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Rise of Communism in China

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  1. Rise of Communism in China Communist Timeline

  2. Rise of Nationalist Party1911-1928 • Sun Yat-sen • Father of Modern China – Led revolution ending Imperial Rule in China • Formed Republic of China (1912) • Death in 1925 – caused split between communist and nationalist for heir to rule. • Chang Kai-Shek • Leader of Nationalist following Sun’s death • Became overall leader of ROC in 1928

  3. Nationalist vs. Communist1920s & 1930s • Communist (Red Army) early success – 4 victories • Guerilla warfare tactics • Nationalist changed military tactics (strong hold) • 5th military effort success • Communist changed tactic to positional warfare and could not match forces • lost battle and support of people

  4. The Long March1934 - 1935 • Communist settled in S. Central China (Jianxi Province) • Chiang sent army to hunt down Red Army and kill all those who favored Communism • 1934 Communist started year long journey • 18 Mt. Ranges (6,000 miles) • 8,000 lived out of 100,000 • Yan’an final destination & headquarters • Postitives of March: Isolated, know land better, and went through villages gaining support • Mao Zedong emerges as leader of Communist Party

  5. Communist Take OverOctober 1, 1949 • Japan takes control of Manchuria during WWII • Forced Nationalist & Communist to Unite • War ended in 1945 • During and shortly after war, Communist carried out social reforms gaining support from peasants • 1949 Nationalist and Chiang Kai-Shek defeated and fled to Taiwan • nationalist tired of fighting (8 years) and lost support of people • Mao forms People Republic of China

  6. Great Leap Forward1958 - 1960 • Purpose – Make China an equal industrial nation to Western Powers in 15 years • How are they going to fulfill it? • Make people work day and night • Focus on making steel • Reasons it failed • Used the system of putting people into Communes • Collective communities whose members share work and products equally (5,000 households) • Motivation goes down • People were doing work they did not know how to do • Poor Technology

  7. The Cultural RevolutionMay 1966 - 1969 • Started by Mao • Purpose • Wants new ideas (His) • Cleanse the party • Losing power to rival leaders in the party following the failure of the Great Leap Forward • Destroy the “Four Olds” • Ideas, Thought, Customs, Habits • Mao created the “Red Guards” • Youth Militia that was encouraged to rebel against authority • Communes: unattached to parents and taught to worship Mao • Traveled around China for free and encouraged peasants to attack local officials

  8. Death of Mao and New LeaderSeptember 9, 1976 • Gang of Four (led by Mao’s Widow) vs. Deng Xiaoping • Gang of Four favored Cultural Revolution and Deng was against it • Most sided with Deng and he became leader • Tired of death and disorder

  9. Four Modernizations1978 – 1980s • Deng’s goal – to improve 1) agriculture 2)industry 3) science & technology 4) defense • Agriculture • Contract responsibility system replace communes • Farmers rent land and provide certain amounts at set prices and keep rest • 1st 8 years – farmers income tripled

  10. Four Modernizations1978 – 1980s • Industrial Development • Change Focus from “heavy industry” to “light industry” • Production of small consumer goods • More decision power to factory managers with reward system for being more productive • 4 Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) • Along China’s east coast in the south • Attract foreign capital, companies, technology • Results • Coastal cities grew rich – Interior regions lay behind, more urban, economy quadrupled in size (way of life improved)

  11. Tiananmen SquareMay 13 – June 4, 1989 • “5th Modernization” – Political Freedom • 100,000 people into Tiananmen Square to protest • Martial Law • Some demonstrators refused to leave • June 3rd • Rounded up leaders and killed them without trial • Troops opened fire without warning killing 2,000 people • Economic growth can only succeed if people kept “in line”