Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 19 organic compounds n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

play fullscreen
1 / 149
Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
321 Views
Download Presentation
conor
Download Presentation

Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 19: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

  2. This lecture will help you understand: • Hydrocarbons • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons • Functional Groups • Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers • Amines and Alkaloids • Carbonyl Compounds • Polymers

  3. Organic Chemistry A branch of chemistry involving the study of carbon-containing chemical compounds.

  4. Organic Chemistry Organic Compound: A carbon containing chemical compound Over 13 million known! 100,000 new ones each year natural synthetic

  5. Organic Chemistry Why is carbon so special?

  6. Organic Chemistry Why is carbon so special? • Carbon atoms connect with one another through strong and stable covalent bonds.

  7. Organic Chemistry C C N C C C N N N N C N O S S S O O O O S S O

  8. Organic Chemistry C C N 347 kJ/mol C C C N N N N C N O S S S O O O O S S O

  9. Organic Chemistry C C N 347 kJ/mol 159 kJ/mol C C C N N N N C N O S S S O O O O S S O

  10. Organic Chemistry C C N 347 kJ/mol 159 kJ/mol C C C N N N N C N O S S S O O O O S S O 138 kJ/mol

  11. Organic Chemistry C C N 347 kJ/mol 159 kJ/mol C C C N N N N C N O 226 kJ/mol S S S O O O O S S O 138 kJ/mol

  12. Organic Chemistry S S S S S S S S Sulfur, S8

  13. Organic Chemistry S S S S S S S S Sulfur, S8 More atoms of the same element bound together like this is rare…

  14. Organic Chemistry S S S S S S S S Sulfur, S8 More atoms of the same element bound together like this is rare… …for every element except carbon….

  15. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Diamond C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

  16. Organic Chemistry Why is carbon so special? • Carbon atoms connect with one another through strong and stable covalent bonds. • Carbon atoms also readily form bonds with many other types of atoms. This provides for a near infinite number of different kinds of organic compounds.

  17. Organic Chemistry To appreciate organic chemistry, please minimize memorization…

  18. Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon: A chemical compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.

  19. Hydrocarbons

  20. Hydrocarbons Structural isomer: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different structures.

  21. Hydrocarbons Structural isomer: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different structures.

  22. Hydrocarbons Structural isomer: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different structures. “configurations”

  23. Hydrocarbons Structural isomer: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different configurations. Configuration: The specific way in which the atoms of a molecule are connected to one another.

  24. Hydrocarbons Structural isomer: Molecules having the same molecular formula but different configurations. Configuration: The specific way in which the atoms of a molecule are connected to one another. “Configuration” = “Connectivity”

  25. Number of possible isomers Formula C5H12 3 C6H14 5 C7H16 9 C8H18 18 C10H22 75 C20H42 366,319

  26. Hydrocarbons Conformation: The spatial orientation of a single configuration.

  27. Hydrocarbons Conformation: The spatial orientation of a single configuration. Rotate this bond

  28. Hydrocarbons Conformation: The spatial orientation of a single configuration.

  29. Hydrocarbons Conformation: The spatial orientation of a single configuration. Like pivoting your arm at the elbow

  30. Hydrocarbons Conformation: The spatial orientation of a single configuration. These are two “conformations” of the same configuration.

  31. Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14

  32. Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14

  33. Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14 c c c c c

  34. Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14 H H c H H H c c H H c c H H H H H

  35. Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C3H8 • C4H10 • C5H12 • C6H14 H H c H H H c c H H c c H H H H H

  36. Hydrocarbons

  37. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Carbon always forms four bonds.

  38. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Carbon always forms four bonds.

  39. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Carbon always forms four bonds. Some of these bonds, however, may be within multiple bonds.

  40. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Carbon always forms four bonds. Some of these bonds, however, may be within multiple bonds.

  41. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing one or more multiple bonds.

  42. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing one or more multiple bonds. A special case of an unsaturated hydrocarbon is the benzene ring.

  43. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing one or more multiple bonds. A special case of an unsaturated hydrocarbon is the benzene ring.

  44. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon containing one or more multiple bonds. A special case of an unsaturated hydrocarbon is the benzene ring.

  45. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C5H10 • C5H12 • C6H12 • C6H14

  46. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C5H10 • C5H12 • C6H12 • C6H14

  47. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C5H10 • C5H12 • C6H12 • C6H14 c c c c c

  48. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C5H10 • C5H12 • C6H12 • C6H14 H H c H H H c c H H c c H H H

  49. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons CHECK YOUR ANSWER What is the chemical formula for the following structure? A. C5H10 • C5H12 • C6H12 • C6H14 H H c H H H c c H H c c H H H

  50. Functional Groups Heteroatom: Any atom other than hydrogen or carbon in an organic molecule.