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Comparisons…Systems PowerPoint Presentation
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Comparisons…Systems

Comparisons…Systems

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Comparisons…Systems

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  1. Comparisons…Systems

  2. Electoral Systems: Single Member District Plurality vs. Proportional Representation How the votes get counted or who gets a seat in the legislature

  3. Parliamentary vs. Presidential System How the executive branch is born

  4. Unitary vs. Federal System Distribution of Power

  5. Interest Group Systems Corporatist vs. Pluralist Who gets heard?

  6. Electoral Systems: Single Member District Plurality vs. Proportional Representation How the votes get counted or who gets a seat in the legislature

  7. Single Member District Plurality • Definition: • Electoral system in which candidates run for a single seat from a specific geographic district. • The winner is the person who receives the most votes, whether or not that is a majority • Characteristics: • Usually results in two-party system • Silences minority voters • Creates large catch-all parties

  8. Proportional Representation • Definition: • An electoral system in which voters select parties rather than individual candidates and parties are represented in legislatures in proportion to the shares of votes they win. • Characteristics: • Usually results in multi-party systems • Gives voice to minority voters • Wider representation of political views

  9. Parliamentary vs. Presidential System How the executive branch is born

  10. Parliamentary System • Characteristics: • Fusion of Powers • Executive born of legislature—executive branch is populated by members of legislative branch • Parliamentary sovereignty • Collective responsibility • Vote of confidence to remove Prime Minister • High party discipline • No direct election of executive branch • Examples: UK

  11. Presidential System • Characteristics: • Separation of Powers • Checks and balances • Direct election of president • Lower party discipline • Inefficient policy process • Gridlock more likely • Examples: Mexico, Nigeria, Iran (sort of)

  12. Relationship with Legislaturein both systems • Role of legislature to enact legislation, so executive needs legislative to pass bills • Executive influences the legislative agenda by drafting bills • Executive is head of government • Legislature can remove the executive • Executive can introduce legislation

  13. Mixed Presidential/Parliamentary System Characteristics: • Both a PM and a President • Directly elected president • Separate head of government and state

  14. Unitary vs. Federal System Distribution of Power

  15. Unitary System • Definition: • Concentration of political power in a central government • Examples from AP6 • United Kingdom • China • Iran

  16. Federal System • Definition: • A system of governance in which political authority is shared between the national government and regional or state governments • Examples from AP6 • Russia • Mexico • Nigeria

  17. Interest Group Systems Corporatist vs. Pluralist Who gets heard?

  18. Pluralist Interest Group System • Definition: • Multiple groups may represent a single society interest. • Characteristics: • Group membership is voluntary and limited. • Groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure. • There is a clear separation between interest groups and the government. • United States is perfect example.

  19. Corporatist Interest Group System • Definition: • Interest groups are an institutional part of the political structure and are active in policy formation and implementation. • Characteristics • Membership in the peak association is often compulsory and nearly universal. • Peak associations are centrally organized and direct the actions of their members. • Groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy. • Key Point: Interest group part of policy process!

  20. Rentier States

  21. Rentier States • Definition: • A country that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or other natural resources • Impact: • Government doesn’t have to be accountable to citizens for income. • Examples from AP6 • Nigeria • Russia • Iran