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Information Systems Analysis and Design. Myriam Lewkowicz. Outline. Information Systems: the big picture Information Systems for competitive advantage Organizational Information Systems Entreprise-Wide Information Systems Information Systems Development & Acquisition

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Information Systems Analysis and Design


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    1. Information SystemsAnalysis and Design Myriam Lewkowicz

    2. Outline • Information Systems: the big picture • Information Systems for competitive advantage • Organizational Information Systems • Entreprise-Wide Information Systems • Information Systems Development & Acquisition • Managing the Information Systems Project • Systems Planning • Determining System Requirements • Structuring System Requirements: Process Modeling • Structuring System Requirements: Conceptual Data Modeling • Object Oriented Analysis and Design • Designing the Human Interface • Systems Implementation and Operation myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    3. Chapter 1Information Systems:The Big Picture

    4. Chapter 1 Objectives • Understand the term information systems (IS) • Understand IS components: • Technology, people, organizations • Understand IS career opportunities • Understand types of information systems • Understand IS and organizational success or failure • Understand the future of IS management myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    5. Information Systems Defined Combinations of hardware, software, and telecommunications networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute useful data in organizations myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    6. Key Elements of Information Systems myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    7. Data • Data: raw material, unformatted information • Information: processed data (meaningful) • Knowledge: understanding relationships between pieces of information • Wisdom: knowledge accumulated and applied myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    8. Knowledge as a Business Resource • Knowledge Worker • A well-educated professional who creates, modifies, or synthesizes knowledge in one’s profession • Knowledge Society • Also called digital society, new economy • Working with brains instead of hands • The importance of education • Digital divide myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    9. Technology and Information Systems • Computer-Based Information Systems • One type of technology • Technology – any mechanical and/or electrical means to supplement, extend, or replace human activity • Information Technology (IT) – machine technology controlled by or using information • The goal of IS is to provide useful data to users • IS can be local or global, organizational or enterprise-wide myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    10. CIO IS director Account Executive Info Center Manager Development Manager Project Manager Maintenance Manager Systems Manager IS planning Manager Operations Manager Programming Manager Systems Programming Manager Manager of Emerging Technologies Telecommunications Manager Network Manager Database Administrator Auditing or Computer Security Manager Quality Assurance Manager Webmaster IS Managerial Personnel myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    11. Integrating Skills and Knowledge • Technology • hardware, software, networking • Business • business, management, social, communications • Systems • Integration, development methods, critical thinking, problem solving myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    12. Hot Skills in IS Workers • Office / E-mail • Languages • Applications • RDBS Administration • Development Tools • Internetworking • Operating Systems • LAN Administration • Networking myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    13. IS Within the Firm • Traditionally a love/hate relationship • “Techies” vs. mere “users” (us vs. them) • Poor service, lousy attitudes • Now: progress toward better customer service • Better relationships within the company • Cooperation, not rivalry myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    14. The Spread of Technology in Organizations • Technology infiltrates business units • Dual role for IS workers: • Work with IS technical group • Work with business unit (marketing, finance, etc.) myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    15. The Spread of Technology in Organizations • Benefits of centralized IS function • Coordinated planning • Consistent management • Systems compatibility and connectivity myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    16. Questions • Define and understand the term information systems (IS) • Explain the technology, people, and organizational components of an information system. myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    17. Chapter 2Information Systems for Competitive Advantage

    18. Chapter 2 Objectives • Understand the IS in automation, organizational learning, and strategic support • Understand IS for strategic organizational success • Understand the need for making an IS business case • Understand technological innovations to improve competitive advantage myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    19. Why Use Information Systems? • Automating: doing things faster • Organizational learning: doing things better • Supporting Strategy: doing things smarter myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    20. Automating: Doing Things Faster • Technology is used to automate a manual process • Doing things faster, better, cheaper • Greater accuracy and consistency • Loan application example • Manual processing • Technology-supported process • Completely automated myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    21. Organizational Learning: Doing Things Better • Going beyond automation • Involves learning to improve the day-to-day activities within the process • Looking at patterns and trends • Organizational Learning • Using acquired knowledge and insights to improve organizational behavior • Total Quality Management (TQM) • Monitoring an organization to improve quality of operations, products, and services myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    22. Supporting Strategy: Doing Things Smarter • Strategic Planning • Create a vision: setting the direction • Create a standard: performance targets • Create a strategy: reaching the goal myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    23. Question Now, it should be fairly obvious why an IS professional should be able to make a business case for a given system. Why, however, is it just as important for non-IS professionals? How are they involved in this process? What is their role in information systems planning? myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    24. Chapter 3OrganizationalInformation Systems

    25. Chapter Objectives • Understand characteristics of operational, managerial, and executive information systems • Understand characteristics of transaction processing systems, management information systems, and executive information systems • Understand characteristics of information systems that span organizational boundaries myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    26. Decision-Making Levels of an Organization myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    27. Executive level (top) Long-term decisions Unstructured decisions Managerial level (middle) Decisions covering weeks and months Semistructured decisions Operational level (bottom) Day-to-day decisions Structured decisions Decision-Making Levels of an Organization myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    28. General Types of Information Systems • Transaction Processing Systems (TPSs) • Transactions • Used at Operational level of the organization • Goal: to automate repetitive information processing activities • Increase speed • Increase accuracy • Greater efficiency myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    29. General Types of Information Systems • Data input • Manual data entry • Semiautomated data entry • Fully automated data entry • Examples: • Payroll • Sales and ordering • Inventory • Purchasing, receiving, shipping • Accounts payable and receivable myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    30. General Types of Information Systems • Management Information Systems (MISs) • Two Types: • Management of IS in organizations • Specific information systems for mid-level managers • Used at managerial level of the organization myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    31. General Types of Information Systems • Management Information Systems • Types of reports: • Scheduled report • Key-indicator report • Exception report • Drill-down report • Ad hoc report myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    32. General Types of Information Systems • Management Information Systems (MISs) • Examples: • Sales forecasting • Financial management and forecasting • Manufacturing planning and scheduling • Inventory management and planning • Advertising and product pricing myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    33. General Types of Information Systems • Executive Information Systems (EISs) • Used at executive level of the organization • Highly aggregated form • Data types • Soft data – news and nonanalytical data • Hard data – facts and numbers myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    34. General Types of Information Systems • Executive Information Systems (EISs) • Examples: • Executive-level decision making • Long-range and strategic planning • Monitoring internal and external events • Crisis management • Staffing and labor relations myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    35. 1.35 myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    36. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    37. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Decision Support Systems (DSSs) • Designed to support organizational decision making • “What-if” analysis • Example of a DSS tool: Microsoft Excel • Text and graphs • Models for each of the functional areas • Accounting, finance, personnel, etc. myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    38. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Expert Systems (ESs) • Mimics human expertise by manipulating knowledge • Rules (If-then) • Inferencing myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    39. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Office Automation Systems (OASs) • Examples: • Communicating and scheduling • Document preparation • Analyzing data • Consolidating information myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    40. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Collaboration Technologies • Virtual teams • Videoconferencing • Groupware • Electronic Meeting Systems (EMSs) myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    41. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Functional Area Information Systems • Geared toward specific areas in the company: • Human Resources • Benefits • Marketing myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    42. myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    43. Information Systems that Span Organizational Boundaries • Global Information Systems • International IS • Transnational IS • Multinational IS • Global IS myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    44. Chapter 4Enterprise-WideInformation Systems

    45. Chapter Objectives • Understand how information technology supports business activities • Understand enterprise systems and how they evolved • Understand software applications that are internally or externally focused • Understand how to implement enterprise systems myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    46. Enterprise Systems • Enterprise systems • Also known as enterprise-wide information systems • Information systems that allow companies to integrate information across operations on a company-wide basis myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    47. Before an entreprise system myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    48. With an entreprise sytem myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    49. Types of Enterprise Systems • Packaged applications • Custom applications • Stand-alone applications myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr

    50. Types of Enterprise Systems • Enterprise Resource Planning • Integrated applications • ERP systems • Baan • Oracle • PeopleSoft • SAP myriam.lewkowicz@utt.fr