Draw attention to need for improvement of slum neighborhoods in big cities • Not very successful Chicago Movement

  23. Founder-StokelyCarmichael • Attracted young African-Americans • African Americans should control the social, political & economic aspects of their culture • Emphasized black power & self-discipline rather than assimilation Black Power

  24. Symbol of the Black Power movement • Nation of Islam • Aka Black Muslims • Malcolm X was a spokesperson • Separation from whites & govern themselves • Killed by member of the Nation of Islam Malcolm X

  25. Founded in 1966 by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver in Oakland, California • Emphasized economic self-sufficiency, black nationalism, self-defense • Believed violent Revolution was necessary to get political & economic equality. The Black Panthers

  26. The Assassination ofMartin Luther King • Memphis, TN • April 4, 1968 – King was assassinated on his hotel balcony by a sniper • Assassin – James EarlRay • Significance- Civil Rights lost its most eloquent leader.