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Thirteen English Colonies

Thirteen English Colonies

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Thirteen English Colonies

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  1. Thirteen English Colonies

  2. Essential Topics/Questions • What factors shaped each of the four colonial areas – economically, socially, politically culturally? • Compare and contrast the Chesapeake and New England colonies. • How do precedents from the colonial period impact or shape the development of American society? • What are the ideas of liberty that emerge? What are rights of Englishmen?

  3. Analysis • S – social and cultural • P – political • R – religious • I –intellectual • T- technological • E – economic • D - diplomatic

  4. Chesapeake Colonies Virginia Maryland

  5. TheLondonCompany,1606

  6. Jamestown Settlement 1609

  7. Jamestown Fort & Settlement(Computer Generated)

  8. Jamestown Housing

  9. Powhatan: Choices

  10. Powhatan Confederacy

  11. John Smith • Martial Law • Work

  12. Colonial Salvation: Tobacco

  13. Early Colonial Tobacco • 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.

  14. Unfree Labor: Indentured Servitude • Headright System

  15. Opportunity • Headright System: • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid • Indenture Contract: • 5-7 years. • Promised “freedom dues” [land, $] • Forbidden to marry. • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!

  16. High Mortality Rates • POPULATION: • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80% • After 1680 -1690 more stablity, declining death rates

  17. Widowarchy High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth Choice in marriage Control over property

  18. 1619 Precedents • House of Burgesses • First Slave Ship • Women

  19. Opechancanough’s Uprising 1622 • One fifth of Virginia’s population killed • Virginia Company bankrupt –colony royalized

  20. English Migration: 1610-1660

  21. River Settlements Large plantations – 100 acres Spread out – more than 5 miles Economic and Social problems Settlement Patterns:1620-1660

  22. 17c Populationin the Chesapeake

  23. Population of Chesapeake Colonies: 1610-1750

  24. Conditions of Unrest • Falling tobacco prices • Shrinking opportunity • Decreased political opportunity • Increased service • Frontier tensions • Civil unrest, mutinies • Tobacco Prices

  25. Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Nathaniel Bacon GovernorWilliam Berkeley

  26. Causes of Bacon’s Rebellion • Internal power struggles • Who has access to land and wealth – opportunity • Diminished opportunity for freed landless – indentured servants • Limited political participation • Defense against Indians • Differing priorities backcountry (frontier) and tidewater

  27. Significance • Class differences minimized by emphasis on race – but wide class differences remain • Resistance to royal authority • Continued tidewater v frontier disputes • Opened some political participation for small farmers • “All that saved white society from renewed crisis and conflict was the growth of black slavery.”

  28. Colonization of Maryland

  29. Act Concerning Religion - 1649 • Freedom of Worship for all Christians • Why – Roman Catholic concerns – they will become a minority & limited • Precedent

  30. Coode’s Rebellion 1689 • part of the readjustment following the Glorious Revolution. • Power struggle with in the gentry over Protestant/Catholic control of the government

  31. Slavery in the New World • Children born into slavery and remained • Lifetime • Tied to race • Tied to agricultural labor • No legal protections

  32. Images from Slave Trade

  33. Factors that caused the shift to slavery for “unfree” labor • Decreased number of indentured servants • Increased supply of slaves – decreased price • Decreasing mortality rates – better profitability and investment • chronic shortage of labor and capital meant “unfree” labor – now filled by slavery

  34. Evolutionof Slavery • Slavery = initially fluid – becomes codified – by 1690 to be black = slave • Antonio Johnson • “Seasoning”

  35. The Middle Passage

  36. Impact • Racism was used to create solidarity among whites. • Racism reinforced the position of the Planter Elite • Pattern – benefits of slavery accrue to a few – socioeconomic inequality persisted • Gentry emerges • Slavery emerges as social and legal institution and brings stability

  37. The Restoration Colonies: Carolinas and Georgia • Utopian ideas • SC – ties with Barbados – strong plantation/staple crop base (sugar and slavery) West Indies impact; SC – rice and slavery • NC – Ablemarle – Scot-Irish from Va. – poor economy • 1701 –divided • Georgia as a place for the “deserving poor.” Diverse population.

  38. Restoration Colonies

  39. Settlement

  40. Charleston Port City

  41. Staple Crops of South Carolina • Indigo • Rice

  42. Rice & Indigo Exportsfrom SC & GA: 1698-1775

  43. Early Instability in Carolinas • 1715 - Yamasee War- Cherokee save- destructive Indian slave trade • royalization 1730 • Dense slave population greater sense of “fear” and stricter codes • Richer and more divided than the Chesapeake

  44. Davidson’s assessment • “And everywhere in the American South and the Southwest, white people’s lingering dreams were realized only through the labor of the least free members of colonial society.” • Indians in SW – Spanish • African Americans in S - English

  45. New England Colonies Plymouth – Pilgrims 1620 Massachusetts Bay –Puritans – 1630 Connecticut Rhode Island New Hampshire Vermont Maine (part of M Bay)