The Thirteen Colonies Rebel Revolutionary War Notes #1 --write what is in blue--
Q: How does our society help its citizens overcome situations that are unfair?1) Talk with your partner for two minutes and work out some solutions.2) With one person talking at a time, share those ideas with the class. (4 minutes)
Revolution: A sudden or momentous change in a situation. It can be political, cultural, economic, or scientific.
Question: Why were Americans willing to rebel against their own king and country?
The Americans • 1. Had not been taxed • 2. Had been allowed to govern themselves • 3. Had created a world in which hard work made the person…people could be equal
The British • 1. Believed the colonists were like children • 2. Believed it had the right to tax it • 3. Believed the taxes were to help pay for American expenses • 4. Acted with a superior attitude • 5. British Parliament and King became angry when Americans questioned their authority
Reason #2French & Indian War • 1756-1763 • Global war between France & England. • England wins vast amounts of land. • England is overextended and broke. • Indians attacking forts in Great Lakes area. • England responds with Proclamation of 1763 and tax laws.
Reason #3Proclamation Act of 1763, “cracking down” on smuggling by enforcing the Navigation Acts, and the Sugar Act of 1764
French & Indian War left England broke and with Indian troubles. • Proclamation of 1763 was law that said that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Owning land meant everything to a colonist. Those without land had no position in society. They could not even vote. Colonists ignored it. To enforce it, King George III left 10,000 soldiers in colonies and passed the Quartering Act in 1765. The leader was Thomas Gage. • British warships began enforcing Navigation Acts. Navigation Acts said everything imported or exported from colonies must go to England and be on English ships.
Navigation Acts As early as 1660, Britain controlled trade in three ways. 1) Colonial trade goods (exports & imports) all had to be carried on English ships. 2) Some Colonial products like tobacco, sugar, furs, and forest products could only be sold in England. 3) Any imports coming into Colonies had to pass through England.
Reason #4Stamp Act of 1765 • First attempt to tax colonists directly. • Stamp Act required people to go to a stamp-tax office to buy stamped paper. The tax had to be paid in silver coin (a rare item in colonies). And anyone disobeying law was to be tried in courts in which there was no trial by jury.If Parliament could pass a law like this without colonists consent, why not take lands and everything produced.
Protesting the Stamp Act • “No taxation without representation” became the rallying cry in riots. • Nine colonies sent delegates to a Congress in New York City to draw up a petition against the Stamp Act. • Colonists boycotted British goods. • Some formed secret societies like the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty. • They staged protests …not all were peaceful. • In 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766. It passed the Declaratory Act that said England did have authority over the colonies.
Reason #5The Townshend Acts 1767 • Britain didn’t want trouble with colonies, but still badly needed money. • Townshend said he could tax without offense. • These Acts suspended assemblies. • Colonists MUST house troops. • Taxes were placed on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. Taxes must be paid in gold & silver. • Writs of Assistance allowed officers to search any building for any reason. • Colonists wondered “Were their liberties at risk?” Once again protests, riots, challenges, petitions, boycotts, tempers were high.
Reason # 6The Boston Massacre • March 4, 1770 • A clash between British troops and a group of Bostonians in which five colonists were killed.
Results: • Soldiers are put on trial, defended by John Adams, and found innocent. • Britain repeals the taxes, except on tea. • Colonists cool off, but form Committees of Correspondence to keep communication. • Propaganda • No problems for about 2 years.
Old State House
Reason #7The Gaspee Incident 1. HMSGaspee (June 9-10, 1772) commanded by Lt. William Dudingston. The Gaspee was a British Royal Navy ship assigned to customs duty. Dudingston had been sent to enforce the Stamp Act & stop smuggling. Captain Lindsey deliberately sailed the Hannah to unsafe waters to run the Gaspee aground. On June 9, 1772, the Gaspee was chasing a merchant ship believed to be smuggling goods. The Gaspee ran aground in Narragansett Bay, near Providence. The next night, a group of men boarded the Gaspee and set the ship on fire.