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Animal Systems

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  1. Animal Systems

  2. 1. Describe how nutrients and oxygen are moved to the body cells. 1.1 Review the principles of diffusion and active transport. 1.2 Contrast passive transport systems with active transport systems. 1.3 Compare open circulation systems with closed systems of vertebrates. 1.4 Compare the efficiencies of hearts with one, two, three, and four chambers. 1.5 Describe the blood circulation pattern and vessels in the mammalian systems.

  3. To begin... What is the definition of each of the terms listed 
below and what does each have to do with transport? Diffusion: the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area 
of lower concentration Passive transport (osmosis): the movement of molecules, across a cell membrane, by their own energy Active transport (exocytosis, endocytosis): the movement of a substance through a cell membrane, requiring the 
use of ENERGY!

  4. One main transport system--the circulatory system... Your body is made up of billions of cells. Each cell is like a tiny factory 
because it must be supplied with certain chemicals and it must be 
"relieved of" certain waste products. The 3 methods of transport mentioned earlier all work together to 
deliver these needed chemicals to each cell (such as oxygen and food) 
and to pick-up/remove the waste products (e.g. carbon dioxide gas). Also, these 3 methods of transport are, more importantly, a part of 
one main system known as the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Although, 
when discussing the movement of oxygen and nutrients in simple 
organisms, we usually just talk about a "transport system" as there is no 
blood involved...only in more complex animals do we begin to see 
blood, hearts, vessels, etc.

  5. In various organisms, the type of transport system used 
will vary... 1. In some multicellular organisms, such as a sponge, almost every cell has part of its surface exposed to the environment. Each cell can obtain its own oxygen and get rid of its own wastes. In these cases, diffusion and active transport are sufficient for moving substance into cells. 2. In roundworms, there is a fluid-filled body cavity surrounding the digestive 
tube. As the roundworm wiggles, the fluid is squeezed about from one place 
to another. In this way, substances dissolved in the fluid are carried to and 
from body cells.

  6. Comparison of the transport systems, continued... 3. In arthropods (crayfish, lobsters, insects), the blood is pumped through 
blood vessels that empty into body spaces. Through these spaces, the blood 
moves about sluggishly, in contact with tissues. Eventually it gets back into 
another set of vessels. These carry it back to the pumping point. This type of 
incomplete vascular system is called an open circulatory system. 4. Annelids (earthworms) have a closed circulatory system. In this system, blood flows within vessels all the time. An earthworm has five hearts and a complicated set of finely branched vessels. In this way, all body cells are located relatively close to a blood vessel so that they can obtain food and 
exchange wastes. They do this through diffusion and active transport. 5. In vertebrates, circulation also occurs in a closed system. A single, 
muscular heart with two or more chambers pumps blood through the 
system.

  7. Review... 1. What type of transport system is the most 
developed? Why?

  8. 1. Describe how nutrients and oxygen are moved to the body cells. 1.1 Review the principles of diffusion and active transport. 1.2 Contrast passive transport systems with active transport systems. 1.3 Compare open circulation systems with closed systems of vertebrates. 1.4 Compare the efficiencies of hearts with one, two, three, and four chambers. 1.5 Describe the blood circulation pattern and vessels in the mammalian systems.

  9. Two Important Definitions... Atrium: chambers on the upper side of the heart that 
receive blood from the veins and in turn force it into 
the ventricles Ventricle: chambers on the lower side of the heart that 
receive blood from the atria and in turn force it into 
the arteries (vessels that carry blood away from the 
heart and around to the rest of the body)

  10. Different types of hearts exist in vertebrates...which one is best?? 1. Fish: a 2-chambered heart - single loop of blood, closed system 1. loop begins in the atrium (chamber #1), which acts as a chamber to 
receive the de-oxygenated blood that has been circulated around the 
body 2. from the atrium, blood is passed to the ventricle (chamber #2) which 
pushes deoxygenated blood to the gills 3. gills remove CO2 and replace it with O2, oxygenated blood is 
circulated around the fish and the body of fish uses up O2, leaving de-
oxygenated blood 4. de-oxygenated blood is carried back to the atrium atrium ventricle gills body Pros: no mixing of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood Cons: heart must pump blood through gills and body in 1 circuit

  11. 2. Amphibian: 3-chambered heart 1. the loop begins simultaneously in the right atrium (chamber #1), this 
chamber collects de-oxygenated blood from body, and the left atrium 
(chamber #2), this chamber collects oxygenated blood from the lungs 2. the heart contracts and drains both atriums into the ventricle (chamber #
3) at the same time (ventricle receive a mixture of oxygenated and de-
oxygenated blood) 3. ventricle contracts and forces mixed blood to the lungs and to the body  body right atrium  ventricle  lungs left atrium Pros: ridges in walls of blood vessels reduces mixing of both kinds of blood Cons: body receives a mixture of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood

  12. 3. Birds and Mammals: 4-chambered heart - most efficient circulatory system, double loop, blood doesn't mix 3. First Loop:  a) Pulmonary Circulatory System:  - right atrium collects de-oxygenated blood from the body and it drains 
  through the right tricuspid valve into the right ventricle  - this blood is pumped into the lungs to pick up O2, it then goes to the 
  left atrium Second Loop:   b) Systemic Circulatory System:  - left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, which drains 
  through the left bicuspid valve into the left ventricle  - this blood is pushed to the whole body Important Notes: - although there are two separate loops for the blood to follow, both occur 
simultaneously - This means that blood is pumped through the right side of the heart to the 
lungs at the same time that blood is received from the lungs and pumped 
throught the left side of the heart to the rest of the body

  13. Diagram of the Flow of Blood in a Mammalian Heart bodyright atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle lungsleft atrium bicupsid valve left ventricle Pros: heart is a double pump   no mixing of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood

  14. HOW BLOOD TRAVELS THROUGH THE BODY

  15. Review... 1. What type of heart is most efficient? Why?

  16. 1. Describe how nutrients and oxygen are moved to the body cells. 1.1 Review the principles of diffusion and active transport. 1.2 Contrast passive transport systems with active transport systems. 1.3 Compare open circulation systems with closed systems of vertebrates. 1.4 Compare the efficiencies of hearts with one, two, three, and four chambers. 1.5 Describe the blood circulation pattern and vessels in the mammalian systems.

  17. There are three specific types of blood vessels that are used in moving 
blood through our circulatory system, based on size, which ones carry 
blood to the heart and which ones carry blood away form the heart? What do capillaries do?

  18. VESSELS THAT MAKE UP THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Veins: carry deoxygenated blood to the heart. Capillary Beds: diffusion of oxygen into cells and carbon dioxide out of cells; plus food and wastes.

  19. Structure of the Heart and Names of Blood Vessels: 1. Atria: thin-walled chamber of the heart a) left atrium: receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary 
veins b) right atrium: receives de-oxygenated blood from the body via the vena cava 2. Atrioventricular (A.V.) valves:  - located between each atrium and ventricle,    - prevent backflow of blood from ventricle to atrium a) bicuspid valve: between left atrium and ventricle b) tricuspid valve: between right atrium and ventricle 3. Ventricles: muscular chamber responsible for pumping blood a) left ventricle: pumps oxygenated blood to body via aorta b) right ventricle: pumps de-oxygenated blood to lungs via pulmonary ateries

  20. Structure of the Heart and Names of Blood Vessels Continued... 4. Septum: wall of muscle separating the 2 ventricles 5. Pulmonary Arteries (left and right): carry de-oxygenated blood from heart (r.v.) to lungs ***only arteries that carry de-oxygenated blood*** 6. Pulmonary Veins (left and right): carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart (l.a.) ***only veins that carry oxygenated blood*** 7. Aorta: the largest artery in the body, carries oxygenated blood from the heart (l.v.) to body 8. Vena Cava: carries de-oxygenated blood back to heart (r.a.) a) superior vena cava, comes from head b) inferior vena cava, comes from the rest of the body 9. Semilunar Valves: found where blood vessels attach to the heart in each ventricle, prevent back flow of blood into ventricles from veins

  21. Blood From the Body Flows: 1. to the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, 2. then to the Right Atrium 3. through the Tricuspid Valve 4. to the Right Ventricle 5. to the Pulmonary Artery 6. to the Lungs The Blood Picks up Oxygen in the Lungs, and 
then Flows from the Lungs: 1. to the Pulmonary Veins 2. to the Left Atrium 3. through the bicuspid valve 4. to the Left Ventricle 5. through the Aortic Valve 6. to the Aorta 7. to the body

  22. HEART (to body arteries) (to lungs) (from lungs) (body vein from body)

  23. Review... 1. What is the main difference between the right and 
left atrium? 2. What structures are used to allow oxygen to 
diffuse into our body cells and carbon dioxide to 
diffuse out of our body cells?

  24. 2. Explain the functioning of the human circulation system. 2.1 Describe the functions of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver in the circulation system. 2.2 Describe the ABO and Rh typing systems for human blood. 2.3 Consider the role of the blood in the immune system and the effect of the human. 2.4 Research the use of artificial hearts, heart transplants, and circulation machines used during open-heart surgery. 2.5 Discuss respiration by relating the activity to the physical structure like the lungs and blood and the cells fed by the blood.

  25. BLOOD COMPONENTS Blood is composed of cells and other substances suspended in plasma. Plasma: a clear, straw-colored liquid that is 90% water and 10% dissolved substances that include vitamins, enzymes, hormones, food, and respiratory 
gases. 3 types of cells: red, white, and platelets (all made in the bone marrow) Red Blood Cells: specialized for the transport of O2 have no nucleus or other organelles and are filled with hemoglobin hemoglobin: contains iron and has a red pigment; picks up oxygen in the lungs 
to deliver to body cells to help with respiration only survive 110-120 days because they experience alot of wear and tear after this time, they are removed from circulation and destroyed in the liver and 
spleen. the liver salvages iron ions from these cells and then cells in the bone marrow 
use this iron to make new red cells

  26. White Blood Cells: have a nucleus they have no hemoglobin and are therfore colorless they are larger than red blood cells, there are less of them in the blood only survive about 10 days they can differ in size and function, but their main function is to destroy 
pathogens (e.g. bacteria) that invade your body. some aid in the repair of wounds Platelets: they are only fragments of cells they are colorless and disk-shaped, and do not have nuclei have a lifespan of about four days their function is to aid in blood clotting

  27. BLOOD CLOTTING PROCESS Platelets in bone marrow are released to 
blood cells. They stick to broken vessels, 
then stick to each other. The cells get 
trapped in the fibrin threads, thus building 
up a clot.

  28. Review... 1. What is the most important component of blood? Why? 2. What would happen if a person lacked platelets in 
their blood? Does anyone know what word is used to 
describe this condition?

  29. 2. Explain the functioning of the human circulation system. 2.1 Describe the functions of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver in the circulation system. 2.2 Describe the ABO and Rh typing systems for human blood. 2.3 Consider the role of the blood in the immune system and the effect of the human. 2.4 Research the use of artificial hearts, heart transplants, and circulation machines used during open-heart surgery. 2.5 Discuss respiration by relating the activity to the physical structure like the lungs and blood and the cells fed by the blood.

  30. First, what is immunity?? Any ideas what a definition of immunity would be? How might our blood help our body with immunity? Immunity: the capacity of the human body to resist 
most pathogens that might damage tissues or organs

  31. The Body has Two Types of Immunity... 1. Nonspecific Protection and Inflammatory Process: this type involves intact skin and mucous membranes the layers of skin covering the body and the layers of mucous membranes 
lining the digestive and respiratory tracts provide a protective barrier against 
invasion if the barrier is broken, substances in the circulating blood initiate an 
inflammatory response this means that injured cells release a chemical called histamine this chemical causes nearby capillaries to swell and become "leaky" then, various types of white blood cells pass through the capillary walls 
and gather at the site of the injury

  32. Two New Words... antigens: any foreign substance (e.g. bacteria, virus, 
fungus) that can stimulate the production of antibodies 
and that can combine specifically with them antibodies: a protein molecule produce by the immune 
system that is capable of binding with antigens in order 
to "disable" them and provide immunity

  33. 2. Specific Immune Response: carried out by small, white blood cells called lymphocytes they are specialized so that they recognize foreign substances (antigens) Three types of lymphocytes: a) B cells  - found in the bone marrow  - their function is to produce antibodies to act against   antigens in our body  - memory B cells and antibodies also exist to recognize antigens that 
  have previously infected the body

  34. b) T cells  - found in the thymus gland  - four types of T cells  i) killer T cells: attack infected cells  ii) helper T cells: help B cells make antibodies  iii) memory T cells: help remember antigens that have previously    infect the body   iv) suppressor T cells: used to release a chemical when an infection   is over so that B and T cells stop being produced c) Macrophage  - it engulfs pathogens, via phagocytosis, and disassembles them

  35. How do all 3 of these cells work together in an "attack?" 1. Identification of the Antigen = helper T cells (building the army):  - have special receptors that can detect when a B cell has started 
  producing antibodies  - this leads to a chemical being released that causes production of 
  more macrophages, killer and suppressor T cells being produced 2. Attack from the B cells and macrophage:  - antibodies of B cells attach to antigens (using the lock and key   method)  - after attachment, the antibodies begin to multiply, and make   clusters of antibodies and antigens  - macrophage can then engulf and destroy cluster of antigens 3. Attack from killer T cells:  - infected body cells displays an antigen that the killer T cell 
  recognizes  - bores holes into the infected cell membrane (cell bursts)

  36. 4. Suppressor T cells  - after an attack is over, suppressor T cells release chemical to shut off 
  B and T cell production 5. Memory B and T cells  - memory B and T cells are formed during the battle that contain a 
  specific antibody that is then stored in the spleen, if body is exposed
  a second time to the same antigen, memory B cells release many 
  antibodies so that the pathogen is killed before symptoms occur

  37. Flow chart of a Specific Immune Response... 1. Detection and production 2. Attack from B cells 3. Attack from T cells 4. Suppressor T cells 5. Memory B and T cells

  38. Review... 1. What are the three types of lymphocytes and what 
are their main function? 2. What is the main connection between blood and 
our immune system?

  39. 2. Explain the functioning of the human circulation system. 2.1 Describe the functions of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver in the circulation system. 2.2 Describe the ABO and Rh typing systems for human blood. 2.3 Consider the role of the blood in the immune system and the effect of the human. 2.4 Research the use of artificial hearts, heart transplants, and circulation machines used during open-heart surgery. 2.5 Discuss respiration by relating the activity to the physical structure like the lungs and blood and the cells fed by the blood.

  40. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhE Problems with the Immune Response: 1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): - HIV primarily infects the T cells of the immune system.  - the virus attaches itself to a host, T cell  - inside the host cell, the viral RNA is copied and becomes a part of a cell's DNA  - each infected cell then becomes a factory for the production of HIV  - when the host cell ruptures, hundreds of viruses are released  - reproduction of HIV in T cells leads to a gradual decline in the   number of T cells, weakened function of the immune system, and   increased susceptibility to infections and cancers. 2. Organ transplant rejections: - rejection occurs by T cells  - these cells identify the planted organs as foreign and invade the tissue    - to prevent this from happening, drugs are used to suppress the immune system, but   this leaves the patient vulnerable to other infections

  41. ABO Blood Typing and its Effect on the Immune 
System some of the blood group systems can cause problem under certain 
circumstances the blood types that arise from the ABO blood group are not always 
compatible this incompatibility comes about because antibodies in the plasma of one 
blood type (type A) react with antigens on the red blood cells of another 
blood type (type B) this reactions causes clumping therefore, transfusing blood of one type into blood of another type can be 
fatal

  42. ABO blood groups and Rh antigens Rh antigens: In some humans, there are what are called Rh antigens found on the 
surface of red blood cells. An Rh positive individual HAS these Rh antigens on their red blood cells, 
and an Rh negative person DOES NOT. Usually, antibodies to these Rh antigens are not present in the blood 
plasma. However, antibodies will develop if Rh positive blood is transfused 
in an Rh negative individual or if an Rh negative woman delivers an Rh 
positive baby. When either of the conditions mentioned above occurs, antibodies to 
these Rh antigens develop, and the result is that red blood cells are 
destroyed In the case of the Rh negative woman, there is no danger in the first 
pregnancy, but in the 2nd pregnancy, some of the Rh antibodies could 
transfer into the fetal blood and cause the red blood cells to be destroyed.

  43. In-Class Assignment... - Once you have finished answering the questions on your sheet, please 
read pages 171-? and find out what problems occur in a person's immune 
system in order to develop allergies or autoimmune disorders. - Please write a 3-4 sentence paragraph explaining each problem

  44. Review... 1. What are two potential problems people could 
have with their immune systems?

  45. 2. Explain the functioning of the human circulation system. 2.1 Describe the functions of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver in the circulation system. 2.2 Describe the ABO and Rh typing systems for human blood. 2.3 Consider the role of the blood in the immune system and the effect of the human. 2.4 Research the use of artificial hearts, heart transplants, and circulation machines used during open-heart surgery. 2.5 Discuss respiration by relating the activity to the physical structure like the lungs and blood and the cells fed by the blood.

  46. Respiratory System Definition: responsible for exchange of O2 and CO2 in the human body Respiration is divided into 2 steps: 1. Breathing:  - external respiration  - the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the body (?) 2. Respiration:  - internal respiration  - the exchange of gases between the blood and the body's cells   themselves The PHARYNX (throat) collects incoming air from the nose and mouth 
and passes it downward to the trachea (windpipe).

  47. Parts of the Respiratory System: a) Nose and Nasal Passages: The NOSE is the preferred entrance for outside air into the respiratory 
system. The hairs that line the wall are part of the air-cleaning system, they helps to screen out dirt and foreign particles. Nose also moistens and 
warms the air. Air also enters through the MOUTH.

  48. Parts of the Respiratory System b) The TRACHEA (windpipe) is the nasal passage leading to the lungs via 
the pharynx and larynx. Lined with cilia and mucus to remove dirt and 
foreign particles. The EPIGLOTTIS is a flap of tissue that guards the entrance to the 
trachea, closing when anything is swallowed that should go into the 
esophagus and stomach.

  49. c) Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli The trachea divides into two branches called BRONCHI, which 
extend into each lung. Each bronchus subdivides into many smaller tubes called 
BRONCHIOLES which end in cluster of air sacks called ALVEOLI. Alveoli exchange gases between the air and the blood. Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries and is only 1 cell thick to 
promote diffusion. While in the capillaries, the blood gives off carbon 
dioxide through the capillary wall into the alveoli and takes up oxygen 
from the air in the alveoli. Alveoli make of most of the sponge-like lung tissue.