Life in Colonial England • Most New Englanders were: • shipbuilders • Fisherman • Produced lumber • Sailing and by the sea • They used ships called schooners were used to catch cod • They also were known for whaling • They used the whales for oil • Boston was the largest city in the New England colonies. • Schools were required and most children attended school
Life in the Middle Colonies • People lived on large farms far apart from each other. • Families home schooled their children. • The farms produced grains such as corn and wheat. • They were known as the “Breadbasket of America”. • Beaver fur was common for trade.
Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
Land Characteristics • Climate-hot summer/mild winters-temperate climate good for growing season • Fertile soil • Flat lands in the coastal plain were good for farming • Known for plantations
Natural Resources • Cotton • Rice • Indigo • Sugar • Tobacco • Fertile soil • Shrimping near the coast
So this is the story of how the Southern colonies came to be, but first we need a little background information.
Puritans stopped coming to New England between 1649 and 1660, the years during which Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector of England. He allowed Puritans the freedom to practice their religion, as well as representation in the government. Since this was available to them in England, they stopped coming to New England
Reasons for forming ColoniesAfter the English Civil War, the reign of Charles II was called the Restoration because it restored the English monarchy. • Charles II repaid political favors by establishing proprietary colonies, or colonies owned by one person, who usually received the land as a gift from the king • Simply-rich people got colony land as a gift.
Maryland was granted to Cecil Calvert (aka Lord Baltimore 2nd). • Calvert declared Maryland a place of religious tolerance for all Christians, and it became the first major Catholic enclave in the New World. This colony was meant to be a safe place to be a Catholic
Colonization of Maryland What do you notice stopped movement westward?
Reasons for settling the Carolinas • As a reward for helping him gain the throne, Charles II granted a huge tract of land between VIRGINIA and Spanish Florida to 8 nobles in 1663
ECONOMY OF South Carolina • Settled by the descendants of Englishmen who had colonized Barbados. Barbados's primary export was sugar, and its plantations were worked by slaves. • Initially, the economy was based on trading furs and providing food for the West Indies. • By the middle of the 18th century, large rice-growing plantations worked by African slaves created an economy and culture that resembled the West Indies
Charleston • Charles town(named for the King) became Charleston. • Major city for trading and exporting thousands of pounds of rice, tobacco, indigo, and cotton. • This is Charleston today
Why Georgia Started • James Oglethorpe wanted debtors to have a new start in life instead of going to prison. • King George gave Oglethorpe a charter. • The actual colonists were NOT debtors • By 1770 nearly half of the population was made of enslaved Africans as Georgia copied the plantations of the Carolinas • Click to next slide to fill out your chart.
Reasons for Georgia • BUFFER COLONY • Rid England’s overcrowded jails of debtors(never happened)
Southern colonies ecoomy • were best known for the most plantations and farmland. • They grew crops of indigo, sugar, cotton. Virginia was very profitable with tobacco. • In fact, agriculture became the most common way for colonists to earn a living-which is called an agricultural economy. Because of this great amount of farming, the Southern colonies depended on slave labor.
Economy/Trade • The farms produced large plantations of rice, cotton, indigo,and tobacco. Why???
Roles • Indentured servants • Slaves • Plantation owners • Backcountry farmers • Women • Children learned a skill or trade as few schools existed.
What is an indentured servant? • A person agreed to work for a time period, usually 3-10 years in exchange for transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities • Usually the father made the arrangements and signed the paperwork. • They included men and women; most were under the age of 21, and most became helpers on farms or house servants
Life as a Slave • Slaves were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders, then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery. • They were owned as property for life with no rights at all. • Children of slaves were born into slavery. • Overseer-he watched over and controlled the slaves. • Slaves survived by being loyal to each other and looking to God. • Spirituals are African American folk songs that slaves would sing to keep their spirits and hopes up.
Plantation owners • Large landownerslived mostly in the South. They relied on indentured servants or slaves for labor. Some were educated.
Backcountry farmers • Most southerners did not own slaves. • Many were simply backcountry farmers • More were simple farmers than plantation owners.
Women • worked as caretakers, houseworkers, and homemakers • could not vote and had few chances for education. • The wives of wealthy men, such as plantation owners, often would have servants to prepare food and do other jobs around the house. • Wives would be expected to keep up the family's place in society by throwing parties and socializing with other wealthy families • There were no established schools. Children were taught a skill and craft.
Let’s review • How is schooling different in the colonies? • Were slaves popular in all the colonies? • How did the trade differ in the colonies? • How did the resources affect the economy? The American colonists had a free market economy. This free enterprise allowed A. the government to determine what people would produce B. people to make money whatever way they wished C. limits placed on the amount of goods exported to Europe D. business profits to drop and weakened the economy