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Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1800. Political (Colonial Era –1763). European Renaissance The Reformation Quest for Empire Spanish French British Dutch Chesapeake Colonies Great PuritanMigration. Political (Colonial Era –1763). Colonial governments How democratic? How innovative?

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political colonial era 1763
Political (Colonial Era –1763)
  • European Renaissance
  • The Reformation
  • Quest for Empire
    • Spanish
    • French
    • British
    • Dutch
  • Chesapeake Colonies
  • Great PuritanMigration
political colonial era 17633
Political (Colonial Era –1763)
  • Colonial governments
    • How democratic?
    • How innovative?
    • Founding documents?
  • New England Confederation (1643-1654)
  • English Civil War
  • Proprietary and Restoration Colonies
  • Salutary Neglect
  • Trend towards centralization of Empire
    • Dominion of New England
    • Obstacles in America
    • Glorious Revolution in America
  • Georgia – buffer colony
economic colonial era 1763
Economic (Colonial Era –1763)
  • Mercantilism
    • Expectations
    • Impact
    • Navigation Acts
  • Tobacco Culture of Chesapeake
    • Headright system
    • Indentured servitude/slavery
  • Economic diversity of New England
  • Cereal grain and livestock in Middle Colonies
social cultural colonial era 1763
Social/Cultural (Colonial Era –1763)
  • Regional distinctions and similarities
    • Environment = economy and health (geographic determinism)
    • Religious backgrounds (cultural transference)
    • Democratic/deferential
  • Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
  • Religious declension – Halfway Covenant (1662)
  • Ethnic diversity
  • Enlightenment
  • Great Awakening
military diplomatic colonial era 1763
Military/Diplomatic (Colonial Era –1763)
  • Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Imperial Wars/North American Wars
    • King William’s War (1689-1697)
    • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)
    • King George’s War (1739-1748)
  • Indian Wars
    • Powhatan Massacre (1622) (347, 1/3rd die) (1644)
    • Pequot War (1637)
    • King Philip’s War (1675-1676) (1 in 20 die)
  • French and Indian War/Albany Plan of Union
puritanism
Puritanism
  • John Calvin/Calvinism as inspiration
    • Doctrines
  • Reasons for Migration
  • Goals of Puritans
  • Great Migration
  • Values
  • Demise
  • Great Awakening
    • Revivalism/Itinerant Ministry
    • Impact
  • Successful?
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Foundations in Scientific Revolution
  • Descartes and Reason
  • Intellectual underpinnings
    • Intellectual freedom
    • Locke and the “tabula rasa”
    • Natural law
    • Deism
  • Impact on America
objective analysis of colonial relationship to england
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
  • Prior to 1763
    • Desire to centralize Empire
      • Governors
      • Proprietary Colonies
      • Trend to Royal Status by 1770s
      • Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
      • Board of Trade and Plantations (Privy Council)
      • Mercantilism
    • Failure to centralize (Salutary Neglect)
      • Distance
      • Global Nature
      • Problems at home and abroad (Wars for Empire/English Civil War/Glorious Revolution)
      • Frontier/rural conditions and foreign immigrants in America
objective analysis of colonial relationship to england10
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England

II. By 1750

  • Colonists maturing politically, economically, and socially/culturally
    • Representative assemblies
    • 2 million people
    • Identity/unity?
  • Overall, Colonists still happy with English Empire
    • Some resentment toward second class citizenship
    • Some resentment of debt to British bankers
objective analysis of colonial relationship to england11
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
  • French and Indian War increases tensions
    • British concerns
    • American concerns
    • 1763
  • British expect to enforce mercantilism
  • British expect to centralize empire
  • British expect to raise revenue in America
  • Americans resist British expectations
    • Reasons
    • Methods
    • Colonial Unity
objective analysis of colonial relationship to england12
Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England
  • British Reaction
    • Parliamentary supremacy
    • Repeal of Stamp Act
    • Repeal of Townshend Acts (except Tea)
    • Punishment of Massachusetts
  • Rebellion is consequence of failure on part of colonists to obtain desired reform and on Britain’s failure to accept federalism and reality
  • Lexington and Concord
  • Second Continental Congress and Declaration of Independence
colonial expansion
Colonial Expansion
  • Positives
    • West represents adventure, opportunity and freedom
    • Land is abundant – land=liberty/social mobility
    • Religious dissenters find tolerance and absence of church authority
    • Hard work (individualism and self reliance key to success)
    • Result: America is more tolerant, democratic, and mobile
colonial expansion14
Colonial Expansion
  • Negatives
    • Poor transportation and communication
    • Life is hard, conditions are primitive
    • Indian menace
    • French hostilities
    • Speculators
    • East/West tension over representation, land policy, taxes, protection (Bacon, Leisler, Regulators, Paxton Boys)
    • Result: unity is difficult
colonial expansion15
Colonial Expansion
  • British close frontier in 1763
    • Treaty of Paris
    • British motive
    • American reaction
  • During Revolution
    • Western tribes fight with Britain
    • Treaty of 1783 fixes border at Mississippi
  • Confederation Era
    • Western land policy major accomplishment of Articles
      • Land Ordinance of 1785
      • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
colonial expansion16
Colonial Expansion
    • Western states begin empowering more white males
    • Shays’s Rebellion shows East/West tensions not solved
  • Government under Articles cannot:
    • Force British out of forts (encourage Indian hostilities)
    • Get spain to sign treaty allowing access to Mississippi River or right of deposit at New Orleans
  • New Constitution creates more powerful federal government
    • Pinckney Treaty, 1795
    • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
democracy in america 1750 1776
Democracy in America 1750-1776
  • How democratic were the colonies?
  • Democratic
    • Distance from England allows for autonomy and local control
    • New England town hall meetings
    • Colonial assemblies
    • American environment allowed for more mobility and democracy
    • Americans more tolerant
    • Impact of Great Awakening
    • Impact of the Enlightenment
    • American Revolution
democracy in america 1750 177618
Democracy in America 1750-1776
  • How democratic were the colonies?
  • Not very democratic
    • Patriarchy
    • Slavery
    • Poor are disfranchised
    • Deference, especially in South
    • South less democratic (ex. North Carolina)
political 1763 1800
Political (1763-1800)
  • Political expectations of mother country/British system of government
  • Political motives for Revolution
    • Writs/privacy
    • Admiralty courts/jury
    • Denial of right to tax without representation
      • Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Tea
    • Republicanism/self government
political 1763 180021
Political (1763-1800)
  • Methods of American Resistance
    • Written letters, pamphlets, editorials, resolutions
    • Threats, intimidation, violence
    • Organizations
      • Sons/Daughters of Liberty; Stamp Act Congress;Continental Association; Committees of Correspondence; First and Second Continental Congresses
    • Boycott
  • Galloway plan/Olive Branch Petition
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Creation of state/federal governments
    • Process; similarities; radical/conservative victories
political 1763 180022
Political (1763-1800)
  • Government policy favors westward expansion
  • Shays’s Rebellion=sign
  • Federalist Era
    • Establishment of new government/precedents; Bill of Rights; Rise of Political parties; Whiskey Rebellion; Alien and Sedition Acts; Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
  • Rise of the two-party system (because domestic and foreign policy issues)
  • Judiciary Act 1789
  • Washington’s Farewell Address
  • Demise of the Federalists
  • Revolution of 1800
economic 1763 1800
Economic (1763-1800)
  • Economic motives of mother country
  • Economic motives for Revolution
  • Economic problems during Confederation Era
    • Shays’s Rebellion; debt; interstate rivalries
  • Class/economic/geographic divisions between federalists and anti-federalists
  • Economic Interpretation of the Constitution – Beard
  • Hamilton’s Program – Four main parts/opposition response
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Cotton Gin
social cultural 1763 1800
Social/Cultural (1763-1800)
  • How revolutionary was the Revolution?
    • Blacks; women; common men
  • How united/how American?
  • Literature during period
  • Deism
  • Meritocracy/natural aristocracy
the constitution of 1787
The Constitution of 1787
  • Reasons for:
    • No enforcement
    • Weak congress and military
    • Inability to amend
    • Debt/state rivalry
  • Who went to Philadelphia
    • Conservatives; nationalists; American leaders; wealthy/elite
  • The Debate:
    • Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan = Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise/Roger Sherman
the constitution of 178726
The Constitution of 1787
  • The Document
    • Powers delegated
    • Powers denied states
    • Federalism
    • Separation of Powers
    • Checks and Balances
    • Republican government/virtue of people
  • Ratification debates
    • Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
    • The Federalist Papers
    • Bill of Rights
democracy in america 1760s 1800
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
  • Does the Revolutionary Era greatly change America? (How “revolutionary” or “radical”?)
  • Democracy as concern for individual, natural rights and self-government
  • Yes
    • Radical patriots want more democracy at home and home rule
    • State constitutions reflect fear of centralized authority
      • Lower property requirements for voting (ex. Mass)
      • Increased religious freedom
      • Enlarge and empower lower branch of legislature
democracy in america 1760s 180028
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
    • Appoint or elect more humble upper house (no blood ties; natural aristocracy)
    • Weaken executives (or get rid of!)
    • Lower or abolish primogeniture and entail
    • Make titles illegal
    • Expand public education (esp. in NE)
    • Include bills of rights
    • Women vote in New Jersey
    • Northern abolition of slavery; southern manumission
  • Radicals establish weak central government – want local control, distrust distant authority
    • Articles
      • No executive or courts; No tax or regulation of commerce; Weak congress; Weak military; Article II
    • States are empowered
democracy in america 1760s 180029
Democracy in America 1760s-1800
  • No – America not more democratic after 1776
    • Radicals make no legal provisions for women, free blacks, or slaves
    • No alleviation of East/West tension
    • Counterrevolution? of 1787 checks radical revolution of 1776 (Beard)
      • Stronger federal government
      • Check of mob democracy; protect interests of elite
    • But, all desire republican government; virtue/more faith lies within the people
      • Democratic ratification process
      • Bill of Rights
  • “Revolution” of 1800
impact of revolutionary america on minorities 1750 1800
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
  • Women
    • Expanded role on frontier
    • Ratio in South still reflects gender imbalance
    • Legal code favors men everywhere
      • No vote; no property ownership once married
    • Model traditional role in more established areas
    • “Republican Motherhood” (white, middle/upper class)
    • Overall: more choices; more options than English women
    • Remember Abigail Adams; Judith Sargent Murray
impact of revolutionary america on minorities 1750 180031
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
  • Blacks
    • Slavery=ultimate human degradation
    • 750,000 slaves
    • Only blacks/Indians
    • Legal in all colonies before 1776
      • Frowned upon by Quakers
      • Not economic necessity in North, so fewer
    • 1776 tobacco market unstable and egalitarianism raised questions
      • Willing manumission; closing of African Slave Trade (1774 in RI; all by 1786); Northern Abolition
      • No state in south will abolish
      • Few win freedom for fighting in Revolution as promised
impact of revolutionary america on minorities 1750 180032
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
  • Blacks
    • “Slavery” not used in Constitution
    • 3/5’s Compromise
    • 1808 abolition of slave trade
    • Fugitive slave provision
  • Indians
    • Fought in imperial wars and Revolution
    • Capitalized on European rivalries; offered trade and hunting lands
    • Iroquois = British; Algonquin = French
    • Pontiac’s Rebellion
    • Fear of land encroachment causes tribes to fight against Americans in 1776
    • After independence: not citizens; foreign entities; encroachment continues
impact of revolutionary america on minorities 1750 180033
Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800)
  • Non-Anglo immigrants
    • Scots, Scots-Irish, German, French Huguenots
    • Most settle in Middle Colonies or backcountry
    • Many disfranchised
    • Non-Protestant discrimination is high
development of black culture in slavery
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • General factors
    • West African heritage – language, traditions, religion; retain some practices
    • Congo Square in New Orleans – Sunday meetings permitted (in other urban areas too)
    • Autonomy on larger plantations – gather and sustain traditional practices
    • Rebels: Stono (1739) Gabriel Prosser (1800), Nat Turner (1831), Denmark Vessy (1822), Amistad (1839)
    • blending influence with English, French, Spanish language, culture, religion
development of black culture in slavery35
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Family
    • Emphasis on informal family arrangements
    • Community on large plantations; families aided by others, children cared for by all
    • Children raised primarily by mothers (breakup of family)
    • Broken up often keep contact, reunite after Civil War
    • Naming traditions of giving families different names than the imposed by slave owner
development of black culture in slavery36
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Music
    • Instruments brought from Africa (banjo, fiddle, mandolin, gourds, drums; also clapping and free body expressions and dancing
    • Gospels, hymns, and spirituals evolve while working in field and expression of resistance and protest; Creole or pidgin English
    • Picked up practices from white churches and urban settings
    • Blues and jazz evolved out of slave music
development of black culture in slavery37
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Oral Traditions
    • Heavy reliance developed; spread by conjurers and shamans thought to have spiritual or magical powers
    • Prohibitions of teaching literacy
    • Large plantations, slaves able to meet especially in evening – used to disseminate oral traditions and belief in liberation
    • Creole, pidgin English, Gullah dialect distinct language variations
    • Used folk tales and Bible to tech lessons about surviving under oppression
development of black culture in slavery38
Development of Black Culture in Slavery
  • Religion
    • Some brought from Africa and practiced in America
    • Blending traditions (voodoo), with Christianity, especially where slaves attended white churches
    • Free black preachers, rebel leaders, abolitionists formed Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
    • Black churches begun in urban areas
    • Presented Christianity as demanding subservience and obedience, but interpreted as message of liberation
    • Understood Christ as ministering to the poor and oppressed not the rich and oppresive
political 1800 1860
Political (1800-1860)
  • Trend towards increasing democracy
    • Jeffersonian; Jacksonian (symbol of common man/changes electoral politics)
  • Era of Good Feelings
  • Jacksonian/Antebellum Reform
    • Temperance; prison/asylum; education; utopian communities; women; abolition; Transcendentalism
  • Rebirth of two party system
  • Spoils System/nominating conventions/rotation
  • Nullification Crisis – Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Manifest Destiny/Indian Removal/Trail of Tears
  • Increasing nationalism/increasing sectionalism
    • Reasons/examples/impact
economic 1800 1860
Economic (1800-1860)
  • Violations of American shipping
    • Reasons/results
  • American reaction to War of 1812
    • Tariff (1816); Second BUS; rise of manufacturing/decline of commerce
  • Overall prosperous why?
    • Expansion; King Cotton; population growth and urbanization in North; increasing technology (coal, improved transportation – canals, steamboats and rail at end of era, telegraph
  • Lowell, Waltham Mills – “putting out”
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt 1842
economic 1800 186042
Economic (1800-1860)
  • Jackson as anti-monopoly/special interest
  • American System (Clay, Whigs)
  • Tariffs of 1828,1832, 1833, 1846
  • Marshall court to 1835
  • Taney court – pro states rights (Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge)
  • Killing of the BUS
  • California Gold Rush
  • Economic Sectionalism
  • Panics – 1837, 1857
social cultural 1800 1860
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Rise of public schools and private universities; instill American values
  • Literary nationalism and romanticism – Irving, Cooper, Longfellow, “Fireside” poets
  • Transcendentalism
    • Individualism; self-reliance; non-conformity; intuition
    • Know God through nature
    • Active in abolition and other reforms
    • Emerson, Thoreau
    • Intellectual Independence
social cultural 1800 186044
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Second Great Awakening
    • Finney, Channing – Unitarianism
    • Response to rationalism and deism
    • Perfectibility of man
  • Art is romantic too
    • Hudson River School reflects nature, noble savage; nature=awesome
    • Frederic Church, Audubon Society
  • Theater/minstrel shows popular
  • Rise of Mormons (1830, NY)
    • Joseph Smith, Killed in Nauvoo, IL
    • Brigham Young, Mormon Trek, 1847 (perfectibility)
social cultural 1800 186045
Social/Cultural (1800-1860)
  • Nativism
    • Reaction to Irish and German immigration in 1830s-50s
    • Know-Nothings (American Party)
    • Discrimination, especially against Irish
  • Urbanization slowly beginning; poor conditions in cities
civil war
Civil War
  • Reasons for:
    • Expansion led to tension over slavery expansion
    • States rights vs. Nationalism/federalism
    • Abolition movement led to tension over morality of slavery (Positive Good)
    • Economic and cultural divergence of North and South
civil war47
Civil War
  • Key events leading to:
    • Colonial economies, Declaration, Constitutional debates, political/economic and cultural sectionalism
    • Missouri Compromise 1820
    • Nullification Crisis 1832
    • Texas Annexation 1836-45
    • Mexican Cession 1848
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852, Slavery as it is (Weld), The Impending Crisis of the South (Helper)
    • Gadsden Purchase 1853/transcontinental railroad/Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
civil war48
Civil War
  • Key events leading to:
    • Division of Democratic Party and rise of Republican party 1854-60 (sectional parties)
    • Bleeding Kansas/John Brown at Potawatomie Creek/Lecompton Constitution
    • Sumner/Brooks Affair
    • Dred Scott Decision 1857
    • Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
    • John Brown’s Raid 1859
    • Election of Lincoln 1860
    • Secession of South Carolina 1860, six others in early 1861, four others after Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers in late 1861
civil war49
Civil War
  • Key battles:
    • Sumter; border states; Lincoln’s call for troops
    • Manassas
    • Shiloh
    • Antietam
    • Gettysburg
    • Atlanta
    • Wilderness-Appomattox
  • Trent Affair/British and French support
  • Emancipation Proclamation 1863
political 1875 1900
Political (1875-1900)
  • Republican domination (ex. Cleveland)
  • Lack of talent and integrity (Gilded Age, corruption/Grant and Credit Mobilier)
  • Controversial Election 1876/Compromise of 1876/End of Reconstruction
  • Garfield Assassination
  • Pendleton Civil Service Reform 1883
  • Populist Party and platform
    • abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working day of eight hours, Government control of all railroads, telegraphs, and telephones, free silver, federal storehouses for grain, the three “R’s
  • Election of 1896 – Democrats co-opt Populist platform and candidate
economic 1875 1900
Economic (1875-1900)
  • Key is rising technology (see next topic)
  • Laissez-faire, ex. tariff (Republican, pro-business ascendancy)
  • Consolidation of businesses and farms
  • Rise of railroad industry (national economy)
  • Farmer discontent and revolt 1890s
  • Bland-Allison Act (Crime of ’73)
  • Munn v. Illinois 1877/Wabash case 1886
  • Greenback Party 1878
  • Knights of Labor form in 1886/AFL in 1886
  • Standard Oil Trust forms 1882
  • Gold discovered in Alaska 1886
  • Rise of Farmer’s Alliance in 1886
  • Haymarket Riot 1886
  • Interstate Commerce Act/ICC 1887
  • McKinley Tariff 1890/Wilson-Gorman 1894/Dingley Tariff 1897
economic 1875 190053
Economic (1875-1900)
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890, repealed 1893
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890
  • 1895 – U.S. v. E.C. Knight – federal government cannot regulate big business; Prevents government from directly regulating the economy until 1930s
  • Populist Party/Platform of 1892
  • Homestead Steel Strike 1892
  • Panic of 1873, 1893
  • Pullman Strike (and 1,400 others) 1894
  • Coxey’s March 1894
  • Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” speech 1896
industrial revolution 1870s
Industrial Revolution 1870s
  • Reasons For:
  • Early Industrial Revolution of Antebellum Era causes rise of factory system and manufacturing
  • Transportation revolution and Civil War act as catalysts
  • Encouraged by government
    • Republican domination/laissez-faire – favors but no regulation
  • Urbanization and immigration provide abundant and cheap labor
  • Technology (see list)
  • Change in business structures
    • Increased consolidation (horizontal and vertical)/trusts, holding companies
    • Professional management
industrial revolution 1870s55
Industrial Revolution 1870s
  • Results of:
  • Economic growth
    • Economic industrial superpower
    • Increasing prosperity for most Americans, fortunes for some
  • Labor strife/organization
    • Reasons
    • Unions
  • Farmer discontent
    • Reasons for
    • Organization
  • Imperialism
    • Need for new markets and raw materials
    • World role/jingoism
technology 1875 1900
Technology (1875-1900)
  • Typewriter 1875
  • Telephone 1875 (Bell)
  • Phonograph 1878
  • First electric current supplied in New York 1882
  • Dumbbell tenement 1879
  • Incandescent Light bulb 1879
  • Mechanical twine binder 1880
  • Brooklyn Bridge completed 1883
  • Westinghouse power land and transformer 1886
  • Adding machine 1889
  • Electric elevator 1889
  • Color photography 1890
  • Electric trolley 1892
  • Widespread use of earlier innovations; telegraph, railroad (standard gauge, Pullman car, refrigerated car) Deere’s plow; McCormack’s reaper; barbed wire
diplomatic 1875 1900
Diplomatic (1875-1900)
  • Mahan’s Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890
  • Interest in Hawaii (1875-1898 annexed) Pearl Harbor 1887
  • Samoa – Pago Pago
  • Wake and Midway Islands
  • Venezuelan Dispute 1895
  • U.S.S. Maine /de lome letter 1898
  • Spanish American War; Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico 1898
  • Teller Amendment 1898, Platt Amendment 1901
  • Treaty of 1899
  • Emilio Aguinaldo defeated 1901
  • Open Door Notes 1899, 1900
  • Naval buildup begins 1883; continues in 1890s
social cultural 1875 1900
Social/Cultural (1875-1900)
  • National Baseball League 1875
  • Red Cross 1881
  • Farmer’s Alliance/Grange 1886
  • Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement
    • Hull House, tenement house
  • Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893); Oklahoma
  • Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876
  • Salvation Army in US 1879
  • Statue of Liberty 1886; Lazarus’s New Colossus 1903
  • Washington Monument finished
social cultural 1875 190059
Social/Cultural (1875-1900)
  • National Baseball League 1875
  • Red Cross 1881
  • Farmer’s Alliance/Grange 1886
  • Urbanization/Social Gospel Movement
    • Hull House, tenement house
  • Closing of the frontier (Turner, 1893); Oklahoma
  • Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876
  • Salvation Army in US 1879
  • Statue of Liberty 1886; Lazarus’s New Colossus 1903
  • Washington Monument finished 1884
  • WCTU 1873
  • Anti-Saloon League 1895-1895
  • Public Libraries open in New York and Boston 1895
literary 1875 1900
Literary (1875-1900)
  • REALISM
  • Twain – Tom Sawyer 1875, Life on the Mississippi 1876, Huckleberry Finn 1884
  • Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor 1881
  • Henry James – The American, 1877; Portrait of a Lady, 1881; TheBostonians, 1886
  • Henry Adams – Democracy, 1880
  • Edward Bellamy Looking Backward 1888
  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives 1890
  • Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1890
  • F.J.Turner The Significance of the Frontier on American History 1893
  • Stephen Crane The Red Badge of Courage 1895
immigration 1875 1900
Immigration (1875-1900)
  • New Immigrants
    • Southern and Eastern Europe
      • Italy; the Balkans; Russia
      • Catholic, Jewish
      • Cannot easily assimilate
    • The Orient (Angel Island)
      • Work on railroads of West
      • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
      • Gentlemen’s Agreement 1907
  • Ellis Island 1892
women 1875 1925
Women (1875-1925)
  • 1869 – Wyoming is first to allow woman suffrage, Colorado 1893; Utah, Idaho 1896
  • 1869 – AWSA and NWSA begin
    • AWSA=Stone; NWSA=Stanton and Anthony
  • 1890 – NAWSA
    • Literacy drives, conventions, parades, state by state campaign, speeches
  • 1890s – Ida B. Wells campaigns against lynching in South (A Red Record 1895)
  • 1896 – National Association of Colored Women
  • 1900-1917 – Progressives join call for female suffrage to advance their goals
women 1875 192563
Women (1875-1925)
  • 1900s – women (Gilman) attack traditional marriage; call for economic independence
  • 1903 – National Women’s Trade Union formed
  • 1909 – NAACP involves black women
  • 1912 – Alice Paul returns from England calls for ERA
  • 1912 – Paul starts NWP
  • 1915 – Catt becomes president of NAWSA
  • 1919 – Congress passes the 19th Amendment
  • 1920 – 19th Amendment ratified
  • 1920 – NAWSA becomes League of Women Voters
  • 1925 – first birth control information center opens (Sanger)
blacks 1875 1900
Blacks (1875-1900)
  • Reconstruction Governments and gains for free blacks; role in government (Hiram Revels)
  • Crop lien and sharecropping
  • Civil Rights Act 1875
  • Civil Rights Cases 1883
  • Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstruction
  • Tuskegee Opens 1881
  • Segregation declared legal in Mississippi 1888 (de jure Jim Crow)
  • Increase of lynching (1889-1899=187); Wells
  • Atlanta “Compromise” 1895
  • Grandfather clause – Louisiana 1895
  • Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
american indians 1875 1900
American Indians (1875-1900)
  • Sioux Wars
  • Little Big Horn 1876
  • Geronimo Surrenders 1886 (Apache)
  • Dawes Act 1887
  • Indian schools=English language 1887
  • Wounded Knee 1890 (Last Indian War)
protest 1875 1925
Protest 1875-1925
  • Blacks
    • Segregation/lynching/Jim Crow and Plessy
    • Booker T. Washington and DuBois/Garvey/Harlem Renaissance
    • Populists and Progressives not committed
  • Labor and Farmers
    • Organizations
    • Grievances
    • Failure in 1890s followed recovery until after WWI
  • Women
    • Rise of suffragettes (goals and strategies)
    • Obstacles (internal and external)
    • 19th Amendment and impact
  • American Indians
    • Reservation Policy
    • Indian Resistance
    • Dawes Act and assimilation
    • Citizens after World War I (1924)
us intervention in wwi
US Intervention in WWI

Isolationist tradition ends because of:

A.Wilsonian idealism

1.Democracy

2.Moral Diplomacy

3. 14 points include- self determination, freedom on sea, league- world peace

B. Violations of American neutrality

1.British

2.German- loss of American lives

3. Unrestricted Submarine-warfare 1917

C.Allied propaganda

D. US economic interests

1.Loans

2. Supplies

1920 1925 black history
1920-1925Black History
  • Niagra Movement 1906
  • Race riots Texas, Atlanta 1906; Illinois 1908
  • NAACP formed 1909
  • Grandfather Clause adopted in 5 states 1910
  • KKK reorganized in Ga. 1915
  • Assoc. for Negro life+ History –1915
  • Garvey into Universal negro Improvement Assoc. 1916
  • Race riots St. Louis 1917
  • “Red Summer” race riots 1918
  • Nat’l Liberty Cong. Of Colored Americans (asks for anti lynch laws-1918)
  • 70 blacks lynched 1919 – Wilson refuses to sign anti-lynching legislation
  • ½ million blacks join the UNIA1922
  • Rosewood massacre 1923 (central Florida)
  • KKK up to 5 mil. 1925
1900 1925 labor history
1900-1925Labor History
  • United Mine Workers strike 1902
  • National Women trade Union League started 1903
  • Int’l Workers of the world 1905
  • Int’l Ladies Garment Workers Union Strike 1909
  • Fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Co. (NY) 1911
  • Lawrence textile Strike 1912
  • War Labor Policies Board created 1918 (no strike pledge)
  • AFL strikes Steel Industry 1919
  • Boston Police Strike 1919
  • Coal Strike 1919
  • Palmer Raids- IWW 1919
cultural social 1900 1925
Cultural- Social 1900-1925
  • Pan American expo 1901
  • Wright’s Flight- Kitty Hawk NC 1903
  • La. Purchase expo 1904
  • Red Cross chartered 1905
  • 1st “Model T” 1909
  • Titanic sinks 1912
  • Daylight savings time adopted 1918
  • Regular Air Mail began 1918
  • United Artists established (Chaplin Fairbanks Pickford) 1919
  • Red scare began 1919 (Palmer Raids)
  • Harlem Renaissance 1920
  • Scopes Monkey Trial 1925
1900 1925 immigrant history
1900-1925 Immigrant history
  • 1906 Cali. segregates Asian kids in Schools
  • 1906 Japanese Immigration disallowed (gentlemen’s agreement)
  • 1913: Cali. bars Jap. Americans from owning property
  • 1917 Wilson vetoes act requiring literacy test for immigrant voters
  • 1920 Congress over-rides veto on Quota legislation
  • 1921 Emergency Quota Act
  • 1924 National Origins Act
1920s cont
1920s cont.
  • New consumer goods cars, radios, refrigerators, vacuums, *advertising dem. of goods.
  • Blacks: jazz Age Harlem Renaissance , they were the first fired after WW1, and KKK was reborn, Garveys Black Pride- (blacks back to Africa)
  • Red Scare- Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Isolationism : reject role in WW1 league, want to protect America, insist on debt payment (Dawes Plan)
  • Washington naval Conf. – disarm
  • Kellogg Briand- no war
  • Immigration Act- nat’l Origins
  • Commercial Entertainment- sports, Hollywood
1930s cont
1930s cont.
  • Nye Committee/ Neutrality legislation, embargo (1935) cash carry (1937)
  • Appeasement (tow. Agg.)
  • Preparedness: *^$def. 1938*^ def. After Blitz= Nat’l Defense Adv. Comm. *1940 Campaign limits FDR’s ability to help Br. Until Wilkie approves 1.Destroyer Deal 2. Selective Service Act*Lend lease has public support 1/ ’41
  • Atlantic Charter in 8/ ’41 (after Ger. USSR)
  • Pearl Harbor 1941
  • Indian reorg. Act
  • Big band Era:Swing
1940s
1940s
  • Democrats in control in WH
  • WW2 *Supplies *Troops
    • Pearl harbor- Midway- “Island hopping” Hiroshima, Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima
    • N. African Italy
    • D day, 6/6/44
    • Bulge
    • V-E, V-J
1940s cont
1940s cont
  • Conferences: Casa Blanca- uncond., Teheran- China, Yalta, Potsdam
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • Iron Curtain Increased
  • Korean War
  • Berlin Blockade
  • During above 3; 1946, TD, M plan, Containment Policy, NATO increase 1949, arms race increases in 1949
1940s cont76
1940s cont.
  • Support for freedom in Vietnam, Indochina,( Ho Chi Minh= Communist nationalist
  • Fall of Chiang Kai-shek in China to Mao’s red China
  • Israel created (U.N)
  • America accepts global role(short of war)
    • See decrease in League/ App. As mistakes
    • Hear/see Soviet threat
    • Understand need for global econ. Need for raw materials and markets to keep the US economy prosperous.
1950s
1950s
  • Korean War
  • Alger Hiss/Rosenbergs
  • McCarthyism/2nd Red Scare/decline of McCarthy @ Army hearings
  • Eisenhower’s Dynamic Conservatism/Corporate Commonwealth (cooperation between interest groups)/not friendly towards strikes
  • AFL-CIO merge 1955
  • Interstate Highway Act=Flight to suburbs (complacent, conformist, consumerism – tvs and cars)
1950s78
1950s
  • Massive Retaliation and the Domino Theory
  • No rescue at Dienbienphu; support for Diem after Geneva Accords
  • Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Suez Canal Crisis
  • U-2 Spy plane (1960)
  • Sputnik 1957
  • Brown Decision
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott – rise of SCLC
  • Little Rock Crisis – 1957
  • Civil Rights Act 1957
1950s79
1950s
  • Beat Generation – Kerouac and Ginsberg
  • Elvis
1960s
1960s
  • Flexible response/détente
  • Bay of Pigs
  • Cuban Missile Crisis/Nuclear Test Ban
  • 2nd Berlin Crisis=Wall
  • Increase in money to Diem; Diem Falls; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; Operation Rolling Thunder=increase of ground troops; Tet Offensive; Vietnamization
  • Commission on Status of Women, 1961/Equal Pay Act
  • New Frontier
  • Peace Corps
1960s81
1960s
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Great Society=War on Poverty (Education-VISTA; Employment; Medicare; Head Start)
  • Civil Rights Act 1964, 1968; Voting Rights Act 1965; 24th Amendment 1964; Affirmative Action (1965-blacks; 1967-women)
  • Sit-in movement/SNCC
  • Freedom Rides
  • Freedom/marches: Birmingham 1963; DC 1963; Selma 1965
  • Voter registration drives; Freedom Summer (1964)
1960s82
1960s
  • Assassinations: JFK, 1963; Maclom X 1965; Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968; RFK 1968
  • Black Panthers (Carmichael, Newton, Seale, Brown)
  • Race Riots 1967-1968
  • Chicago Riot @ DNC
  • United Farm Workers/Chavez-1962
  • Feminine Mystique – Friedan 1963
  • NOW 1963; Libbers and bra-burners; ERA reintroduced in 1970
1960s83
1960s
  • Anti-war movement – New Left (SDS); Counterculture
  • Beatles, Dylan, etc./Woodstock
  • Immigration and Naturalization Act 1965
  • Land on Moon 1969
  • Détente/SALT I talks begin
  • Nixon and New Federalism (revenue sharing)
  • 6 day war in Middle East 1967
1970s
1970s
  • EPA established 1970
  • SALT I talks 1970
  • My Lai Massacre/Cambodia Invasion
  • Kent State Massacre broadens antiwar movement
  • American troop withdrawal March 1973
  • South Vietnam falls 1975
  • Election of 1972 – Nixon v. McGovern “silent majority”
  • Watergate 1972-1974
  • China Visit 1972
1970s85
1970s
  • Roe v. Wade 1973
  • SALT I – 1972
  • OPEC Embargo/energy crisis 1973
  • Nixon Resigns 1974 – Ford pardons
  • War Powers Act 1973
  • 1976 Election – Carter (non-Washington man)
  • Creates cabinet Departments of Education and Health and Human Services
  • Human rights foreign policy
  • Camp David Accords
1970s86
1970s
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis
  • SALT II 1979 (USSR invades Afghanistan/Olympics)
  • Bakke v. University of California 1978
1980s
1980s
  • Election of 1980/Reagan Revolution “Are you better off than you were four years ago” (used in ’84 too)
  • California governor – national pride
  • End of hostage crisis (32 minutes into presidency)
1980s88
1980s
  • Assassination attempt March 30
  • “Reaganomics”/tax cuts/deregulation/rollback of liberalism of 1960s and 70s/maintains core New Deal safeguards
  • Milton Friedman Free to Choose/Supply-side
  • Reformed SS solvent for later years
  • results in 16 million new jobs and reduced inflation
1980s89
1980s
  • Air traffic controllers strike 1981 (11,359)
  • increased deficit – military spending; outspend Soviets/”Evil Empire”/SDI “Star Wars”
  • War on Drugs
  • A Nation at Risk
  • 1st female to Supreme Court (Rehnquist and Scalia too)
1980s90
1980s
  • “Tear down that wall” 1989
  • Reagan Doctrine – support freedom fighters in Afghanistan/Nicaragua/El Salvador
  • Iran-Contra Scandal
  • Election of 1988 – George W. Bush
  • “no new taxes”
1990s
1990s
  • Manuel Noriega/Panama
  • Desert Storm/Desert Shield
  • Collapse of USSR 1991
  • START I
  • Begins NAFTA talks
  • Election of 1992 – Clinton 1st Baby Boomer president
1990s92
1990s
  • Clinton years see economic expansion
  • FMLA 1993
  • “don’t ask don’t tell” – homosexuals allowed in military
  • NAFTA 1993
  • Brady Bill – 5-day waiting period for handguns
  • Earned Income Tax Credit
  • Healthcare reform (nationalized) fails
  • “Contract with America” 1994
  • Increased minimum wage
  • Defense of Marriage Act
2000s
2000s
  • Bush v. Gore 2000
  • September 11
  • War on Terror/Afghanistan/Iraq
  • No Child Left Behind
cultural 1920 1970
Cultural 1920-1970
  • Mass entertainment 1920s
  • Collegiate sports growth
  • Film: Chaplin, Bow, Valentino
  • Sports:boxing: Dempsey, baseball: Ruth
  • Lindbergh’s flight 1927
  • Gershwin- composer (popular)
cultural 1920 1970 cont
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • Artists: O’keefe, Cassatt, Hopper, 1930’s
  • Lind. Baby kidnapped 1932
  • Chicago world fair 1933
  • Film Stars of the 1930s: Bogart, Temple
  • Sports Stars of 1930s: Joe Lewis, Lou Gehrig
  • 1937: A. Earheart’s last flight
cultural 1920 1970 cont96
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1937: Golden Gate bridge
  • 1938: H. Hughes flies @ world in record time
  • 1939:Gone With the Wind, and the Wizard of Oz
  • Film and music stars of the 1940s; Nat King Cole, Duke Ellington, Joe DiMaggio, Ty Cobb
  • 1941: New York worlds fair
  • 1943 Casablanca
  • 1943: Penicillin introduced
  • 1943: Jitterbug, “bebop”, zoot suit
  • 1943: Frank Lloyd Wright famous architect
  • Stars of the 1950s: M. Monroe, Sugar Ray Leonard, Rocky Marciano, Arnold Palmer, Elvis
cultural 1920 1970 cont97
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1950: US (6% of world’s population) Owns 60% of all cars, 58% phones, 45% radios
  • 1951: Color TV introduced
  • 1955: National Review
  • 1954: Polio Vaccine
  • 1957: Beatnik movement (Kerouac) starts in California and spreads
  • 1960s heroes: Vince Lombardi, J. Nicklaus, Mickey Mantle, The Beatles, Cassius Clay, Billie J. King, B. Streisand, K. Hepburn
  • 1960: 85m TV sets
  • 1961: John Birch Society increasingly active
cultural 1920 1970 cont98
Cultural 1920-1970 cont.
  • 1962 – environmental movement gains momentum (Silent Spring)
  • 1963: Andy Warhol (NY Guggenheim museum and pop art)
  • 1964: Hoffa found guilty ( for tampering, fraud, conspiracy) – disappears in 1975
  • 1966: Mini skirts, “twiggy” twist
  • 1968-71: Campus unrest spreads (U of M; U of Cal; Kent State)
  • Monterey Pop Festival (1967); Woodstock (1968) - Hippies
economic 1920 1970
Economic 1920-1970
  • Roaring Twenties – increase of commercial entertainment advertising and credit; new technology radio, appliances, cars
  • 1921: Melon as Secretary of Treasury – tax cuts; high tariffs; laissez-faire; deregulation
  • 1922: stock market boom
  • October 29, 1929 – Black Tuesday
  • 1925: McNary-Haugen farm relief defeated
  • 1931: Moratorium on debt payment
  • 1932: Bonus March; Hoover moves left (RFC, “too little too late”; FDR campaigns on the 3 R’s)
economic 1920 1970100
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1933: First New Deal (100 days)
    • Bank Holiday (relief);Emergency Banking Act (relief)
    • CCC (relief), NIRA (recovery), AAA (recovery), FDIC (reform), TVA (Reform), FERA (relief; “priming the pump”), HOLC (relief); SEC (reform)
  • 1934: increase of strikes
  • 1935: critics from R and L
  • 1935: 2nd New Deal moves Left: WPA (relief), REA (reform), NLRA (Wagner) (reform), and SS (reform)
  • 1936: AAA and NIRA unconstitutional
  • 1937: loses court packing but Court moves left;
  • 1938: Fair Labor Standards Act; 2nd AAA
economic 1920 1970101
Economic 1920-1970
  • Winter 37/38 recession (attempted to balance budget)
  • ND d/n end Depression or unemployment, transform capitalism except labor; end poverty or redistribute wealth; d/n address racial or female inequality (ex.FEPC)
  • Importance: (1) new institutions that expand role of government=minimum assistance to poor and unemployed; protect rights of Labor; stabilize the banking system; building low-income housing; regulate financial markets; subsidizing agricultural production;
  • (2) new political coalition for Democrats
  • (3) New Deal liberalism inspires and shapes Great Society
economic 1920 1970102
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1939-45: US manufacturing ½ of world’s manufactured goods; supplies 25% of British military needs1945-47: demobilization
  • 1945-1960 – Economic growth and consumerism
  • 1940s-50s: population shift to sunbelt/suburbanization
  • 1947 – Taft-Hartley
  • 1948: Fair Deal – expansion of social welfare/Keynesian Economics
  • 1953: Government lifts all wage controls
  • 1953: Eisenhower's Dynamic Conservatism – stop momentum of New Deal
  • 1959: Ike invokes Taft-Hartley to halt steel strike
economic 1920 1970103
Economic 1920-1970
  • 1961: New Frontier blocked by conservative coalition; NASA; increased minimum wage
  • 1963: LBJ’s Great Society; War on Poverty increases deficits
  • STAGFLATION
  • 1969: Nixon’s New Federalism – 30billion back to states (decline of economy, unemployment, inflation, GNP, trade deficits) raises taxes and interest rates; does not work
political 1920 1970
Political 1920-1970
  • 1920s Republican domination
  • 1932 – FDR elected
  • 1933 – 20th and 21st Amendments
  • 1935 – Long assassinated
  • 1936, 40 – FDR reelected
  • 1940 – Smith Act
  • 1941 – OPA WPB established
  • 1944 – FDR reelected
  • 1950 – McCarran Act
  • 1951 – 22nd Amendment
political 1920 1970105
Political 1920-1970
  • 1952, 1956 – IKE (re)elected
  • 1960 – JFK
  • 1961 – 23rd Amendment
  • 1962 – Engel v. Vitale
  • 1963 – LBJ
  • 1963 – Abbington v. Schempp
  • 1963 – Gideon v. Wainwright
  • 1964 – LBJ reelected (Goldwater); Warren Report; 24th Amendment; Tonkin Resolution
  • 1964 – Escobedo v. Illinois
  • 1966 – Miranda v. Arizona
political 1920 1970106
Political 1920-1970
  • 1967 – 25th Amendment
  • 1968 – Nixon elected/New Federalism (RFK; riots at Chicago); AIP and Wallace
  • SDS and the Weathermen and the New Left
  • 1968 as a turning point
    • Political
    • Social/cultural
    • Vietnam
political 1945 1950
Political:1945-1950
  • Truman / Fair Deal
    • Improved housing (success; Housing Act, 1949)
    • Full employment
    • Higher minimum wage (success)
    • Better farm price supports
    • New TVAs
    • Extension of Social Security (success, Social Security Act, 1950)
  • “Do nothing Congress”; Republicans/Dixiecrats (Thurmond)
  • Loyalty program
  • Alger Hiss
  • Whittaker Chambers, Witness
  • Cold War/Korean War
  • NATO/UN/Marshall Plan/Truman Doctrine/NSC-68/National Security Act – CIA & NSC (1947)
  • “Point Four”
economic 1945 1950
Economic:1945-1950
  • Postwar recession 1946-47 due to 33% postwar inflation
    • Strikes; 1946 4.6 million workers strike
  • Taft-Hartley
  • Employment Act (1946)
    • government policy to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power
  • Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) and Veteran’s Administration (VA) (1944)
social cultural 1945 1950
Social/Cultural:1945-1950
  • increased movement; 30 million/year; divided families
  • Dr. Spock’s The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1945)
  • Migration to the sunbelt – jobs, better climate (air conditioning), lower taxes
    • 1963 – CA becomes more populous than NY
  • Suburbanization
  • Baby boom – “graying” of America, strains on Social Security
  • Red Scare –McCarthyism/HUAC/Nixon
  • Gunnar Myrdal – An American Dilemma (1944)
  • Jackie Robinson – 1947
  • Truman administration report “To Secure These Rights”; end of segregation in federal civil service and armed forces (1948)
political 1950s
Political:1950s
  • Eisenhower/Dynamic Conservatism
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954)
  • Operation Wetback (1954) 1 million Mexican illegal immigrants returned in 1954
  • Interstate Highway Act (1956)
  • National Defense Education Act (1957)
  • “new look” foreign policy; rollback, massive retailation
  • 1954 Dienbienphu; Ike gives aid to South
  • Eisenhower Doctrine – Middle East
  • Use of CIA to initiate coups
  • NASA (1957)
economic 1950s
Economic: 1950s
  • Landrum-Griffen (1959)
  • First computers (1948)
  • Expansion of aerospace – 1957 Boeing’s 707
  • 1956 – white collar outnumber blue collar
  • Union membership peaked in 1954 at 35%
  • Women enter workforce in unprecedented numbers
  • McDonald’s (1949); Disneyland (1955)
  • Advertising/consumerism
social cultural 1950s
Social/Cultural: 1950s
  • Television; “Leave it to Beaver” “Ozzie and Harriet” all Americans by 1960s
  • Sports represent population shift: NY Giants to SF; Brooklyn Dodgers to LA
  • Elvis
  • Marilyn Monroe
  • Playboy (1955)
  • National Review (1955)
  • Riesman’s The Lonely Crowd (1950)
  • William Whyte The Organizational Man (1950)
  • Sloan Wilson The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1955)
  • John Kenneth Galbraith The Affluent Society (1958)
social cultural 1950s113
Social/Cultural: 1950s
  • Beat Generation: Kerouac On the Road, Ginsberg Howl
  • Salinger’s Catcher and the Rye
  • McCarthyism/ “witch-hunts” The Crucible
  • Gunnar Myrdal – An American Dilemma (1944)
  • Jackie Robinson – 1947
  • 1955 – Rosa Parks/Montgomery Bus Boycotts
  • Brown v. Board (1954) – NAACP/Marshall
  • Little Rock Crisis (1957); Orval Fabus
  • Civil Rights Act 1957 (Civil Rights Commission)
  • SCLC (1957)
social cultural 1960s
Social/Cultural: 1960s
  • Greensboro Sit-ins (1960)
  • SNCC (1960)
  • Friedan’s Feminine Mystique (1963)
  • Freedom Riders
  • James Merideth/University of Mississippi; Kennedy uses troops to send to class
  • Birmingham, AL/Bull Connor
  • March on Washington (1963)
  • Medgar Evars (1963) Mississippi
  • Birmingham Baptist Church explosion (1963) – killed four black girls
social cultural 1960s115
Social/Cultural: 1960s
  • Civil Rights Act 1964
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment
  • Voting Rights Act 1965
  • Civil Rights Act 1968
  • Selma Marches (1965)
  • Black Power (Panthers, SNCC, Nation of Islam)
  • SDS/Port Huron Statement/Berkeley Free Speech Movement = New Left (weathermen – radical)
  • Hawks vs. doves – 1968
  • Assassinations – X (1965); RFK, Dr. King (1968)
social cultural 1960s116
Social/Cultural: 1960s
  • “sexual revolution” “free love” – counterculture
  • Stonewall Riots (1969)
  • Carson’s Silent Spring (1962)
political 1960s
Political: 1960s
  • 1960 – Nixon/Kennedy Debates; Kennedy elected
  • Ike warns of industrial-military complex (1961)
  • New Frontier – “ask not…”
    • Peace Corps
    • Medical reform
    • Education reform
    • Tax cut
    • Land on moon by 1970 (1969)
political 1960s118
Political: 1960s
  • Flexible response/McNamara – Green Berets/advisers to Vietnam (1961)
  • Told South Vietnamese it was “their war”
  • Bay of Pigs(1961)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – détente/peaceful coexistence
  • Alliance for Progress (Marshall Plan for Latin America)
  • Berlin Wall (1961-1989)
  • Kennedy Assassination (1963)
political 1960s119
Political: 1960s
  • Johnson’s Great Society (1964) “War on Poverty”
    • Department of Transportation and Department of Housing and Urban Development
    • National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities
    • Education – Head Start/Upward Bound
    • Medicare/Medicaid
    • Immigration and Nationality Act 1965
  • Escalation of Vietnam (1965) THIS NEEDS TO BE FINISHED – BAILEY pp.938
the jacksonian period 1824 48 the big picture
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48: The Big Picture
  • Political – politics more representative of common man; expansion of democracy
    • Universal white manhood suffrage
    • Elections of 1824, 1828, 1832, 1836, 1840, 1844: increased voter turnout
    • South Carolina Exposition (Calhoun); Nullification Crisis; Webster-Hayne Debates (States’ rights vs. Federal power)
    • Electoral college – direct election
    • Death of “king caucus” rise of national nominating conventions (Anti-Masonic Party)
    • Spoils system, rotation in office
    • Jackson’s use of the veto (King Andrew I)
the jacksonian period 1824 48 the big picture121
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48: The Big Picture
  • Political:
    • Martin Van Buren; Harrison; Tyler; Polk
    • Missouri Compromise and sectional tension over expansion of slavery; Wilmot Proviso; Texas
    • End of Era of Good Feelings; return of the two-party system (Democrats and Whigs)
    • Workingmen’s Party
  • Social/Cultural – reform displays democratic ideals
    • Indian Removal (IRA 1830; Cherokee; Worchester; Treaty of New Echota 1835; Trail of Tears)
    • Second Great Awakening and Jacksonian reform
      • Abolition
      • Prison
      • Asylum
      • Utopian communities
the jacksonian period 1824 48 the big picture122
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48: The Big Picture
  • Second Great Awakening and Jacksonian reform
    • Abolition; positive good argument
    • Prison
    • Asylum
    • Utopian communities
    • Temprance
    • Education (Mann and McGuffey; Troy Female Academy, Mount Holyoke and Oberlin)
    • Women’s suffrage
  • Mormonism/Millerites
  • Transcendentalism
  • Hudson River School (Art)
  • Burned Over District/circuit riders
  • Nativism
  • Health and sexual prudery as healthy; Dr. Sylvester Graham
  • Turner’s Rebellion
the jacksonian period 1824 48 the big picture123
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48: The Big Picture
    • Black Hawk War; Seminole War
    • The cult of domesticity; Goodey’s Lady’s Book; Lowell Girls as exception
  • Economic – make economy more fair for common man
    • Tariff of 1828 (Abominations); 1832 (Nullification); 1833 (Compromise); 1846
    • The SBUS and Biddle and Clay; Pet banks; Specie Circular; Panic of 1837; Independent Treasury (1840; abolished 1841; returned 1846)
    • Lowell Textile Mills; Waltham System
    • American System and internal improvements; Maysville Road Veto
    • Turnpikes and canals; early railroads in East (B&O); Erie Canal; Cumberland Road
    • McCormick’s Reaper; Deere’s plow; interchangeable parts
    • Rise of Pacific markets (China, Japan and Clipper ships); Polk and CA
    • Marshall Court until 1836; Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge (1837)
    • Commonwealth v. Hunt
    • Market Revolution; economic sectionalism; cotton gin
the jacksonian period 1824 48 the big picture124
The Jacksonian Period 1824-48: The Big Picture
  • Foreign Policy
    • Manifest Destiny and domestic expansion
    • Webster Ashburton
    • Texas; Oregon
    • Mexican War
    • Sectional tension over expansion of slavery
reconstruction
Reconstruction
  • Traditional historiography = sordid
  • Modern historiography = unsuccessful but laudable
  • Began during CW as how to reunite
  • 1863: Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan
  • 1864: Wade-Davis pocket vetoed
  • April 1865 – Congress out of session; Johnson issued plan
  • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-1867) (Johnson)
    • Black Codes infuriate N. Republicans
reconstruction126
Reconstruction
  • December 1865 – Congress reconvenes
  • Radical Republicans Sumner and Stevens call for abrogation of Johnson governments
  • Call for new governments based on equality before law and manhood suffrage
  • Moderates try working with Johnson to modify
    • Refused to seat congressmen and Senators elected from S. in November 1865 elections
    • Early 1866 Johnson vetoes Freedman’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bill (overridden)
  • 1866 – Congress approves 14th Amendment (1868)
reconstruction127
Reconstruction
  • 1866 midterms repudiate Johnson’s policies; S. refuses 14th Amendment
  • Congress decided to take over
  • 1867: Pass Reconstruction Act; began Radical Reconstruction (lasts to 1877)
  • By 1870 all states readmitted and controlled by Republican Party
    • Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
  • Articulate black political leadership emerges in South (16 in Congress, 600 in state legislatures, hundreds in local offices)
reconstruction128
Reconstruction
  • Successes of Radical Reconstruction governments:
    • First state-funded public school system in S.
    • Equalized taxation
    • Outlawed discrimination in public transportation and accommodations
    • Economic development
  • Opposition to Reconstruction (KKK)
  • Johnson impeached (1868)
  • 1868 – Grant elected; Congress approves 15th; destroys Klan in 1871; reelected in 1872
reconstruction129
Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction wanes; Dems never support/corruption/Republicans b/c more conservative ? use of federal power
  • Panic of 1873 = economic concern ahead
  • Dems win control of House in 1874
  • Violence erupts in South in mid-1870s; no intervention
  • By 1876 all S “redeemed” ex. SC, FL, and LA
  • Compromise of 1876 and collapse of Reconstruction
  • S. falls under reactionary leadership – Jim Crow emerges
  • Stronger federal government indifferent as S. effectively nullified 14th and 15th Amendments – not rectified until 1960s
new south
New South
  • Term coined by Henry Grady in the Atlanta Constitution
    • Called for industrial development of South, solid south, championed white supremacy
  • economic development difficult
    • 22,000 miles of new RR track laid
    • Coal mining in Appalachians
    • Textiles in Carolinas and Georgia
    • Furniture
    • Cigarette manufacturing (Duke and American Tobacco Co.)
    • Iron and steel in Birmingham, AL – by 1900 largest pig-iron shipper in US
    • Lumber in Gulf States
    • Some northern investment
    • Cotton vertically integrated 161 mills in 1880, 400 in 1900 “move the mill to the cotton”
    • Low wages – sharecropping/tenant farming – wages 60% of national average
    • Some opportunities for blacks (men and women)
    • Cotton and tobacco still dominant cash crops
    • Still dependent on North for manufactured goods
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New South
  • Politics
    • Solid South emerged – home rule/redeemers/bourbon Democrats
    • Some blacks still voted and held office from 1877 to 1914 but restrictions increase
    • Southern Farmers Alliance began – Macune – Farmers Alliance/Southern Alliance
    • Colored Farmers National Alliance
    • Populism
    • Disfranchisement of blacks and some poor illiterate whites
      • Poll taxes (second Mississippi Plan 1890
      • Literacy tests
      • Grandfather clause – constitutional in Guinn v. US (1915)
      • Williams v. Mississippi (1898) – upheld Mississippi’s institution of poll taxes and literacy tests
    • By 1900 20% blacks live in urban areas – growth of middle class (teachers, physicians, lawyers, nurses)
    • Social behavior determined by whites
    • Labor market segregated
    • Most labor unions excluded blacks
    • Exodusters to Kansas
    • Civil Rights Cases (1883) declared Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional (prohibited segregation in public places)
    • Jim Crow laws
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Racial Violence
    • KKK and Force Acts
    • Race riots – Wilmington, New Orleans, Atlanta
    • Lynching 1998-1900 over 1,700 lynchings – Ida B. Wells
  • Washington and DuBois
new south132
New South
  • Poor education for blacks in South
    • 1900 no public high schools
    • 1910 8,000 of 970,000 HS age blacks enrolled in HS
    • 1916 – per capita spending on education in South – white $10.32; black $2.89
  • 1900 – 90% of blacks live in South
  • Black culture built around church – Baptist and AME
  • NAACP – founded 1909-10
  • Great Migration during WWI
social economic impacts reconstruction
Social/Economic Impacts - Reconstruction
  • Emergence of “modern America”
  • N and W see transcontinental RR; modern steel industry; settlement of trans-Mississippi West; final defeat of American Indians; expansion of mining
  • Industrialization wipes out small farmers and artisans; wage earner emerges
  • By 1877 industrial production 75% greater than 1865 – even with panic
  • Little economic development in S.; American Tobacco Company (Duke); Birmingham, AL (steel); Textiles (southern Appalachia)
  • Blacks solidify family ties – locate loved ones; black churches
  • Segregation; limited economic development for freed blacks
1920s and social tension
1920s and Social Tension
  • Tension between old and new; traditional and modern; urban and rural; black and white; immigrant and native
  • Caused by demographic shifts; technology and science; intellectual developments; urbanization; immigration; War; consumer culture
  • Ways manifested:
    • Family; women; US in world; consumption; religious debates; literature; organized crime; racial tension; age tension
progressivism 1900 1920
Progressivism 1900-1920

I.Goal

A. Respond to problems caused by rapid changes in the late 19th century in more reasonable way than agitators of 1890s

1.urbanization (poor living conditions; dirty cities)

2. Industrialization (trusts; child labor; low wages; unsanitary/safe conditions)

3. Corruption at all levels (city, state, national)

  • Jeffersonian, Jacksonian, Populist (Watson, Weaver, Bryan, Lease) Tradition
  • Intertwined with the Social Gospel
  • Middle-class, urban, college educated men and women
progressivism 1900 1920136
Progressivism 1900-1920

II. Economic Program- end laissez faire confident in gov. regulation)

A. Anti monopoly (differences, though)

B. Tariff reduction- Underwood

C. Income tax graduated

D. Regulation of Banking- provide elastic credit and currency (fed reserve)

E. Child labor and hour of work for women goes down

F. Square Deal – Control of corporations; Consumer protection; Conservation

G. New Freedom; New Nationalism

progressivism 1900 1920137
Progressivism 1900-1920

III. Pol. Program= end of corruption by restoring democracy; regain power stripped by the “interests”

A.Direct election of senators

B. Direct Primaries; secret ballots

C. Expose and end city machine politics; corruption and graft

D. More Accountability to constituents

1. Referendum

2. Recall

3. Initiative

IV. Social programs:

A. Settlement House movement

B. Conservation of land and resources

C. Temperance

D. Women’s suffrage (not “Kaiser” Wilson until WWI; “necessary war measure)

progressivism 1900 1920138
Progressivism 1900-1920

V. Strategies

A. Increase government’s role in economy (increases regulatory power, change bench, conservation)

B. Greater Control of accountability of government to people

C. Exposure of greed and corruption by muckrakers

  • Tarbell (Standard Oil)
  • Steffens (cities)
  • Sinclair (meat packing) – The Jungle
  • Dreiser (poverty) – Sister Carrie; The Financier
  • Sandburg (workers plight)
  • Veblen (Theory of the Leisure Class)
  • Croly (The Promise of American Life)
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • Brandeis (Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It)
  • James (Pragmatism)
  • Dewey (Democracy and Education)
progressivism 1900 1920139
Progressivism 1900-1920
  • Legislation/successes
    • Galveston, Texas (city management system)
    • 1902 Coal Strike (10% pay increase; nine-hour day)
    • Newlands Act, 1902 – federal money to irrigate western lands
    • 1902 TR bans Christmas Trees in White House
    • Northern Securities Trust broken, 1902-04
    • Department of Commerce and Labor, 1903
    • Elkins Act (1903) – fines for rebates(Populist)
    • Lochner v. NY (1905) – setback
    • Hepburn Act (1906) – restricted free passes(Populist)
    • Pure Food and Drug Act/Meat Inspection Act (1906)
    • Mueller v. Oregon (1908) – Brandeis Brief
progressivism 1900 1920140
Progressivism 1900-1920
  • Taft brings 90 anti-trust suits in 4 years; TR 44 in 7 ½
  • Standard Oil; U.S. Steel Trusts broken, 1911
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire; 146; NY passed stronger legislation
  • Federal Reserve Act (1913) (Populist)
  • Underwood Tariff (1913)
  • Sixteenth Amendment (1913)(Populist)
  • Seventeenth Amendment (1913) (Populist)
  • Federal Trade Commission Act/FTC (1914) – search companies engaged in interstate commerce
  • Clayton Anti-trust Act (1914) – exempts labor and agriculture from antitrust prosecution; legalized strikes and peaceful picketing – Gompers, “the Magna Carta of labor”
progressivism 1900 1920141
Progressivism 1900-1920
  • Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 – credit to farmers at low interest (Populist)
  • Warehouse Act (1916) – loans on security of staple crops (Populist)
  • La Follette Seaman’s Act (1915) – increased wages on merchant ships
  • Workingmen’s Compensation Act (Kerr) (1916) – assistance to federal civil-service employees while disabled
  • Keating-Owen Act (1916) – no child labor in interstate commerce
  • Adamson Act (1916) – 8 hour workday for federal employees on trains; extra pay for overtime (Populist)
  • NY, OK, SD, MI – woman suffrage, 1917
  • 30 states pass personal compensation laws by1917
  • Eighteenth Amendment (1919) (Repealed by Twenty-first, 1933)
progressivism 1900 1920142
Progressivism 1900-1920
  • People
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • William Howard Taft
    • T. Woodrow Wilson (2nd Democrat since 1860)
    • Herbert Hoover (Food Administration)
    • Robert M. “Fighting Bob” La Follette – Reform Governor, WI
    • Hiram W. Johnson – Reform Governor, CA
    • Charles Evans Hughes – Reform Governor, NY
    • Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones – Reform Mayor, Toledo, OH
    • Hazen Pingree – Reform Mayor, Detroit, MI
    • Jane Addams; Florence Kelley
    • Alice Paul (NWP;ERA)
    • Carrie Chapman Catt (NAWSA)
    • Frances Willard (WCTU)
    • Gifford Pinchot
    • Sierra Club (1892)
progressivism 1900 1920143
Progressivism 1900-1920
  • Successful?
  • Abuses in business, the economy, and the environment were addressed and reformed
  • Women and blacks continue hard times even through political and economic reform (e.g. no anti-lynching; or ERA)
  • Setback in 1920s, but expanded in New Deal (1930s), Fair Deal (1950s); New Frontier and Great Societies (1960s)
twentieth century modern liberal reform political platforms
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal (reform) Political Platforms
  • Populists –
  • Inflation/free silver;
  • graduated income tax;
  • government ownership of RR, telegraph and telephone;
  • direct election of senators;
  • 1 term limit for president;
  • initiative, referendum, recall;
  • shorter workday;
  • immigration restriction;
  • federal grain depositories
twentieth century modern liberal political platforms
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal Political Platforms
  • Theodore Roosevelt – Square Deal (control of corporations; consumer protection; conservation);
  • New Nationalism
    • Consolidation of trusts and labor unions
    • Increased regulation of business
    • Woman suffrage
    • Broad program of social welfare
    • Minimum wage/social insurance laws
twentieth century modern liberal political platforms146
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal Political Platforms
  • Woodrow Wilson –
    • New Freedom (triple wall of privlige)
      • Stronger antitrust legislation/fragmentation of big business
      • Banking reform
      • Tariff reduction
  • Harding – Normalcy
  • FDR –
    • New Deal (relief, recovery, reform)
twentieth century modern liberal political platforms147
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal Political Platforms
  • Truman – Fair Deal
    • Improved housing
    • Full employment
    • Minimum wage
    • New TVA
    • Extension of Social Security
  • Ike – dynamic conservatism – no alteratoin of New/Fair Deals
twentieth century modern liberal political platforms148
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal Political Platforms
  • JFK – New Frontier
    • Peace Corps
    • Tax cuts
    • Land on moon
    • Civil Rights legislation
    • Medical insurance
    • Education reform
twentieth century modern liberal political platforms149
Twentieth Century Modern Liberal Political Platforms
  • LBJ – Great Society
    • Aid to education; Head Start; Upward Bound
    • Medicare/Medicaid
    • Immigration reform
    • Civil rights legislation
    • VISTA
    • Housing/HUD
  • Nixon – New Federalism
    • EPA/Clean Air Act/Philadelphia Plan/expansion of New Deal
causes of the depression
Causes of the Depression
  • Watered stock (16 times earnings); careful investors sell stock back to take profits October 29, 1929=Black Tuesday 16.5 million shares traded; market fell 40 points=decline until 1933
  • Buying on the margin (borrowed 90% with stock as collateral; when prices fell 10% lender sold stock = depressed prices)
  • Depressed farm economy
  • New construction declined
  • Auto sales lagged
  • Underconsumption
  • FED’s manipulation of the market
  • Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot led to less exports, further hurting the economy
hoover s response
Hoover’s Response
  • First – rugged individualism, localism
  • Then, involvement
    • AMA
    • RFC “pump priming”
    • Hawley Smoot
    • Public works, e.g. Muscle Shoals
  • Just got worse
    • Bonus Army
    • Hoovervilles
new deal successful
New Deal – Successful?
  • Did not solve Depression
  • Unemployment in 1936 @ 15% from 25% in 1933
  • Recovery modest despite billons of dollars in “pump priming”
  • 1937 “Roosevelt recession”; embracement of Keynesian ideas
  • Lost momentum by 1938; international crisis shifted public attention
new deal successful154
New Deal – Successful?
  • Debt from $16,200,000,000 in 1930 to $40,440,000,000 by 1939
  • Depression not cured
  • More farm surpluses under Roosevelt than Hoover
  • Debt $258,000,000,000 by 1945 – war gets nation out
  • Shift in public view of government’s role
post wwii economic trends
Post WWII Economic Trends
  • Post-war decade = unprecedented & sustained growth
  • Citizens and government – massive spending
  • Rising consumerism and credit
  • Government spurred economy out of necessity during war; continued after
  • Major portion of GDP becomes federal spending
post wwii economic trends156
Post WWII Economic Trends
  • 1945-60 – GNP doubles
  • Inflation under 2% throughout 50s
  • Defense spending most important stimulant
  • US monopoly over international trade
  • Technology sector increases 35% between 1945 and 55
  • 1945-1960- home ownership grew 50%
  • Savings less than 5% of income; consumerism and credit expand
  • Middle class 5.7m in 1947 to 12m by 1960
american labor over time
American Labor Over Time
  • Strikes follow business cycle; higher frequency when unemployment is down
  • Only 24 recorded strikes before 1835; until 1877 mostly small and local
  • 1768 – earliest strike; NY tailors protest wage cuts
  • 1794 – Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers) organize in Philadelphia
  • Local craft unions develop in cities to defend trades against cheap labor and demand shorter workday
  • 1827 – Mechanics Union of Trade Associations; 1852 – American International Typographic Union created
    • Other national unions organizing workers from same trade emerge
  • 1830 – 16 trade organizations struck simultaneously demanding 10 hour day in Philadelphia
  • 1830s – “workingmen’s” parties fight against “two distinct classes, rich and poor”
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)
american labor over time158
American Labor Over Time
  • 1837 – Panic suppresses labor movement; 1853-54 400 strikes
  • 1840 – Van Buren gives 10 hour workday for federal employees in public works
  • 1860 – 16 week walkout of over 10,000 shoemakers in Mass
  • Post-Civil War – labor increases rapidly; favors use of arbitration
  • 1866 – National Labor Union (NLU) formed; 600,000 members, lasts six years
    • Skilled, unskilled, farmers; no blacks or immigrants (Colored NLU)
    • Arbitration of industrial disputes; 8-hour day
    • Dissolve after Panic of 1873
american labor over time159
American Labor Over Time
  • 1869, 1881 – Knights of Labor (KOL)
    • Utopian
    • All workers in same union: skilled & unskilled, men & women, white & black
    • Social and economic reform
    • Cooperatives
    • Safety and health codes
    • 8-hour day
    • Disapprove striking
    • Terrance Powderly; Mother Jones
    • Fall because Haymarket (1886) and illusion of skilled and unskilled
  • 1877 Great RR Strike; Hayes uses federal troops
  • 1880s – increasing strikes; 1500 in 1886 including Haymarket
  • 1890 – Sherman Anti-trust Act
  • 1892 – Homestead Strike
american labor over time160
American Labor Over Time
  • 1894 – Pullman Strike (ARU/Debs)
  • 1894 – Labor Day
  • 1881-1900: 23,000 strikes; 1500 in 1886 including Haymarket
    • Wages/hours/union recognition/work rules
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)
    • Samuel Gompers 1886-1924
    • Bread and butter/pure and simple unionism
      • Better wages, hours, and conditions
    • Closed shop
    • Walkout/boycott
    • No women, blacks, immigrants
    • Only one to last into 20th century
    • AFL questions use of strike; turn to private mediation; strikes increase again after WWI
american labor over time161
American Labor Over Time
  • By 1900 3% unionized
  • 1902 – TR and Coal Strike (Square Deal)
  • Lochner v. NY (1905) – states cannot restrict hours
  • Mueller v. Oregon (1908) – upheld maximum hours that women could work (protect women & children); “Brandeis Brief”
  • Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923) – reverses Mueller
  • 1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (ILGWU)
  • 1914 – Clayton Anti-trust Act/FTC
  • World War I – mobilization; Baruch/WIB; encourage no strikes & employers to raise wages and give 8 hour day; no guarantee of right to organize until Wagner (1935)
  • WWI and WWII unions pledge not to strike (ex. IWW)
american labor over time162
American Labor Over Time
  • AFL supports (3 million members by war’s end) IWW does not Espionage and Sedition Acts; Debs; Schenk v. U.S. (1918)
  • Truce with labor ends in 1919; 4 million, 1/5th of workforce strikes (Boston Police; PA steelworkers); blacks hired as scabs = race riots E. St. Louis; Chicago
  • Red Scare used to suppress unions; call for closed shop denounced as communism
  • Kerr-McGillicuddy Act (1916) – workers compensation for federal employees
  • Keating-Owen Act (1916) – outlawed child labor
  • Adamson Act (1916) – 8 hour workday for federal RR workers
  • 1930s – revival of labor; gains accomplished
  • Norris LaGuardia Act (1932) – yellow dog and injunction illegal
  • 1935 – NLRA/Wagner; right to organize/collectively bargain
  • 1938 – FLSA – minimum wage ($.40/hr)/maximum hour (40hr/wk)
american labor over time163
American Labor Over Time
  • Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
    • John L. Lewis, 1935
    • Sit-down strike (GM Flint plant, 1937); Supreme Court declared illegal in 1939
    • Merge with AFL; AFL-CIO, 1955
  • Post WWII (1945-70) workers triple earnings through collective bargaining
  • Taft-Hartley (1947)
  • 1959 – Landrum-Griffen prevents financial corruption and bullying
  • United Farm Workers (Chavez, 1966)
  • Strikes increase in 1960s; decline in 1970s and 80s (recessions; conservative politics)
  • 1969 – Nixon’s Philadelphia Plan: construction trades must create timetables for hiring black apprentices; federal contracts and quotas
american labor over time164
American Labor Over Time
  • OSHA – 1970
  • 1981 – Air Traffic Controllers Strike; Reagan fires 11,345
  • 1975-1980 – union members reduce by 5 million; less than 25% of manufacturing
  • End of 80s – less than 17% of workers organized; ½ proportion of early 1950s
latin american us foreign policy
Latin-American/US Foreign Policy
  • 1823 – Monroe Doctrine
  • 1840s – Manifest Destiny/Mexican War
  • 1850 – Clayton-Bulwer
  • 1880s – increased investment
  • 1898 – Spanish-American War
  • 1901 – Hay-Pauncefote aborgates Clayton
  • 1903 – Hay-Buneau-Varilla
  • 1903-14 – Canal built
  • 1890s-1920 – US Marines in Latin America
  • 1920s – isolation
  • 1933 – Good Neighbor Policy
  • 1950s-1990s – Cold War intervention (Cuba, etc.)
  • 1961 – Alliance for Progress
the home front during wwi
The Home Front During WWI
  • Wilsonian idealism to gain support – Fourteen Points (1918)
  • Conscription after entrance (1917); conscientious objectors; no purchased exemptions
  • George Creel and the Committed on Public Information – propaganda, four minute men
  • Emphasized historic and cultural ties with Britain
  • Programs to Americanize immigrants began
  • Sauerkraut = Liberty cabbage; hamburgers = liberty steak
  • Patriotic music of Irving Berlin
  • Espionage and Sedition Act (1917) – Debs, Haywood, Schenck; Red Scare, Palmer Raids; Immigration Quotas; KKK
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The Home Front During WWI
  • Food Administration (Hoover) to feed selves and Allies; wheatless Wednesdays; Meatless Tuesdays; victory gardens; restrictions of use of foodstuffs for manufacturing alcohol (prohibition 18th 1917) – worked farm production increased by ¼
  • Fuel Administration – heatless Mondays, lightless nights, gasless Sundays
  • Liberty/Victory Loan Programs – “Halt the Hun” raised $21 billion; rest financed by raised taxes
  • War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch
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The Home Front During WWI
  • National War Labor Board (Taft) – discouraged striking
  • AFL doubled membership by end of war; wages rose 20%
  • But: still no recognized right to organize; inflation outpaced wage increases
  • 6,000 strikes in 1919 – most prominent was in steel industry
  • U.S. Railroad Administration
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The Home Front During WWI
  • Great Migration of blacks to North = race riots – St. Louis (1917), Chicago (1919)
  • Female workers enter factories – Women in Industry Service
  • Many feminists were pacifists – Alice Paul and National Woman’s Party; Kaiser Wilson
  • NAWSA supported war; best chance for suffrage at home
  • Wilson endorsed suffrage as “vitally necessary war measure” – 19th Amendment (1920)
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The Home Front During WWI
  • Women’s Bureau in Department of Labor emerged to protect women in the workplace
  • Most gave up jobs
  • Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act (1921) federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care
the home front during wwii
The Home Front During WWII
  • Pearl Harbor (12/7/41) unifies Americans
  • WWI patritiotism of immigrants questioned; WWII sped up assimilation
  • 20 years of limited immigration; necessary for FDR’s elections; no government witch-hunts like WWI
  • Exception, 110,000 Japanese; Korematsu v. United States (1944); 1988 apology and 20,000 reparation
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The Home Front During WWII
  • CCC, WPA, NYA wiped out by conservative congress elected in 1942
  • FDR announced “Dr. New Deal” replaced by “Dr. Win-the-War”
  • Massive military spending; $100 billion in 1942 alone
  • War Production Board mobilized factories
    • Halted production of cars
    • Assigned priorities for access to raw materials
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The Home Front During WWII
  • National speed limit and gasoline rationing to conserve rubber and gasoline
  • “Riding alone is like riding with Hitler”
  • Farmers increased output; 1944-45 – record-breaking wheat harvests
  • Full employment and scarcity in consumer goods caused inflation in 1942; Office of Price Administration began to control prices
  • Rationing held down consumption of critical goods
  • War Labor Board imposed ceilings on wage increases
  • Labor membership swelled from 10 to 13 million; no strike pledge; some walkouts
the home front during wwii174
The Home Front During WWII
  • June 1943 – Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act; government authorized to seize and operate industries; strikes made criminal offense
  • Armed forces; 15 million men and 216,000 women
  • Labor shortage; women enter factories – 6 million took jobs outside the home; government set up 3,000 day cares
  • Agreement with Mexico in 1942 brought thousands of agricultural workers to the west
  • War’s impact on women is exaggerated; most continued traditional roles
  • After the war 2/3’s left the labor force; returning GI’s employed; most quit to resume traditional role in home
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The Home Front During WWII
  • Immediate postwar period witnessed widespread rush into suburban domesticity and mothering of “baby boomers”
  • Foundation for feminist movement of 1960s
  • Wartime migration
    • Movement into boomtowns – LA, Detroit, Seattle, Baton Rouge
  • FDR gives South disproportionate share of defense contracts ($6 billion); blossoms postwar “sunbelt”
  • 1.6 million blacks leave south to west and north; race issues become national not sectional
    • Tensions over segregation; A. Philip Randolph’s March (1941)
    • Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
    • Blacks rally “Double V” – victory over dictators and racism
    • CORE - 1942
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The Home Front During WWII
  • 1944 – invention of mechanical cotton picker; South no longer needs cheap labor
  • 5 million blacks migrate north in 30 yrs. after WWII
  • By 1970, ½ of all blacks lived outside the South; urban became almost synonymous with black
  • Indians move into cities; “code talkers” in war
  • Race riots; 1943 – LA (Mexican) Detroit
  • War lifts out of Depression not enlightened social policy
  • GNP $100 billion in 1940; $200 billion by 1945
  • Corporate profits rose from $6 billion in 1940 to $12 billion by 1944
  • Price controls lifted in 1946 – 33% inflation
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The Home Front During WWII
  • Government touched more lives during war than ever
  • Along with New Deal, pointed way to the era of big-government
    • Rationing
    • Armed forces
    • Defense industry
    • Regulation by FEPC and WLB
    • Government-sponsored housing, day-care, health plans
    • Office of Scientific Research and Development
  • War cost $330 billion dollars 10 times cost of WWI twice as much as ALL federal spending since 1776; cost $10 million/hour
  • Income tax expanded and risen (top rates 90%); only 2/5s of war costs paid from revenue; deficit spending
  • Debt from $49 billion (1941) to $259 billion (1945)
important courts
Important “Courts”
  • Marshall Court 1801-1836 – boost of federal (Federalist) power; decline of states’ rights; pro-business, protection of contracts
  • Taney Court 1836-64 – boost of states’ rights, anti-monopoly
  • Warren Court 1953-1969 – rights of accused; civil rights; religion in schools
  • Burger Court 1969-1986 – abortion; bussing
major women s shifts over time
Major Women’s Shifts over Time
  • Republican motherhood – 1770s-1830s
  • Cult of Domesticity – 1830s-1870s
  • Into the workforce and advocacy for suffrage 1870s-1920
  • Flappers, vamps, etc 1920s
  • Depression is return to traditional roles
  • Into the industrial workforce 1940s (Rosie)
  • Out of industry, into the workforce 1950s
  • “Feminine Mystique” and rise of second-wave feminism 1960s and 1970s
  • Conservative reaction (Schafly, pro-life) 1980s
political party shifts over time
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • First Party System 1790s – despised
    • Republicans (Jeffersonian) – liberal; supported by rural, poor, immigrant
    • Federalist (Hamilton) – conservative; support from urban and well born
  • Era of Good Feelings – National Republicans (1820s)
  • Second Party System 1830s
    • Democrats – liberal, heirs of Jeffersonians – rural, southern, support slavery (some support in North, e.g. NY because immigrants)
    • Whigs – conservative, heirs of Federalists; oppose Jackson
political party shifts over time187
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • Antebellum Period – Whigs die (over position on slavery); Democrats split (over position on slavery)
  • Third Party System – 1854 – present
    • Republicans – conservative? liberal?; oppose expansion of slavery in territory, but support Whiggish and Federalist use of government to promote business and support internal improvement; supported in North and urban areas
    • Democrats – conservative? Liberal? – support laissez-faire; support expansion of slavery or popular sovereignty supported in south and some rural places in west (NY)
  • Major shifts between 1928 and 1948
political party shifts over time188
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • 1928
    • Republicans lose working class – votes in 12 largest cities go Democrat
    • Farmers switch loyalty to Democrat because not part of prosperity; Coolidge’s veto of McNary; Midwest still support Republican
    • Southern Democrats begin voting Republican; first break in solid South because anti-Catholic, anti-urban, anti-immigrant
    • Consequences: new coalition of urban workers and dissatisfied farmers form; Democrats become party of urban working class
    • End of “log cabin campaigning” rural background seen as social disadvantage
political party shifts over time189
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • 1932
    • Democrats carry all parts of the nation except Northeast
    • Blacks, Catholics, farmers, immigrants, and urban workers all vote Democrat
    • FDR won support from progressive Republicans by adopting many of their issues and using government planning
    • Unemployment in Midwest caused many Republicans to vote Democrat
    • Democrats first labeled “liberal”; Republicans “conservative”
    • Voters have expectation of government action in times of economic trouble
    • Begin Democrat majorities in Congress
    • Women begin voting Democrat
    • Young voters begin voting Democrat
    • Republicans tainted by association with Hoover
political party shifts over time190
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • 1936
    • NAACP endorsed FDR; 95% of black vote (75% voted Republican in 1932) – move from party of Lincoln to Democrat
    • Blacks become central element of Democrat Party
    • Northern cities continue to move to Democrat Party – FDR wanted to shift “from acreage to population”
    • New Deal Coalition: farmers, elderly, blacks, urban poor, southern whites, labor
    • Republicans still tainted by association with Hoover
  • 1940
    • 97% blacks vote Democrat in spite of New Deal’s discrimination
    • Republicans yet still tainted by association with Hoover
political party shifts over time191
Political Party Shifts Over Time
  • 1944
    • Republicans still tainted by Hoover and Depression
    • FDR continued popularity – War
  • 1948
    • New Deal Coalition voted for Truman: labor, old people, urbanites, poor, farmers, Catholics, blacks, liberals, organized labor – not fully supported by Solid South
    • Truman’s support of civil rights attracted black voters
    • Conservative, white southerners begin voting Republican
    • Almost a complete 180 degree change from pre-1928
eras of expanded democracy
Eras of Expanded Democracy
  • Jeffersonian Era (1800-1824) simplicity – less is more
  • Jacksonian Era (1820s-1840) UWMS/reform
  • Age of Lincoln/Civil War/Reconstruction (1860-1877) Emancipation, Citizenship UMS; failures
  • Progressive Era (1900-1920) Mod. Lib.; pragmatism; 3Rs; Reg. of BB; UAS
  • Age of FDR (1932-1952) ND; FD; FEPC; communists/fascists?
  • JFK/LBJ (1960-1968) CR/Reconstruction Realized – women, poor, handicapped, Hispanic, homosexual, environment?
  • Reagan (1980-1988) return to simplicity?
immigration over time
Immigration Over Time
  • Colonial period to 1830s – predominately English (Dutch in NY, Germans in Penn.)
  • 1830-1860s – Irish and German immigration
    • Irish – 1.86 million (1830-1860)
      • America’s first refugee population
      • Potato famine caused poorest and least skilled to arrive
      • Most remain in port cities – NY, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston – in urban enclaves
      • Employed in canals, RR, harbors, textile mills
      • Many single women migrate
      • Heavily discriminated – compete with free blacks
      • Anti-Irish riots
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Immigration Over Time
  • Irish
    • Established churches, Catholic schools, mutual aid societies
    • Drawn to Democrat party because Whigs’ Protestantism
    • Some sought to delay Irish voting rights until they were resident for 21 years and organized Know-Nothing Party
    • Served in Mexican War – improved status in some eyes
immigration over time195
Immigration Over Time
  • Germans – 1.49 million (1830-1860)
    • Concentrated on acquiring farm land from Texas to Wisconsin and the Old NW
    • Many artisans and merchants settle in cities like NY, Baltimore, Philadelphia, St.L, and Cincinnati
    • Diverse: Protestants, Jews, Catholics, Freethinkers (the 48ers)
    • Some all-German agricultural communities; more isolated than Irish
    • Established schools, churches, synagogues, newspapers, theaters, gymnasiums, militias, kindergartens, high schools, and beer gardens; complete community enclaves incl. bilingual schools
    • Opposed Whigs because prohibition
    • Important contributions – schools, beer halls, celebration of Christmas
immigration over time196
Immigration Over Time
  • Germans
    • Concentrated on acquiring farm land from Texas to Wisconsin and the Old NW
    • Many artisans and merchants settle in cities like NY, Baltimore, Philadelphia, St.L, and Cincinnati
    • Diverse: Protestants, Jews, Catholics, Freethinkers (the 48ers)
    • Some all-German agricultural communities; more isolated than Irish
    • Established schools, churches, synagogues, newspapers, theaters, gymnasiums, militias, kindergartens, high schools, and beer gardens; complete community enclaves incl. bilingual schools
    • Opposed Whigs because prohibition
    • Important contributions – schools, beer halls, celebration of Christmas
immigration over time197
Immigration Over Time
  • 1870s-1921 Southern and Eastern European, Asian “New Immigrants
    • Few immigration laws before 1880
    • Chinese Exclusion (1882)
    • Ellis Island (1882)
    • Angel Island (1910)
    • Foran Act (1885) – prohibited admisson of contract laborers
    • 1882 and 1891 laws against immigration of convicts, mentally ill, diseased, prostitutes, polygamists, contract laborers
    • Bureau of Immigration (1895)
immigration over time198
Immigration Over Time
  • Act of 1903 – prohibited admission based on political beliefs (anarchism)
  • Basic Naturalization Act (1906) established INS; barred polygamists and anarchists from citizenship
  • Gentleman’s Agreement (1907) persuaded Japan to stop immigration
  • Immigration Act 1917 – barred immigrants based on literacy test
  • Immigration Quota Act 1921 3% of 1910
  • 1922 Asian prohibition from immigrating
  • Johnson-Reed Immigration Act 1924 2% of 1890
  • National Origins System 1929
  • Americanization programs; screening (health and economic)
immigration over time199
Immigration Over Time
  • Cause of Tension over New Immigrants
    • Unfamiliar culture, language, religion
    • Maintenance of culture
    • Resentment over large number
    • Associated with problems of urbanization – most live in cities (enclaves)
    • 1/3 return many send money back
    • Fear of loyalty, failure of Americanization
    • Economic threat
    • Belief in white superiority/WASP superiority
immigration over time200
Immigration Over Time
  • McCaran Act 1952 adds ideological component to keep out communists
  • National origins system in place until 1965
  • Immigration Act of 1965 lifts restriction
  • Increase of Latin American and Asian immigration
  • Problems of assimilation of Latin Americans
  • Asians fare very well
1945 1980 generalizations
1945-1980 Generalizations
  • Economic: Reconversion to consumer economy
  • Economic expansion caused by
    • Military spending
    • Cheap energy (controlled flow from Middle East) (2x consumption of oil by 1970); energy capacity increases six fold
    • Increased productivity
    • Rising educational level
  • Unprecedented economic expansion
    • Baby boom
    • Suburbanization
    • Massive consumer spending
    • 1950-1960s doubled in 50s and 60s; 6% of world’s people, 40% of wealth
1945 1980 generalizations202
1945-1980 Generalizations
  • Prosperity paved way for civil rights success; funded welfare programs, e.g. Medicare; Cold War
  • Depression era people became mass consumers – 2 cars, swimming pools, vacation homes, RVs
  • Middle class included 60% of Americans by mid 1950s
  • 90% own a TV by 1960; 60% own home (40% in 1920s)
  • 1970s see economic decline and Americans’ loss of confidence
    • Stagflation – Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, energy crisis: inflation, high interest rates, stagnant economy; NYC needs federal loan to avoid bankrupcy
1945 1980 generalizations203
1945-1980 Generalizations
  • Social/Cultural:
  • Second Red Scare
  • Civil rights movement’s successes/failures (blacks, women, Hispanics, homosexuals, Indians)
    • Increased employment for women – most new jobs are for women – service sector outgrew industry and manufacturing
    • Women 1/4th of labor force in 1950; ½ by 2000
    • Popular culture still glorified traditional feminine roles of homemaker and mother; clash in 1960s
  • Political: Expansion of the size and scope of government – warfare/welfare state (FDR, HST, IKE, JFK, LBJ, RMN, GRF, JEC)
  • Watergate undermined people’s trust in political system
1945 1980 generalizations204
1945-1980 Generalizations
  • Foreign policy:
  • Cold War and containment – Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East
  • Increased anti-war protests after Tet in 1968
  • By late 60s/early 70s – loss of confidence in foreign policy and international influence
  • Overall:
  • Restructuring of social, economic, gender, racial, and political relations
  • 70s mark diminished economic power, political clout, and international influence that challenge Americans’ confidence in government – causes rise of Reagan (not ready for Goldwater in 1964)
the reagan revolution
The Reagan Revolution
  • Political
    • Election of 1980 – won in landslide
    • Assassination attempt – John Hinkley
    • Election of 1984 – another landslide; opposed tax increases and ERA
    • Supreme Court appointments – O’Connor (first woman); Rehnquist chief justice; Anton Scalia; Bork not confirmed; Anthony Kennedy
    • Simpson Mazzoli Act of 1986 (Immigration Reform and Control Act)
      • Penalties to employers
      • Amnesty to aliens living in US since 1982
    • Iran Contra
the reagan revolution206
The Reagan Revolution
  • Economic
    • Reaganomics – supply-side ideas of Friedman and Laffer
    • Tax cuts = more revenue because more jobs = more taxes
    • Ease regulation on business
    • Government spending increased from 18 to 23% of GDP from 1960-1980; welfare shift
    • Economic Recovery Act – taxes cut 25%; top rate from 75% to 50%; capital gains taxes cut; budget cuts = $32.5 billion
    • Fired Air traffic controllers in 1981 – more than 11,000
the reagan revolution207
The Reagan Revolution
  • Economic
    • Increased payroll taxes for Social Security, reduced the growth rate of benefits (COLA); increased retirement age for full benefits
    • Income Tax Reform Act of 1986 – abandoned progressive taxation; 14 brackets compressed into 2 – 15%, 28%; low income earners taken off tax rolls; corporate taxes cut but became subject to an alternative minimum tax
    • Welfare reform – changes to AFDC – one person in two-person family had to search for a job; if failed had to take job in public works program
the reagan revolution208
The Reagan Revolution
  • Economic
    • Military build up – rebuild Navy to 600 ship level; modernize nuclear Air Force; implement SDI defense budget rose from $179 billion to $279 billion – smaller share of GDP than during Vietnam
    • Savings and Loan debacle – failure of lending institutions; made shaky commercial loans
    • National debt increased due to deficit spending
    • Debt $789 billon in 1981; $3.0 trillion in 1992; by 2000 $5.0 trillon
    • Economic recovery began in 1983 – stagflation ended
    • Increased gap between rich and poor
the reagan revolution209
The Reagan Revolution
  • Economic
    • Increased gap between rich and poor
the reagan revolution210
The Reagan Revolution
  • Social
    • Right to Life vs. Right to Choice
    • Affirmative Action – upheld as set asides or preferences (quotas) for designated minorities
    • Rise of the Religious Right; Evangelicals united around overturning Roe, returning prayer to schools, opposition to gay rights, censorship of anti-family media, teaching creationism, opposition to sex education in public school, and feminism;
    • Moral Majority founded by Reverend Jerry Falwell
history of major economic panics depressions
History of Major Economic Panics/ Depressions
  • Panic of 1819
  • Panic of 1837
  • Panic of 1857
  • Panic of 1873
  • Panic of 1893
  • Panic of 1907/8
  • Recession of 1920-21
  • Great Depression 1929-1941
  • Stagflation late 1960s and 70s, including the Oil Crisis / Energy Crisis 1973
  • Black Monday 1987
  • Savings and Loan Crisis 1989-91
  • Burst of dot-com bubble 2001
  • Financial crisis 2007-present
history of rebellion
History of Rebellion
  • Bacon’s Rebellion 1676
  • Stono Rebellion 1739
  • Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763
  • Paxton Boys 1763
  • Regulators 1771
  • Shays’s Rebellion 1786
  • Whiskey Rebellon 1794
  • Fries’s Rebellion 1799 (Pennsylvania protest against property tax)
  • Prosser’s Rebellion 1800
  • Tecumseh’s Revolt 1811
  • Vesey’s Revolt 1822
  • Turner’s Rebellion 1831
history of rebellion213
History of Rebellion
  • New York’s Anti-rent War 1839 (revolt of feudal-like tenants of Van Rensselaer – obligations abolished in 1846)
  • Dorr Rebellion 1841-42
  • Brown’s Massacre 1856; Harper’s Ferry 1859
  • Civil War Draft Riots 1863
  • Coxey’s March1894
  • Green Corn Rebellion 1917 (Oklahoma; socialist anti war/Germans, blacks, Indians)
  • Race Riots – 1918-19
  • Bonus March 1932
  • Race Riots – “long hot summers” Harlem 1964; Watts 1965; Detroit 1967
  • Chicago Riots 1968
  • Anti-war riots – Kent State 1971
pre columbian era up to 1492
Pre-Columbian Era (up to 1492)
  • Themes
    • Myths, legends, tales and lyrics
    • No written literature; oral and diverse
    • Reverence for nature as spiritual and physical mother
    • Epics (each tribe)
early american and colonial period up to 1492 1776
Early American and Colonial Period up to (1492-1776)
  • Themes
    • Tales of exploration in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (Norse, Spanish, French, English)
    • Records of settled colonies during seventeenth century – most anthologized creation of a nation
    • Puritanical literature
      • most intellectual colonists in history
      • between 1630-1690 as many college graduates in New England as in all of the mother country
      • wrote of Calvinist themes; all of life is expression of divine (Transcendentalists, later)
      • Emphasis on hard work and education
    • Southern and Middle Colonies
      • Aristocratic and secular reflecting social and economic systems of plantation life; shaped by ideal of noble gentry and leisure
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Early American and Colonial Period up to (1492-1776)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Christopher Columbus
    • Thomas Hariot (Roanoake)
    • John Smith
    • John Winthrop, A Model of Christian Charity, 1630
    • William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, (1651)
    • Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)
    • Edward Taylor (1644-1729)
    • Cotton Mather (1663-1728)
    • Roger Williams (1603-1683)
    • Jonathan Edwards –Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, 1741
    • William Berkeley and William Byrd
    • Olaudah Equiano (Gustavus Vassa) (1745-1797), Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, 1789
democratic origins and revolutionary writers 1776 1820
Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers (1776-1820)
  • Themes:
    • Outstanding political writing; no new literature
    • Stressed Enlightenment ideals and independence; some Loyalist literature too
    • American identity
    • Took fifty years to win “cultural” independence from Britain
democratic origins and revolutionary writers 1776 1820219
Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers (1776-1820)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Benjamin Franklin, “America’s first great man of letters,” Poor Richard’s Almanac (1732) Autobiography (1758)
    • Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer (1782)
    • Thomas Paine Common Sense (1776)
    • Thomas Jefferson The Declaration of Independence (1776), the 1786 Statute on Religious Freedom for Virginia (1786)
    • Madison, Hamilton, and Jay, The Federalist (1789)
    • Noah Webster The Spelling Book (1783)
    • Philip Freneau, “The Poet of the Revolution”
    • Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784) – religious themes with neoclassical style; not critical of slavery
the first american literature 1820s and 30s
The First American Literature (1820s and 30s)
  • Themes:
    • American subjects; historical perspectives, themes of change and nostalgia
    • Signal beginning of an “American” literature
  • Important writers and works:
    • Washington Irving, Sketch Book (1819-20) “Rip Van Winkle” and “Sleepy Hollow”
    • James Fenimore Cooper – Leather-Stocking Tales (1823-1841) “Last of the Mohicans”
the romantic period 1820 1860
The Romantic Period (1820-1860)
  • Themes:
    • Originated in Germany electrified artistic and intellectual circles
    • Art as inspiration, spiritual and aesthetic dimension of nature
    • Art rather than science could best express universal truth
    • Stress of individualism and value of common man; democracy
    • Development of self; self-awareness; intuition and self-reliance
    • Self and nature as one
    • Moral duty to reform social inequalities
    • Inspired Transcendentalists and others
the romantic period 1820s 1860
The Romantic Period (1820s-1860)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature (1836)
    • Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1854), “Civil Disobedience” (1849)
    • Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (1855)
    • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, “The Song of Hiawatha” (1855),
    • James Russell Lowell
    • Oliver Wendell Holmes
    • John Greenleaf Whittier
    • Margret Fuller, The Dial
    • Emily Dickinson
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The Romantic Period (1820s-1860)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of Seven Gables (1851) The Scarlet Letter (1850)
    • Herman Melville, Moby Dick (1851)
    • Edgar Allan Poe, dark, gothic themes science fiction, horror and fantasy “Raven” (1845) is best-known poem
    • Angela and Sarah Grimke
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Sojourner Truth
    • Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
    • Frederick Douglass Narrative (1845)
the rise of realism 1860 1914
The Rise of Realism (1860-1914)
  • Themes:
    • Civil War, Industrial Revolution, and immigration change America
    • Social Darwinism
    • Damage of economic forces and alienation of weak; need inner strength and individuality to survive
    • Muckrakers
the rise of realism 1860 1914225
The Rise of Realism (1860-1914)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Mark Twain, Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
    • Bret Harte “The Outcasts of Poker Flat”
    • Kate Chopin The Awakening (1889)
    • William Dean Howells edits Atlantic Monthly beginning in 1871
    • William James, Principles of Psychology (1890); Pragmatism (1907)
    • Henry James, The American (1877), The Portrait of a Lady (1881) The Ambassadors (1903)
    • Stephen Crane The Red Badge of Courage (1895), Maggie (1893)
    • Jack London, The Call of the Wild (1903)
    • Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie (1900); The Financier (1912);An American Tragedy (1925);
    • Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879)
    • Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888)
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The Rise of Realism (1860-1914)
  • Important writers and works:
    • FrankNorris, The Octopus (1901)
    • Ida M. Tarbell, The History of Standard Oil Company (1904)
    • Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (1904)
    • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906)
    • Willa Cather, O Pioneers (1913), My Antonia (1918)
    • Carl Sandburg “Chicago” (1914)
    • Booker T. Washington, D.E.B. DuBois
    • Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896)
    • James Weldon Johnson “O Black and Unknown Bards” (1917)
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The Rise of Realism (1860-1914)
  • Henry Adams The Education of Henry Adams (1907)
  • Jack London The Call of the Wild (1903)
  • Ida B. Wells, A Red Record (1892)
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898)
  • Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor (1881)
  • McClures, Colliers, Everybody’s
  • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Thorstien Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
  • Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life (1910)
modernism and experimentation 1914 1945
Modernism and Experimentation (1914-1945)
  • Themes:
    • Critical of materialism and conformity “Lost Generation”
    • Themes of Freudian Psychology
    • Description of horrors of Depression
modernism and experimentation 1914 1945229
Modernism and Experimentation (1914-1945)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Gertrude Stein
    • William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury (1929), As I Lay Dying (1930), Absalom, Absalom! (1936)
    • Ezra Pound
    • T.S. Eliot “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” (1915), “The Waste Land” (1922)
    • Robert Frost
    • William Carlos Williams
    • Hart Crane
    • Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Jean Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby (1925)
    • Eugene O’Neill, Strange Interlude (1928)
    • Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows (1925)
modernism and experimentation 1914 1945230
Modernism and Experimentation (1914-1945)
  • Important writers and works:
    • H.L. Mencken
    • ee. Cummings
    • Sherwood Anderson, Winesburg, Ohio (1919)
    • Ernest Hemmingway, The Sun Also Rises (1926), The Old Man and the Sea (1952), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
    • Sinclair Lewis, Main Street (1920), Arrowsmith (1925), Babbitt (1922), Elmer Gantry (1927)
    • John Dos Passos, U.S.A. - included The 42nd Parallel (1930), 1919 (1932), the Big Money (1936)
    • John Stienbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939), Of Mice and Men (1937), East of Eden (1952)
the post war world 1945 1990
The Post War World (1945-1990)
  • Themes:
    • Realism in late 40s – war not glorified
    • History as discontinuous
    • Provisional style and form; makeshift, reflexive composition; originality
    • Ambiguity, fragmentation, and chaos
    • Dark implications of American Dream
    • Counterculture
the post war world 1945 1990232
The Post War World (1945-1990)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Allen Ginsberg, Howl (1957)
    • Jack Kerouac On the Road (1957)
    • Norman Mailer, The Naked and the Dead (1948)
    • James Jones, From Here to Eternity (1951)
    • Sylvia Plath The Bell Jar (1963)
    • Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique (1963)
    • Joseph Heller, Catch-22 (1961)
    • Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Slaughterhouse-Five (1969)
    • Robert Penn Warren, All the King’s Men (1946)
    • Arthur Miller, The Crucible (1953), Death of a Salesman (1949)
    • Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie (1944), A Streetcar Named Desire (1949), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955)
    • Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun (1959)
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The Post War World (1945-1990)
  • Important writers and works:
    • Ralph Ellison The Invisible Man (1952)
    • Richard Wright, Native Son (1940)
    • James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (1963)
    • Saul Bellow, The Adventures of Augie March (1953)
    • John Updike, “Rabbit” books, Rabbit, Run (1960)
    • J.D. Salinger, Catcher in the Rye (1951)
    • Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (1977)
    • Alice Walker, The Color Purple (1982)
major schools and themes
Major Schools and Themes
  • Nationalistic Portraits/Revolutionary Themes, 1775-1830
    • John Trumbull
    • Charles Wilson Peale
    • Gilbert Stuart
    • John Singleton Copely
  • The Hudson River School and Romanticism, 1830-late 19th Century; landscape – first indigenous painters
    • Thomas Cole
    • Frederick Church
    • Albert Bierstadt
  • Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer and James McNeal Whistler – Realism in late nineteenth century
major schools and themes236
Major Schools and Themes
  • French impressionism inspires Mary Cassatt (late nineteenth)
  • Ashcan School 1890-1925; realistic portrayals of turn of the century life
    • Robert Henri
    • William Glackens
    • George Luks
    • John Sloan
    • George Bellows
  • Modernism after 1913
  • Depression Era – Thomas Hart Benton/Edward Hopper; antimodernist; regionalist, isolationist, xenophobic
  • Post World War II – return to modernism
    • Jackson Pollock
    • Mark Rothko
  • Pop Art – 1960s
    • Andy Warhol