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China: Dynasty to Communism

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  1. China: Dynasty to Communism HWH UNIT 12 CHAPTER 15.4 and 18.3

  2. Review… • Imperialism • Manchu Dynasty • Western domination • Japanese aggression • Empress Dowager Ci Xi • Henry Pu Yi, the Last Emperor • Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian) (1866-1925) • Three Principles of the People • Chinese Republic, 1911

  3. At this point, what obstacles does Sun face in unifying China?

  4. The Chinese Republic • Weak • Western imperialists • War Lords • Yuan Shikai • Decentralization and chaos

  5. WWI • Japan’s Twenty-One Demands, 1915 • Japan demanded land in China • Treaty of Versailles • Japan given German possessions in China • The May Fourth Movement • Another call to strengthen China and resist imperialism • China had officially sided with the Allies in WWI • Some see communism as the solution…


  6. The Guomindang • Chinese nationalists • Established by Sun Yat-Sen • Led by Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) (1887-1975) • Successor to Sun • The Northern Expedition, 1926 • Chiang allies with communists to defeat the warlords • Success!

  7. Chiang in Charge • Massacre at Canton, 1927 • Chiang orders communists massacred • Beginning of Civil War (on and off until 1949) • Mao Zedong (1893-1976) • Chinese Communist Party • Power base with peasants

  8. The Long March, 1936

  9. The Long March • Nearly 100,000 begin • Only 10,000 survive • Mao and ZhoEnlai • High casualties, but spread communist popularity

  10. Civil War on Hold • 1931: Japan invades Manchuria • 1937: Japan launches full-scale invasion of China • Guomindang and Communists cooperate • But do not trust each other

  11. Civil War Resumes • Japan surrenders, 1945 • Civil War resumes • US supports Chiang and the Nationalists • USSR supports Mao and the communists • Communist Victory, October 1949 • Goumindang was corrupt • Guomindang worked with the western “imperialists” • Communists promised prosperity to peasants • Most Chinese were peasants

  12. The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

  13. The Republic of China (Nationalist China, or Taiwan)

  14. Mao and the PRC • Collectivization and Repression • Xenophobia • Korean War • WWII • Western Imperialism • Atomic Bomb • Western involvement in Vietnam • The “Great Leap Forward” (1958) • Mao’s attempt to force China into modernity • Outrageous production goals • Disastrous famine • Perhaps 50,000,000 starve

  15. Tensions with the USSR • Mao dislikes Khrushchev’s “Peaceful Coexistence” with the West • Conflict over the borders • Irredentism

  16. Mao Steps Back • “Pragmatists” • Liu Shao Chi, 1960-66 • Allowed for some private ownership • ZhoEnlai • Lin Pao

  17. The Cultural Revolution, 1966 • The Red Guard • Chaos, 1966-1976

  18. American Relations with China • Capitalize on Sino-Soviet Split • Brezhnev Doctrine • “Ping-Pong Diplomacy” • Nixon visits China (and Moscow) • PRC gets Taiwan’s seat on the UN Security Council, 1971