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Chapter 4. Ionic Compounds. Chemical Bonds. 2-types of bonding are found in compounds Ionic bond – Chapter 4 Covalent bond – Chapter 5. Ions. Ionic compounds – substances comprised of ions of a metal combined with ions of a nonmetal or group of non-metals. Ions. Metals Lose electrons

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Ionic Compounds

chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • 2-types of bonding are found in compounds
    • Ionic bond – Chapter 4
    • Covalent bond – Chapter 5
slide3
Ions
  • Ionic compounds – substances comprised of ions of a metal combined with ions of a nonmetal or group of non-metals
slide4
Ions
  • Metals
    • Lose electrons
    • Forms a cation
  • Nonmetals
    • Gain electrons
    • Forms an anion
ions and the octet rule
Ions and the Octet Rule
  • Stated
    • Metals form cations
    • Nonmetals form anions
  • Why?
    • An ion is formed so that the atom achieves noble gas configuration
      • Octet Rule – main group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with 8 electrons in outer shell
        • Outer shell – valence shell – highest period #
        • Outer electrons – valence electrons – e- in highest period #
electron dot symbols
Electron-Dot Symbols
  • Electron-dot symbol – An atomic symbol with dots placed around it to indicate the number of valence electrons
periodic properties and ion formation
Periodic Properties and Ion Formation
  • Ease by which an element forms a cation or anion is determined by the energy involved
periodic properties and ion formation9
Periodic Properties and Ion Formation
  • Ease by which a cation is formed – ionization energy
    • Metals have lower ionization energies than nonmetals
    • Ionization energy increases across a period
    • Ionization energy decreases down a group
periodic properties and ion formation10
Periodic Properties and Ion Formation
  • Ease by which an anion is formed – electron affinity
    • Nonmetals have larger electron affinities
    • Electron affinity values become more negative across a group
    • Electron affinity values become less negative down a group
ionic bond
Ionic Bond
  • Ionic bond – the glue that holds the metal and nonmetal together
    • Electrostatic attraction (magnets) – occurs when opposites attract
some properties of ionic compounds
Some Properties of Ionic Compounds
  • Usually crystalline
  • Ions in a solid do not move – do not conduct electricity
  • Once dissolved – ions move freely and conduct electricity
  • High melting and boiling points
  • Ionic solids shatter if struck hard
  • Ionic compounds dissolve in water if the attraction of ions to water is greater than the ions attraction to each other
problem
Problem
  • Which of the following ions occurs commonly? 
    • A.  N3+
    • B.  S6+
    • C.  O2-
    • D.  Ca+
    • E.  Cl+
problems
Problems
  • Which of the following ions occurs commonly? 
    • A.  P3+
    • B.  Br7+
    • C.  O6+
    • D.  Ca2+
    • E.  K-
naming ions
Naming Ions
  • Group 1A, Group 2A, Al, Ga, In, Zn, Sc, Ag, Cd, Ru ions
    • Give name of element followed by word ion
  • All other metals
    • Give name of element + charge in parenthesis (roman numerals) followed by word ion
  • Element anions
    • Replace the ending of the element name with -ide
polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • Polyatomic ion
    • Poly – many
    • Atomic – atom
    • Ion – ion
  • Think of them as a chemical unit
    • States which atoms are present, exact # atoms present and the charge
problem20
Problem
  • Which one of the following combinations of names and formulas of ions is incorrect? 
    • A.  O2- oxide
    • B.  Al3+ aluminum
    • C.  NO3- nitrate
    • D.  PO43- phosphate
    • E.  CrO42- chromate
problem21
Problem
  • Which one of the following combinations of names and formulas of ions is incorrect? 
    • A.  O2- oxide
    • B.  Cd2+ cadmium
    • C.  ClO3- chlorate
    • D.  HCO3- hydrogen carbonate
    • E.  NO2- nitrate
problem22
Problem
  • Which one of the following combinations of names and formulas of ions is incorrect? 
    • A.  Ba2+ barium
    • B.  S2- sulfate
    • C.  CN- cyanide
    • D.  ClO4- perchlorate
    • E.  HCO3- bicarbonate
naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Simply combine the names previously discussed in naming ions without the word ion
  • Determine which element is the cation
    • Can the cation only have one possible charge
  • Yes
    • Give the name of the metal as seen on periodic table
    • Give the anion the root name of the element followed by the ending –ide
      • Polyatomic ions – get their name
naming ionic compounds24
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • No
    • Give the name of the metal as seen on periodic table
    • Indicate the charge on the metal
      • Use roman numerals in parenthesis
    • Give the anion the root name of the element followed by the ending –ide
      • Polyatomic ions – get their name
problem25
Problem
  • The colorless substance, MgF2, is used in the ceramics and glass industry. What is its name? 
    • A.  magnesium difluoride
    • B.  magnesium fluoride
    • C.  magnesium(II) fluoride
    • D.  monomagnesium difluoride
    • E.  none of these choices is correct, since they are all misspelled
problem26
Problem
  • The compound, BaO, absorbs water and carbon dioxide readily and is used to dry gases and organic solvents. What is its name? 
    • A.  barium oxide
    • B.  barium(II) oxide
    • C.  barium monoxide
    • D.  baric oxide
    • E.  barium peroxide
problem27
Problem
  • The substance, CoCl2, is useful as a humidity indicator because it changes from pale blue to pink as it gains water from moist air. What is its name? 
    • A.  cobalt dichloride
    • B.  cobalt(II) chloride
    • C.  cobalt chloride
    • D.  cobaltic chloride
    • E.  copper(II) chloride
problem28
Problem
  • A red glaze on porcelain can be produced by using MnSO4. What is its name? 
    • A.  manganese disulfate
    • B.  manganese(II) sulfate
    • C.  manganese(IV) sulfate
    • D.  manganese sulfate
    • E.  manganese(I) sulfate
problem29
Problem
  • The substance, KClO3, is a strong oxidizer used in explosives, fireworks, and matches. What is its name? 
    • A.  potassium chlorite
    • B.  potassium chloride
    • C.  potassium(I) chlorite
    • D.  potassium(I) chlorate
    • E.  potassium chlorate
problem30
Problem
  • The compound, (NH4)2S, can be used in analysis for trace amounts of metals present in a sample. What is its name? 
    • A.  ammonium sulfide
    • B.  diammonium sulfide
    • C.  ammonium sulfite
    • D.  ammonia(I) sulfite
    • E.  ammonium(I) sulfide
problem31
Problem
  • The substance, CaSe, is used in materials which are electron emitters. What is its name? 
    • A.  calcium monoselenide
    • B.  calcium(II) selenide
    • C.  calcium selenide
    • D.  calcium(I) selenide
    • E.  calcium(II) selenium
formulas of ionic compounds
Formulas of Ionic Compounds
  • Chemical compounds must posses NO charge
  • Formulas
    • Determine ions involved
    • Determine charge on each ion
    • Cross and drop the magnitude
      • If the magnitude dropped beside a polyatomic is greater than 1, place the polyatomic ion in parenthesis and magnitude dropped as subscript outside parenthesis
    • Simplify if the subscripts are divisible by same #
problem33
Problem
  • Sodium oxide combines violently with water. Which of the following gives the formula for sodium oxide? 
    • A.  NaO
    • B.  Na1O1
    • C.  Na2O1
    • D.  Na2O
    • E.  Na2O2
problem34
Problem
  • Barium fluoride is used in embalming and in glass manufacturing. Which of the following gives the formula for barium fluoride? 
    • A.  BaF2
    • B.  Ba1F2
    • C.  BaF
    • D.  BaF1
    • E.  Ba2F
problem35
Problem
  • Zinc acetate is used in preserving wood and in manufacturing glazes for porcelain. What is its formula? 
    • A.  ZnAc2
    • B.  ZnCH3COO
    • C.  Zn(CH3COO)2
    • D.  Zn2CH3COO
    • E.  ZnCH3COCH3
problem36
Problem
  • Barium sulfate is used in manufacturing photographic paper. What is its formula? 
    • A.  BaSO4
    • B.  Ba(SO4)2
    • C.  Ba2SO4
    • D.  Ba2(SO4)3
    • E.  BaSO3
problem37
Problem
  • What is the formula for lead (II) oxide? 
    • A.  PbO
    • B.  PbO2
    • C.  Pb2O
    • D.  PbO4
    • E.  Pb2O3
h and oh ions an introduction to acids and bases
H+ and OH- Ions: An Introduction to Acids and Bases
  • The importance of the H+ cation and the OH- anion is that they are fundamental to the concepts of acidsand bases.
  • Acid: A substance that provides H+ ions in water; for example, HCl  H+ + Cl-
  • Base: A substance that provides OH- ions in water; for example, NaOH  Na+ + OH-
optional homework
Optional Homework
  • Text – 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.38, 4.46, 4.48, 4.50, 4.52, 4.54, 4.56, 4.60, 4.62, 4.64, 4.66, 4.68, 4.70, 4.72, 4.74, 4.76, 4.90, 4.92, 4.96, 4.98
  • Chapter 2 Homework – from website
required homework
Required Homework
  • Assignment 4