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Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1800

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  1. Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1800

  2. Political (Colonial Era –1763) • European Renaissance • The Reformation • Quest for Empire • Spanish • French • British • Dutch • Chesapeake Colonies • Great PuritanMigration

  3. Political (Colonial Era –1763) • Colonial governments • How democratic? • How innovative? • Founding documents? • New England Confederation (1643-1654) • English Civil War • Proprietary and Restoration Colonies • Salutary Neglect • Trend towards centralization of Empire • Dominion of New England • Obstacles in America • Glorious Revolution in America • Georgia – buffer colony

  4. Economic (Colonial Era –1763) • Mercantilism • Expectations • Impact • Navigation Acts • Tobacco Culture of Chesapeake • Headright system • Indentured servitude/slavery • Economic diversity of New England • Cereal grain and livestock in Middle Colonies

  5. Social/Cultural (Colonial Era –1763) • Regional distinctions and similarities • Environment = economy and health (geographic determinism) • Religious backgrounds (cultural transference) • Democratic/deferential • Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649) • Religious declension – Halfway Covenant (1662) • Ethnic diversity • Enlightenment • Great Awakening

  6. Military/Diplomatic (Colonial Era –1763) • Spanish Armada (1588) • Imperial Wars/North American Wars • King William’s War (1689-1697) • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) • King George’s War (1739-1748) • Indian Wars • Powhatan Massacre (1622) (347, 1/3rd die) (1644) • Pequot War (1637) • King Philip’s War (1675-1676) (1 in 20 die) • French and Indian War/Albany Plan of Union

  7. Puritanism • John Calvin/Calvinism as inspiration • Doctrines • Reasons for Migration • Goals of Puritans • Great Migration • Values • Demise • Great Awakening • Revivalism/Itinerant Ministry • Impact • Successful?

  8. The Enlightenment • Foundations in Scientific Revolution • Descartes and Reason • Intellectual underpinnings • Intellectual freedom • Locke and the “tabula rasa” • Natural law • Deism • Impact on America

  9. Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England • Prior to 1763 • Desire to centralize Empire • Governors • Proprietary Colonies • Trend to Royal Status by 1770s • Dominion of New England (1686-1689) • Board of Trade and Plantations (Privy Council) • Mercantilism • Failure to centralize (Salutary Neglect) • Distance • Global Nature • Problems at home and abroad (Wars for Empire/English Civil War/Glorious Revolution) • Frontier/rural conditions and foreign immigrants in America

  10. Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England II. By 1750 • Colonists maturing politically, economically, and socially/culturally • Representative assemblies • 2 million people • Identity/unity? • Overall, Colonists still happy with English Empire • Some resentment toward second class citizenship • Some resentment of debt to British bankers

  11. Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England • French and Indian War increases tensions • British concerns • American concerns • 1763 • British expect to enforce mercantilism • British expect to centralize empire • British expect to raise revenue in America • Americans resist British expectations • Reasons • Methods • Colonial Unity

  12. Objective Analysis of Colonial Relationship to England • British Reaction • Parliamentary supremacy • Repeal of Stamp Act • Repeal of Townshend Acts (except Tea) • Punishment of Massachusetts • Rebellion is consequence of failure on part of colonists to obtain desired reform and on Britain’s failure to accept federalism and reality • Lexington and Concord • Second Continental Congress and Declaration of Independence

  13. Colonial Expansion • Positives • West represents adventure, opportunity and freedom • Land is abundant – land=liberty/social mobility • Religious dissenters find tolerance and absence of church authority • Hard work (individualism and self reliance key to success) • Result: America is more tolerant, democratic, and mobile

  14. Colonial Expansion • Negatives • Poor transportation and communication • Life is hard, conditions are primitive • Indian menace • French hostilities • Speculators • East/West tension over representation, land policy, taxes, protection (Bacon, Leisler, Regulators, Paxton Boys) • Result: unity is difficult

  15. Colonial Expansion • British close frontier in 1763 • Treaty of Paris • British motive • American reaction • During Revolution • Western tribes fight with Britain • Treaty of 1783 fixes border at Mississippi • Confederation Era • Western land policy major accomplishment of Articles • Land Ordinance of 1785 • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  16. Colonial Expansion • Western states begin empowering more white males • Shays’s Rebellion shows East/West tensions not solved • Government under Articles cannot: • Force British out of forts (encourage Indian hostilities) • Get spain to sign treaty allowing access to Mississippi River or right of deposit at New Orleans • New Constitution creates more powerful federal government • Pinckney Treaty, 1795 • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

  17. Democracy in America 1750-1776 • How democratic were the colonies? • Democratic • Distance from England allows for autonomy and local control • New England town hall meetings • Colonial assemblies • American environment allowed for more mobility and democracy • Americans more tolerant • Impact of Great Awakening • Impact of the Enlightenment • American Revolution

  18. Democracy in America 1750-1776 • How democratic were the colonies? • Not very democratic • Patriarchy • Slavery • Poor are disfranchised • Deference, especially in South • South less democratic (ex. North Carolina)

  19. Topical Review: 1763-1800

  20. Political (1763-1800) • Political expectations of mother country/British system of government • Political motives for Revolution • Writs/privacy • Admiralty courts/jury • Denial of right to tax without representation • Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Tea • Republicanism/self government

  21. Political (1763-1800) • Methods of American Resistance • Written letters, pamphlets, editorials, resolutions • Threats, intimidation, violence • Organizations • Sons/Daughters of Liberty; Stamp Act Congress;Continental Association; Committees of Correspondence; First and Second Continental Congresses • Boycott • Galloway plan/Olive Branch Petition • Declaration of Independence • Creation of state/federal governments • Process; similarities; radical/conservative victories

  22. Political (1763-1800) • Government policy favors westward expansion • Shays’s Rebellion=sign • Federalist Era • Establishment of new government/precedents; Bill of Rights; Rise of Political parties; Whiskey Rebellion; Alien and Sedition Acts; Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions • Rise of the two-party system (because domestic and foreign policy issues) • Judiciary Act 1789 • Washington’s Farewell Address • Demise of the Federalists • Revolution of 1800

  23. Economic (1763-1800) • Economic motives of mother country • Economic motives for Revolution • Economic problems during Confederation Era • Shays’s Rebellion; debt; interstate rivalries • Class/economic/geographic divisions between federalists and anti-federalists • Economic Interpretation of the Constitution – Beard • Hamilton’s Program – Four main parts/opposition response • Whiskey Rebellion • Cotton Gin

  24. Social/Cultural (1763-1800) • How revolutionary was the Revolution? • Blacks; women; common men • How united/how American? • Literature during period • Deism • Meritocracy/natural aristocracy

  25. The Constitution of 1787 • Reasons for: • No enforcement • Weak congress and military • Inability to amend • Debt/state rivalry • Who went to Philadelphia • Conservatives; nationalists; American leaders; wealthy/elite • The Debate: • Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan = Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise/Roger Sherman

  26. The Constitution of 1787 • The Document • Powers delegated • Powers denied states • Federalism • Separation of Powers • Checks and Balances • Republican government/virtue of people • Ratification debates • Federalists vs. Anti-federalists • The Federalist Papers • Bill of Rights

  27. Democracy in America 1760s-1800 • Does the Revolutionary Era greatly change America? (How “revolutionary” or “radical”?) • Democracy as concern for individual, natural rights and self-government • Yes • Radical patriots want more democracy at home and home rule • State constitutions reflect fear of centralized authority • Lower property requirements for voting (ex. Mass) • Increased religious freedom • Enlarge and empower lower branch of legislature

  28. Democracy in America 1760s-1800 • Appoint or elect more humble upper house (no blood ties; natural aristocracy) • Weaken executives (or get rid of!) • Lower or abolish primogeniture and entail • Make titles illegal • Expand public education (esp. in NE) • Include bills of rights • Women vote in New Jersey • Northern abolition of slavery; southern manumission • Radicals establish weak central government – want local control, distrust distant authority • Articles • No executive or courts; No tax or regulation of commerce; Weak congress; Weak military; Article II • States are empowered

  29. Democracy in America 1760s-1800 • No – America not more democratic after 1776 • Radicals make no legal provisions for women, free blacks, or slaves • No alleviation of East/West tension • Counterrevolution? of 1787 checks radical revolution of 1776 (Beard) • Stronger federal government • Check of mob democracy; protect interests of elite • But, all desire republican government; virtue/more faith lies within the people • Democratic ratification process • Bill of Rights • “Revolution” of 1800

  30. Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800) • Women • Expanded role on frontier • Ratio in South still reflects gender imbalance • Legal code favors men everywhere • No vote; no property ownership once married • Model traditional role in more established areas • “Republican Motherhood” (white, middle/upper class) • Overall: more choices; more options than English women • Remember Abigail Adams; Judith Sargent Murray

  31. Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800) • Blacks • Slavery=ultimate human degradation • 750,000 slaves • Only blacks/Indians • Legal in all colonies before 1776 • Frowned upon by Quakers • Not economic necessity in North, so fewer • 1776 tobacco market unstable and egalitarianism raised questions • Willing manumission; closing of African Slave Trade (1774 in RI; all by 1786); Northern Abolition • No state in south will abolish • Few win freedom for fighting in Revolution as promised

  32. Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800) • Blacks • “Slavery” not used in Constitution • 3/5’s Compromise • 1808 abolition of slave trade • Fugitive slave provision • Indians • Fought in imperial wars and Revolution • Capitalized on European rivalries; offered trade and hunting lands • Iroquois = British; Algonquin = French • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Fear of land encroachment causes tribes to fight against Americans in 1776 • After independence: not citizens; foreign entities; encroachment continues

  33. Impact of Revolutionary America on Minorities (1750-1800) • Non-Anglo immigrants • Scots, Scots-Irish, German, French Huguenots • Most settle in Middle Colonies or backcountry • Many disfranchised • Non-Protestant discrimination is high

  34. Development of Black Culture in Slavery • General factors • West African heritage – language, traditions, religion; retain some practices • Congo Square in New Orleans – Sunday meetings permitted (in other urban areas too) • Autonomy on larger plantations – gather and sustain traditional practices • Rebels: Stono (1739) Gabriel Prosser (1800), Nat Turner (1831), Denmark Vessy (1822), Amistad (1839) • blending influence with English, French, Spanish language, culture, religion

  35. Development of Black Culture in Slavery • Family • Emphasis on informal family arrangements • Community on large plantations; families aided by others, children cared for by all • Children raised primarily by mothers (breakup of family) • Broken up often keep contact, reunite after Civil War • Naming traditions of giving families different names than the imposed by slave owner

  36. Development of Black Culture in Slavery • Music • Instruments brought from Africa (banjo, fiddle, mandolin, gourds, drums; also clapping and free body expressions and dancing • Gospels, hymns, and spirituals evolve while working in field and expression of resistance and protest; Creole or pidgin English • Picked up practices from white churches and urban settings • Blues and jazz evolved out of slave music

  37. Development of Black Culture in Slavery • Oral Traditions • Heavy reliance developed; spread by conjurers and shamans thought to have spiritual or magical powers • Prohibitions of teaching literacy • Large plantations, slaves able to meet especially in evening – used to disseminate oral traditions and belief in liberation • Creole, pidgin English, Gullah dialect distinct language variations • Used folk tales and Bible to tech lessons about surviving under oppression

  38. Development of Black Culture in Slavery • Religion • Some brought from Africa and practiced in America • Blending traditions (voodoo), with Christianity, especially where slaves attended white churches • Free black preachers, rebel leaders, abolitionists formed Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts • Black churches begun in urban areas • Presented Christianity as demanding subservience and obedience, but interpreted as message of liberation • Understood Christ as ministering to the poor and oppressed not the rich and oppresive

  39. Topical Review: 1800-1860

  40. Political (1800-1860) • Trend towards increasing democracy • Jeffersonian; Jacksonian (symbol of common man/changes electoral politics) • Era of Good Feelings • Jacksonian/Antebellum Reform • Temperance; prison/asylum; education; utopian communities; women; abolition; Transcendentalism • Rebirth of two party system • Spoils System/nominating conventions/rotation • Nullification Crisis – Webster-Hayne Debate • Manifest Destiny/Indian Removal/Trail of Tears • Increasing nationalism/increasing sectionalism • Reasons/examples/impact

  41. Economic (1800-1860) • Violations of American shipping • Reasons/results • American reaction to War of 1812 • Tariff (1816); Second BUS; rise of manufacturing/decline of commerce • Overall prosperous why? • Expansion; King Cotton; population growth and urbanization in North; increasing technology (coal, improved transportation – canals, steamboats and rail at end of era, telegraph • Lowell, Waltham Mills – “putting out” • Commonwealth v. Hunt 1842

  42. Economic (1800-1860) • Jackson as anti-monopoly/special interest • American System (Clay, Whigs) • Tariffs of 1828,1832, 1833, 1846 • Marshall court to 1835 • Taney court – pro states rights (Charles River Bridge v. Warren River Bridge) • Killing of the BUS • California Gold Rush • Economic Sectionalism • Panics – 1837, 1857

  43. Social/Cultural (1800-1860) • Rise of public schools and private universities; instill American values • Literary nationalism and romanticism – Irving, Cooper, Longfellow, “Fireside” poets • Transcendentalism • Individualism; self-reliance; non-conformity; intuition • Know God through nature • Active in abolition and other reforms • Emerson, Thoreau • Intellectual Independence

  44. Social/Cultural (1800-1860) • Second Great Awakening • Finney, Channing – Unitarianism • Response to rationalism and deism • Perfectibility of man • Art is romantic too • Hudson River School reflects nature, noble savage; nature=awesome • Frederic Church, Audubon Society • Theater/minstrel shows popular • Rise of Mormons (1830, NY) • Joseph Smith, Killed in Nauvoo, IL • Brigham Young, Mormon Trek, 1847 (perfectibility)

  45. Social/Cultural (1800-1860) • Nativism • Reaction to Irish and German immigration in 1830s-50s • Know-Nothings (American Party) • Discrimination, especially against Irish • Urbanization slowly beginning; poor conditions in cities

  46. Civil War • Reasons for: • Expansion led to tension over slavery expansion • States rights vs. Nationalism/federalism • Abolition movement led to tension over morality of slavery (Positive Good) • Economic and cultural divergence of North and South

  47. Civil War • Key events leading to: • Colonial economies, Declaration, Constitutional debates, political/economic and cultural sectionalism • Missouri Compromise 1820 • Nullification Crisis 1832 • Texas Annexation 1836-45 • Mexican Cession 1848 • Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852, Slavery as it is (Weld), The Impending Crisis of the South (Helper) • Gadsden Purchase 1853/transcontinental railroad/Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

  48. Civil War • Key events leading to: • Division of Democratic Party and rise of Republican party 1854-60 (sectional parties) • Bleeding Kansas/John Brown at Potawatomie Creek/Lecompton Constitution • Sumner/Brooks Affair • Dred Scott Decision 1857 • Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 • John Brown’s Raid 1859 • Election of Lincoln 1860 • Secession of South Carolina 1860, six others in early 1861, four others after Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers in late 1861

  49. Civil War • Key battles: • Sumter; border states; Lincoln’s call for troops • Manassas • Shiloh • Antietam • Gettysburg • Atlanta • Wilderness-Appomattox • Trent Affair/British and French support • Emancipation Proclamation 1863

  50. Topical Review: 1875-1900