China and the Rise of Communism Democracy’s Failed Ground
Guomindang Chaos • 1913-16, Sun Yat-Sen overthrew Pu Yi with help of Gen. Yuan Shigai • CIVIL WAR as Shigai wants to be emperor. Sun wins… eventually.
Victory!!!... ish. • By 1920, Guomindang wins, • Wants to kick out Europeans (weak from WWI chaos) • Make an alliance with Communists & Mao Zedong
Death, A Change & A Massacre • Sun died in ’25, nationalists led by Chiang Kai-Shek • Fierce anti-communist… • As Europeans leaving, Mao & Chiang call for a meeting of warlords to unite China • ‘27 Shanghai Massacre Chiang & Mao kill 34 rivals
The Last War & The Long March • Late 20’s – war between Chiang & Mao • Cornered, Mao leads retreat for survival. • 90K plus start it, 9K finish it. Communism on life support • The Long March
Defeat from the Jaws of Victory • 1933 – WWII Japanese invasion of Manchuria. • In need of Allies, Guomindang and US turn to Mao for help. NO!!! • Mao rebuilds and rearms…
Communism & Taiwan - 1949 • War weakens China and the Guomindang • Suffering turns people to Mao’s communism • 2nd War won by Mao • Nationalists flee to Taiwan. The reality of two China’s today!
INSTANT Cold War Collision… • US, fearing spread of Asian communism, tries to stop it in Korea • KOREAN WAR 50-53 • China, scared of Truman Doctrine, leaps in to defend her neighbor
Korean Fallout… • US comes close to nuclear war • Cease Fire, no treaty… • N Korea still communist AND CRAZY!!! • Kim Jong Il tests nuke 2006 • CHINA SECURE
Communist Stability… • Now secure, Mao tries to start communist reform • Orders nationalized industry, collective farms… • Too slow, people don’t want to leave their land & property • Asks for input of the people • 1955 - Collects names and kills those who spoke out!!! 100 Flowers Campaign
Great Leap Forward, 1958 • Says failures from ’55 because he wasn’t bold enough… • MASSIVE collective works forciblymade, large families encouraged • Forgets to order enough food. 15-40 million starve to death
The Cultural Revolution, 1966 • Mao thinks China’s past is holding back communist reform … • Little Red Book • All the past is destroyed by the Red Guard • Old Leaders killed
Mao Dies – 1976 (YAY!!!) • 60-80 million dead due to his policies (worst tyrant ever …) • China way overpopulated, agricultural and backward • Watch Mao Bio
A Tough Act to Follow • Deng Xiaoping the new leader. • Focuses on transitioning from Agriculture to Industry • Illegal to criticize Mao or the Government
1980-Today: RAPID CHANGE • One Child Policy • “Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics” slowly encouraged • Leads to greater prosperity in the 1990’s • The workshop of the world now an economic power • Soft Power & Military Power creating influence
However, MANY Internal Issues • Tiananmen Square, April to June, 1989 • 100K students protest, Troops kill untold numbers… • Human Rights violations & Prison Camps • Environmental Concerns • Poverty creating anger!!! • Fear of what will happen if economy slows…
The Future… Where will Xi Xinping lead China?