Communism in China The Years After Mao
Death of Mao Zedong • Mao Zedong’s dies in 1979 • China is far behind other industrialized nation
Power Struggle • There was a power struggle behind those who wished to follow Mao’s beliefs and a group who just wished to make China better (no matter what the philosophy)
Deng Xiaoping • He was the 2nd leader of Communist China
Deng Xiaoping’s Leadership • He had a much more practical view of government than Mao • He was willingly to use parts of other economic systems • His goal was to bring China into the modern age through improvements
4 Modernizations • New government program instituted by Deng • Goal was to improve agriculture, industry, science & technology, & defense as quickly as possible.
Agriculture Modernizations • Repair damage done to farms during the Great Leap Forward • Established a contract responsibility system • families rented land from the government • the families decided what they wanted to sell • Government bought an amount of the produce at a set price • All the rest of the produce could be sold for whatever price they could get
Agriculture Modernizations • The chance to make more money by growing more crops led farmers to increase their production be 8% each year
Industrial Modernizations • Changed the focus of industry from heavy industry (iron, steel, big machines) to light industry (small consumer goods, clothing, appliances, etc)
Industrial Modernizations • Gave more decision-making power to factory managers • Reward program developed for factory managers and workers who found ways to make factories produce more
Economic Modernization • Created 4 special economic zones • Owners and producers were able to control market without much government interference • brought in foreign investors • now there are hundreds of these special zones
General Results from the 4 Modernizations program • Economy is now stronger than ever • if it keeps growing at the rate it is now- by 2025 it could be the largest economy in the world
General Results from the 4 Modernizations program • Improvements in the daily life of Chinese people • for example in the 1980’s few households had any modern appliances- by early 1990’s 80% of households owned washing machines
Unexpected Results from the 4 Modernizations program • Economic growth has taken place unevenly • coastal zones have grown richer • the interior regions are poorer and lag far behind in the economy
Unexpected Results from the 4 Modernizations program • Farmers realized they could make more money from cash crops (quick growing, high resell value) • China suddenly had a shortage of staple foods, like grain
Unexpected Results from the 4 Modernizations program • Population shifted dramatically • 120 million people left towns to move to the big cities • rapid increase in urban growth has resulted in an increase in crime and management problems
Demand of a 5th Modernization • The 5th Modernization • As the Chinese people became accustomed to economic reform, they begin to demand a 5th reform • Chinese wanted democratic rights • they wanted to express political beliefs and ideas openly without fear • they wanted to have a voice in the government • they wanted freedom of speech, religion, privacy, etc
Demonstrations for reform • In 1989, thousands of Chinese, mostly college students, had a series of peaceful demonstrations in Beijing and other major cities to demand democratic reforms • They would hold hunger strikes and sit-in • The world media began to focus on the demonstrations
Tiananmen Square • In May and June of 1989, there were about 100,000 Chinese demonstrating in Tiananmen Square in Beijing • The government decided to end the protests • first they meet with the student leaders and tried to make them stop and disband • when that failed they went to their second solution • Video Clip- 1:23 to about 1:38
Tiananmen Square • On June 3rd, 1989 the government ordered all the protestors to go home • That night troops surrounded the protesters and opened fire without any warning. It is believed as many as 1,000 people were killed and hundreds more wounded. • Within days China gathered any suspected leaders. they were killed by troops without a trial • The world was outraged! China basically said – it is none of your business.
Tiananmen Square • China’s leaders believe that economic growth can succeed only if the people are kept “in line” politically.
China today • Chinese people have more freedoms than earlier, but the communists still control much of their people’s life
Government Oversight • Internet usage, cell phone conversation, i-pods, facebook, twitter, regular mail, and even regular conversations are all filtered and monitored by the government. There are security officers (soldiers) with guns all over, Communist spies in neighborhoods, “suspected” people under surveillance. • Even Google had to agree to some type of government oversight in order to operated in China