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China and the Rise of Communism

China and the Rise of Communism. Democracy’s Failed Battleground. Big Trouble in Little China. The Fall of the Qing Dynasty (1911) Loss of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 Boxer Rebellion of 1900 Influx of Western powers in the 1900s Significant social changes after rebellions

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China and the Rise of Communism

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  1. China and the Rise of Communism Democracy’s Failed Battleground

  2. Big Trouble in Little China • The Fall of the Qing Dynasty (1911) • Loss of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 • Boxer Rebellion of 1900 • Influx of Western powers in the 1900s • Significant social changes after rebellions • New republic formed headed by Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen), “Father of Modern China” • Three Principles – Nationalism, democracy, and economic stability • “Twin Evils” – Warlord uprisings and foreign imperialism

  3. The Father Steps Down • Sun Yixian stepped down in 1912 • Power went to Yuan Shikai, a powerful general • Attempted to set up a new dynasty • No military support

  4. Chinese Upheaval • Warlords began to seize power while rival armies vied for control • Frequent famines and bandit attacks • Foreign powers increased influence over Chinese affairs • TWENTY-ONE DEMANDS – list of demands that sought to make China a Japanese protectorate • Shikaidied in 1916

  5. May Fourth Movement • Cultural and intellectual movement • The Goal: to strengthen China • Rejected Confusion ideas • Wanted to use ideas to break with West (think Meiji Restoration in Japan) • Women involved: • Pushed to end footbinding • Opened doors for women in education and the economy

  6. Father Knows Best • 1920’s a small group of Chinese Communists formed their own political party • Sun Yixian and his Guomindang, the Nationalist Party, form a gov’t in south China • Plan: Raise an army, defeat the warlords, and spread his gov’t’s rule in China • Western powers refuse to help so he goes to Russia

  7. An Unlikely Alliance • Nationalists (Guomindang) join forces with the Communists to free China • Mao Zedong – member of the Communist party that helped the Guomindang • believed the Communists should look for support among the peasants

  8. Death and a Change in Leadership • Sun Yixian died in 1925 • Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jeishi) took control of the Guomindang • Not a huge fan of Communism or democracy • Did join with the Communist party though… • 1926 – begins the Northern Expedition

  9. The Shanghai Massacre, 1927 • Communists were winning converts, Mao in control • Chiang wants to consolidate power so… • orders the slaughter of Communist Party members and workers who supported them • Beginning of a civil war between the Guomindang and Communist Party that would last for 22 years

  10. Another War… • Defeated all warlords • Chiang turns fully on the “Red Bandits” • Guomindang is lead on a series of “extermination campaigns”

  11. The Long March – 1934-1935 • Harassment results in the Long March for the Communist forces • Use guerrilla tactics to fight back • 90,000 start 9,000 finish • Finally make it to a remote area in North China where they start to rebuild

  12. International Problems • 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria • 1930’s – continued Japanese expansion • Depression across the country • All this distracts Chiang and allows Mao to survive

  13. If you will please pause for a brief intermission • Under pressure by members of the Guomindang and the US, Chiang allies with Mao • For all their hatred, the united Chinese front stays together during the war

  14. The Creation of Two Chinas • WWII greatly weakens Guomindang • People turn to Mao • 1946-1949 Civil War is again sparked • US does nothing to aid nationalists while USSR aids Mao • Eventually, Chiang is forced to flee China to Taiwan • US only recognizes Chiang in Taiwan while mainland China is recognized by other world powers

  15. People’s Republic of China (PRC) - 1949

  16. China Flexes – 1950-1953 • US, after failing to aid Guomindang China,gets pulled into Korean War • Yalu River – US pushes North into Communist Korea and makes it very close to the Chinese border • Gets China involved in the war

  17. Korean Results • US comes close to nuclear • Cease fire signed but no treaty • North Korea is still Communist today • Nuclear weapons

  18. Chinese Expansion • Tibet (1950) • Parts of India • Fighting the French in Indochina • Southern Mongolia • Clashed with USSR over Mongolia

  19. Communist Stability - 1955 • Korean War over • Mao tries to start communist reforms • Redistributes land, nationalized industry, collective farms • People reject change

  20. The 100 Flowers Campaign • Mao decides to let people state their grievances against the state • Angry and overwhelmed by their demands, he stops the program and murders any dissenters

  21. Great Leap Forward, 1958 • States 1955 plan failed because not bold enough • Massive collective works forcibly created • Large families encouraged to industrialize

  22. The Apple Doesn’t Fall Far from the Communist Tree 15-40 million people starve to death as the gov’t makes steel not food

  23. Cultural Revolution, 1966 • Mao thinks China’s past is holding back reform • Little Red Book – explained the ideology of the Chinese Communist Party • All the past is destroyed by the Red Guard – student military groups • Leaders Killed

  24. Feb 1972 – Nixon Visits • Split between China and USSR • Fighting over frontier • Ping-Pong Diplomacy (April 1971) • Exchange of table tennis players between China and US • Visit helps thaw the Cold War

  25. Mao Dies - 1976 • 60-80 million dead due to his policies • China way overpopulated • Agriculturally based and backward • Deng Xiaoping – new leader • Focuses on transitioning to industry • Illegal to criticize Mao or the gov’t

  26. Social and Economic Changes • 1980 – One Child Policy • If you go over the limit, you are subject to fines up to multiple times your annual income • Capitalism slowly encouraged • Causes greater prosperity in 1990s

  27. Tiananmen Square • April to June, 1989 • 100,000 students protest slow pace of change • Troops sent to silence dissent • Unknown number dead

  28. The Future of China • Hoping world forgets Tiananmen • Joined WTO and is market driven • Tremendous growth • New social problems because of lack of equality • Fascist now? • Olympics of 2008

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