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The American Colonies and Their Government Chapter 4

The American Colonies and Their Government Chapter 4

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The American Colonies and Their Government Chapter 4

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  1. The American Colonies and Their GovernmentChapter 4

  2. Influences on American Colonial GovernmentLesson 1 • Essential Questions: • How does geography influence the development of communities? • Why do people create, structure, and change governments? • It Matters Because: • Ancient peoples and the great thinkers of the Enlightenment influenced how the Founders shaped our government in ways that still affect us today

  3. The Foundations of Democracy • Democracy- a government in which citizens hold the power to rule • Direct Democracy • Representative Democracy • Direct Democracy- a form of democracy in which the vote first hand • Representative Democracy- a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf • Republic • Constitutional Monarchy

  4. Ancient Democracies • Ancient Greeks created the first direct democracy • 400s B.C, Athens • Men 18 and older could take part in the assembly • Decisions made by council of 500 • Citizens took turns serving on the council • Members were paid for their services

  5. Republic • The Romans created the first republic- • a representative democracy where citizens choose their lawmakers • Government was put in the hands of the senate • Senate members were wealthy upper class members called patricians • Senate elected two members called consults • The consults lead the government

  6. Early English Influences • Since the collapse of the Roman Empire (A.D 476) • Kings and Queens and Lords ruled Europe for the next 700 years • Lords- noblemen who usually inherited land, wealth and power • Overtime the growth of towns as business and trade centers weakened the power of the lords • Kings gained greater control of their kingdoms • Nobles resisted this change • In England they rose up against King John in 1215 • He was forced to sign a document called the Magna Carta • Latin for “Great Charter”

  7. The Magna Carta • Limited the power of the King • Forbade him from placing certain taxes on nobles without their consent • It gave rights to free men • Right to equal treatment under the law • Right to trial by one’s peers • Right to rebel if the King broke his part of the agreement

  8. Limited Government • Limited Government- the idea that a ruler or government is not all powerful • At first the Magna Cartarights only protected the nobles • Overtime those rights came to apply to all English people • The Magna Carta established limited government

  9. Parliament • After King John, Kings were advised by noble and church officials • Gradually these advisors grew to include representatives of the common people • By the late 1300s the advisors had become a legislature • Legislature- a group of people that make laws • English monarch remained strong • 1625- King Charles I dismissed Parliament and ruled alone • Petitions of Right- like the Magna Carta, Charles I, was forced to sign it • Civil war broke out when Charles I didn’t abide by the terms • Charles I was removed as King, beheaded, and Parliament ruled for 20 years • King James II the son was place back on the throne

  10. The English Bill of Rights • In 1688 Parliament forced King James II from the throne • The son of Charles I • His daughter Mary and husband William were asked to rule • This transfer of power was known as the “Glorious Revolution

  11. The English Bill of Rights • Mary and William had to accept rules set by Parliament • English citizens had rights that no king could violate • Citizens had the right to a fair trial • They could not be taxed unless Parliament agreed • These Rights became known as the English Bill of Rights • The signing of the English Bill of Rights brought an end to the struggles between Parliament and the monarch

  12. Influence of the Enlightenment • Guiding Question: How did Europe’s Enlightenment influence ideas about government in what became the United States? • The conflict between Parliament and the monarch produced new ideas about Government

  13. Enlightenment • Enlightenment- a large cultural movement in Europe driven by ideas • 1600s, scientific discoveries led to the belief that God had created an orderly universe • The laws that controlled the universe could be discovered through human reasoning • Apply the laws that ruled nature to people and society • This change in how some people saw their world is called the Enlightenment • It had a great effect on political thinking in Europe and the Americas

  14. Enlightenment Thinkers • Niccolo Machiavelli -1469-1525 • Renaissance writer , wrote the book The Prince • “it is safer for a ruler to be feared than loved” • Although he praised republics as the best form of government • Many enlightenment thinkers look to Machiavelli

  15. Enlightenment Thinkers • Thomas Hobbes -1588-1679 • Early enlightenment thinker (English) • Experienced the English Civil War first hand • Believed that a social contract existed between the people and the government • People agreed to give up some freedom and be ruled by government • Government had to protect the people’s rights • He believe that people needed a strong leader because they were too selfish to be able to rule themselves

  16. Enlightenment Thinkers • John Locke -1632-1704 -English • Influenced by the events of the Glorious Revolution • Published “Two Treatises of Government” • A treatise is a long essay • All people are born equal with certain God-given rights called natural rights • Rights to life, freedom and to own property • He also believed in a form of social contract • If the ruler failed to protect the rights of people, the contract was broken

  17. Enlightenment Thinkers • Jean-Jacques Rousseau -1712-1778 • He wrote “The Social Contract” -1762 • “Man is born free, yet everywhere he is found in chains” • He was referring to Europeans living with little freedom • He believed that people should have right to decide how they should be governed

  18. Enlightenment Thinkers • Baron de Montesquieu -1689-1755, French • Developed the idea that the power of government should be divided into branches • He believed no one branch would become to strong and threaten peoples rights • The idea of separation of powers

  19. Enlightenment Thinkers • Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) -1694-1778 • People should have liberty • Supported freedom of religion and freedom of trade • Social contract, natural rights, and separation of powers influenced the writers of • The Declaration of independence • U. S. Constitution

  20. The First Colonial Governments • Guiding Question: How were first English colonies in America shaped by earlier ideas about democracy and government? • Colony- an area of land in one place controlled by a country in another place • Early colonists were loyal to England • They brought to America the traditions, beliefs, and changes that had shaped England’s government • Individual rights and representative government

  21. Jamestown • First permanent English settlement • Located in what is now Virginia • Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company • A business owned by a group of London merchants • Ruled by a governor and a council • The company appointed the officials

  22. Jamestown Government • In 1619 the Virginia Company allow the colony to make their own laws • This attracted more settlers • Colonists elected leaders to represent them in an assembly • Leaders were called burgesses • The assembly was called the House of Burgesses • The beginning of self-government and representative democracy in colonial America

  23. Plymouth Settlement • Pilgrims arrived in 1620 • They set sail for Virginia on the ship Mayflower • They were seeking religious freedom • Blown off course by a storm • Landed off the coast of Massachusetts • To survive they needed to form their own government

  24. Mayflower Compact • Before they went on land they drew up the Mayflower Compact • Written agreement • They agreed to choose leaders and work together to make their own laws for the colony • They agreed to obey the laws • The people in Plymouth held town meetings to discuss problems and make decisions

  25. Lesson 2Settlement, Culture, and Government of the Colonies • Essential Question: • How does geography influence the development of communities ? • Why do people create, structure and change governments? • It matters Because: • The reasons early settlers came to America and the economies and governments that grew helped to shape the new United States and continues to influence American culture today.

  26. Settling the English Colonies • Settlers mostly came from England • Others came from: • Scotland, Ireland, and Wales • Germany • Africa (Slaves) • Amsterdam (Dutch) • Sweden

  27. Economic Opportunity • Most settlers settled here for a chance to earn a living • The colonies had land for farming and other jobs • Those who could not afford to pay for the voyage came as indentured servants • Indentured servants- a worker who contracted with American colonists for food and shelter in return for his or her labor • They worked for 4-7 years or until the debt was paid

  28. Religious Freedom • There was much religious unrest in England • Some groups were persecuted or treated harshly because of their religious beliefs • Some groups decided to come to the English colonies for religious freedom • Puritans founded Massachusetts • They were called Puritans because they wanted to reform or purify the church in England • Puritans were dissenters- one who opposes official or commonly held views

  29. Religious Freedom • Puritans wanted to worship God in their own way • They did not allow others the same freedom • They forced others to leave their colony • Rhode Island- founded by Roger Williams • Known for its religious freedom • Connecticut- founded by Thomas Hooker • Connecticut developed America’s first written constitution • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • Colonists would elect an assembly of representatives from each town • They also elected a governor

  30. Colonial Life • Guiding Question: How was life in the colonies shaped by where people lived? • People lived in different ways depending on where they settled • The features of its geography influenced each colony’s economy • By 1733 England had 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast • Three economic regions were developed

  31. New England Colonies • Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island • Located farthest north • Most people lived in towns • Cold climate and rocky soil made farming difficult • Many of the colonists were Puritans • Their religion stressed the value of thrift and hard work • Worked as shopkeepers, and other small businesses • Shipping and fishing • Hunting for fur, trading with Native Americans

  32. Middle Colonies • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware • Located south of New England • Climate and soil were better for agriculture • Cash crops- are grown in large quantities to be sold, not just to feed family • Many crops were sold oversees • Many businesses were owned by colonists from Germany, Holland and other European countries • Rich in Natural resources • Lumber, metals and natural harbors • Sawmills, mines, ironworks and other businesses grew

  33. The Southern Colonies • Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia • Warm climate, long growing season, and rich soil • Large-scale agriculture • Tobacco and rice became the main cash crops • Plantation- large farms • Many workers were needed • Indentured servants were used at first • Plantation owners became dependent on labor of enslaved Africans • Smaller farmers- further inland • Poorer soil and they mainly grew what they needed • Depended less on enslaved labor

  34. Colonial Government • Most colonies shared their English heritage and were loyal to England • England was far away • Colonists began to depend on their own governments and legislatures • Colonists began to think of themselves as Americans rather than English subjects

  35. Governing the Colonies • In the beginning England’s government paid little attention to the colonies • Parliament was in a political struggle with the King • The purpose of the colonies was to benefit England • 1650s Parliament began passing laws to regulate the colonies’ trade • These laws were hard to enforce • Colonists began to resent having less rights than people living in Great Britain

  36. Lesson 3Disagreements with Great Britain • Essential Question: Why do people create, structure, and change government • It Matters Because: • The events that led American colonists to declare independence affected the choices they made about a new government

  37. Social and Political Changes in the Colonies • Guiding Question: What events and movements affected colonial attitude? • The Great Awakening- religious movement from 1740s to 1760s • Swept across the colonies • Fiery preachers stressed the value of personal religious experience • They rejected the teachings of church leaders • Urged people to build a direct relationship with God • Pressed colonists to question traditional religious, and political authority

  38. Liberty • The Great Awakening movement created a strong spirit of liberty or personal freedom • Colonists wanted the same rights as people in Great Britain • Parliament created laws for colonists and most governors where appointed by the king • Growing resentment in the 1760s towards British rule

  39. The French and Indian War • Colonies were expanding westward (1750s) • France claimed those lands (Ohio Valley) • The tension led to war • The French and Indian War • In Europe England and France were at war • The war in Europe spread to America • The British won the war and took control of French lands • The war was over so the colonists expected the British troops to leave • The British troops did not leave

  40. New Laws and Taxes • French and Indian war left Britain in a lot of debt • Colonists caused the war by moving west • King George decided the colonists should pay for the war • He issued new taxes • He wanted to keep peace with the Native Americans • He issued an new proclamation or official statement that forbade the colonists from settling in the land won from the French • He placed over 10,000 British troops in the colonies to keep order • These actions enraged the colonists

  41. New Taxes • King George asked Parliament to tax the colonies to pay for war debt • In 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act • Colonists had to buy and place tax stamps on many kinds of documents • Colonists protested and called for a boycott, refused to buy, British goods • The believed only their representatives had the right to tax them • 1766 Parliament repealed or canceled the Stamp Act

  42. Colonial Dissatisfaction Grows • Guiding Question: What events increased colonists’ anger toward British rule? • Townshend Acts- placed duties (taxes) on a variety of goods the colonists imported from overseas • Colonists again resisted with boycott and protests • Parliament repealed all duties except for a tax on tea

  43. General Search Warrants • One of the Townshend Acts allowed for general search warrants • Combat smuggling- illegally moving goods in or out of a country • Warrants were called writs of assistance • Could enter any business or home to look for smuggled goods • Colonists were greatly angered John Hancock’s ship –The Liberty

  44. Tea Act- 1773 • The Tea Act of 1773 was not a tax • It allowed a British company that grew tea in India to import tea into the colonies without paying existing taxes • Colonies still had to pay taxes on their tea • Made the British companies tea cheaper • December 1773- Boston Tea Party • Colonists boarded British ships in Boston Harbor • In protest they dumped 342 chests of the British company’s tea into the water

  45. Parliament Response to Boston Tea Party • Parliament passed the Coercive Acts • These laws were meant to punish Massachusetts, especially Boston • They closed Boston Harbor • The laws were so harsh, colonists referred to them as the Intolerable Acts

  46. Steps Toward Independence • Guiding Question: What ideas about government influenced the Declaration of Independence? • Parliament thought that the Coercive Acts would frighten the colonists • Instead they had the reverse affect • The other colonies banded together to help Massachusetts and challenge British authority Boston Massacre –Engraving by Paul Revere

  47. The First Continental Congress • September 1774- Delegates from 12 Colonies met in Philadelphia • They met to plan a united response to the Coercive Acts • What should be done about the issues with Great Britain • They decided to send a letter to the King • Asked that Britain respect the colonists’ rights as British citizens • They also organized a total boycott of British goods, and a ban on all trade with Britain • King George’s response was for stronger measures • “Blows (a fight) must decide whether they are subject to this country or independent.”

  48. Second Continental Congress • The delegates met again in May 1775 • April 1775, British troops and colonial militiamen had fought at Lexington and Concord, in Massachusetts • Congress had to decide whether to work towards peace or to split with Great Britain • They debated for months • Support for independence grew in the colonies • January 1776, Thomas Paine published a pamphlet titled Common Sense –more than 500,000 sold • He used John Locke’s ideas to make a case for independence • By spring more than half of the delegates favored independence

  49. The Declaration of Independence • A committee was chosen to explain why the colonies should be free • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman • The committee chose Thomas Jefferson to write the document • He was influenced by the writings of • Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Voltaire • The Declaration of Independence was approved July 4, 1776 • John Hancock was the first to sign the document