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China and the Rise of Communism

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  1. China and the Rise of Communism Democracy’s Failed Battleground

  2. Big Trouble in Little China • The Fall of the Qing Dynasty (1911) • Loss of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 • Boxer Rebellion of 1900 • Influx of Western powers in the 1900s • Significant social changes after rebellions • New republic formed headed by Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen), “Father of Modern China” • Three Principles – Nationalism, democracy, and economic stability • “Twin Evils” – Warlord uprisings and foreign imperialism

  3. The Father Steps Down • Sun Yixian stepped down in 1912 • Power went to Yuan Shikai, a powerful general • Attempted to set up a new dynasty • No military support

  4. Chinese Upheaval • Warlords began to seize power while rival armies vied for control • Frequent famines and bandit attacks • Foreign powers increased influence over Chinese affairs • TWENTY-ONE DEMANDS – list of demands that sought to make China a Japanese protectorate • Shikaidied in 1916

  5. May Fourth Movement • Cultural and intellectual movement • The Goal: to strengthen China • Rejected Confusion ideas • Wanted to use ideas to break with West (think Meiji Restoration in Japan) • Women involved: • Pushed to end footbinding • Opened doors for women in education and the economy

  6. Father Knows Best • 1920’s a small group of Chinese Communists formed their own political party • Sun Yixian and his Guomindang, the Nationalist Party, form a gov’t in south China • Plan: Raise an army, defeat the warlords, and spread his gov’t’s rule in China • Western powers refuse to help so he goes to Russia

  7. An Unlikely Alliance • Nationalists (Guomindang) join forces with the Communists to free China • Mao Zedong – member of the Communist party that helped the Guomindang • believed the Communists should look for support among the peasants

  8. Death and a Change in Leadership • Sun Yixian died in 1925 • Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jeishi) took control of the Guomindang • Not a huge fan of Communism or democracy • Did join with the Communist party though… • 1926 – begins the Northern Expedition

  9. The Shanghai Massacre, 1927 • Communists were winning converts, Mao in control • Chiang wants to consolidate power so… • orders the slaughter of Communist Party members and workers who supported them • Beginning of a civil war between the Guomindang and Communist Party that would last for 22 years

  10. Another War… • Defeated all warlords • Chiang turns fully on the “Red Bandits” • Guomindang is lead on a series of “extermination campaigns”

  11. The Long March – 1934-1935 • Harassment results in the Long March for the Communist forces • Use guerrilla tactics to fight back • 90,000 start 9,000 finish • Finally make it to a remote area in North China where they start to rebuild

  12. International Problems • 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria • 1930’s – continued Japanese expansion • Depression across the country • All this distracts Chiang and allows Mao to survive

  13. If you will please pause for a brief intermission • Under pressure by members of the Guomindang and the US, Chiang allies with Mao • For all their hatred, the united Chinese front stays together during the war

  14. The Creation of Two Chinas • WWII greatly weakens Guomindang • People turn to Mao • 1946-1949 Civil War is again sparked • US does nothing to aid nationalists while USSR aids Mao • Eventually, Chiang is forced to flee China to Taiwan • US only recognizes Chiang in Taiwan while mainland China is recognized by other world powers

  15. People’s Republic of China (PRC) - 1949

  16. China Flexes – 1950-1953 • US, after failing to aid Guomindang China,gets pulled into Korean War • Yalu River – US pushes North into Communist Korea and makes it very close to the Chinese border • Gets China involved in the war

  17. Korean Results • US comes close to nuclear • Cease fire signed but no treaty • North Korea is still Communist today • Nuclear weapons

  18. Chinese Expansion • Tibet (1950) • Parts of India • Fighting the French in Indochina • Southern Mongolia • Clashed with USSR over Mongolia

  19. Communist Stability - 1955 • Korean War over • Mao tries to start communist reforms • Redistributes land, nationalized industry, collective farms • People reject change

  20. The 100 Flowers Campaign • Mao decides to let people state their grievances against the state • Angry and overwhelmed by their demands, he stops the program and murders any dissenters

  21. Great Leap Forward, 1958 • States 1955 plan failed because not bold enough • Massive collective works forcibly created • Large families encouraged to industrialize

  22. The Apple Doesn’t Fall Far from the Communist Tree 15-40 million people starve to death as the gov’t makes steel not food

  23. Cultural Revolution, 1966 • Mao thinks China’s past is holding back reform • Little Red Book – explained the ideology of the Chinese Communist Party • All the past is destroyed by the Red Guard – student military groups • Leaders Killed

  24. Feb 1972 – Nixon Visits • Split between China and USSR • Fighting over frontier • Ping-Pong Diplomacy (April 1971) • Exchange of table tennis players between China and US • Visit helps thaw the Cold War

  25. Mao Dies - 1976 • 60-80 million dead due to his policies • China way overpopulated • Agriculturally based and backward • Deng Xiaoping – new leader • Focuses on transitioning to industry • Illegal to criticize Mao or the gov’t

  26. Social and Economic Changes • 1980 – One Child Policy • If you go over the limit, you are subject to fines up to multiple times your annual income • Capitalism slowly encouraged • Causes greater prosperity in 1990s

  27. Tiananmen Square • April to June, 1989 • 100,000 students protest slow pace of change • Troops sent to silence dissent • Unknown number dead

  28. The Future of China • Hoping world forgets Tiananmen • Joined WTO and is market driven • Tremendous growth • New social problems because of lack of equality • Fascist now? • Olympics of 2008