Download
chapter 2 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 2: PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 2:

192 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 2:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Human Adjustment Chapter 2: Personality McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outline - Chapter 2 What Is Personality? Psychodynamic Perspectives Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Humanistic Perspectives Trait Perspectives Personality Assessment ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. WHAT IS PERSONALITY? What Is Personality? ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What Is Personality? Personality = pattern of enduring and distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize how an individual adapts to the world • Theoretical perspectives on personality: • psychodynamic • behavioral and social cognitive • humanistic • trait ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-AssessmentHow Much Do I Have a Need to be Unique? • When I am in a group of strangers I am reluctant to express my opinion openly. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I find that criticism affects my self-esteem. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I sometimes hesitate to use my own ideas for fear they might be impractical. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I think society should let reason lead it to new customs and throw aside old habits or mere traditions. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Assessment • People frequently succeed in changing my mind. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I find it sometimes amusing to upset the dignity of teachers, judges, and “cultured” people. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I like wearing a uniform because it makes me proud to be a member of the organization it represents. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • People have sometimes called me “stuck up.” (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Assessment • Others’ disagreements make me uncomfortable. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I do not always need to live by the rules and standards of society. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I am unable to express my feelings if they result in undesirable consequences. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • Being a success in one’s career means making a contribution that no one else has made. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Assessment • It bothers me if people think I am being too unconventional. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I always try to follow rules. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • If I disagree with a superior on his or her views, I usually do not keep it to myself. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I speak up in meetings in order to oppose those whom I feel are wrong. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Assessment • Feeling “different” in a crowd of people makes me feel uncomfortable. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • If I must die, let it be an unusual death rather than an ordinary death in bed. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I would rather be just like everyone else than be called “freak” (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I must admit I find it hard to work under strict rules and regulations. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-Assessment • I would rather be known for always trying new ideas than for employing well-trusted methods. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • It is better always to agree with the opinions than to be considered a disagreeable person. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I do not like to say unusual things to people. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I tend to express my opinions publicly, regardless of what others say. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-Assessment • As a rule, I strongly defend my opinions. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I do not like to go my own way. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • When I am with a group of people, I agree with their ideas so that no arguments will arise. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I tend to keep quiet independent and free from family rule. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Assessment • Whenever I take part in group activities, I am somewhat of a nonconformist. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • I tend to keep quiet in the presence of persons of higher rank, experience, etc. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • In most things in life, I believe in playing it safe rather than taking a gamble. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) • It is better to break rules than always to conform with an impersonal society. (A=strongly disagree; B=disagree; C=Neutral; D=agree; E=strongly agree) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Five Factor Personality Test Take this assessment and score. To help develop a better picture of you personality. http://users.wmin.ac.uk/~buchant/wwwffi/ ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What Is Personality? • Four important questions about personality: • What role do innate and learned characteristics play in personality? • To what extent is personality conscious or unconscious? • How influential are internal or external factors in determining personality? • What characterizes a well-adjusted personality? ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVES Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Psychodynamic Revisionists Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory • Psychodynamic Perspectives - view personality as being primarily unconscious and as developing in stages ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Sigmund Freud • born in Austria in 1856 / died in England in 1939 • spent most of life in Vienna • became medical doctor specializing in neurology • developed psychoanalytic theory through work with psychiatric patients ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud believed most of the mind is unconscious • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory stated that personality has three structures: • id - pleasure (sexual and aggressive instincts) • ego - reality (deals with demands of reality) • superego - conscience (morality) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Defense Mechanisms • When ego blocks pleasurable pursuits of id, person feels anxiety Defense mechanisms = ego’s protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Defense Mechanisms • Defense mechanisms include: • repression • rationalization • displacement • sublimation • projection • reaction formation • denial • regression ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  21. Freud’s Theory of Personality Development • Freud was convinced that problems develop because of early childhood experiences • Freud proposed 5 stages of personality development: • oral • anal • phallic • latency • genital ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  22. Freud’s Theory of Personality Development • During phallic stage the Oedipus complex is a major source of conflict • Freud claimed that at each stage, demands of reality conflict with source of pleasure • Adult personality depends on how person deals with the conflict ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  23. Psychodynamic Revisionists • Criticisms of Freud: • too much emphasis on sexuality • first 5 years are not as important • ego and conscious thought more important • sociocultural factors more important ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  24. Horney’s Sociocultural Theory • Karen Horney (1885–1952) • developed first feminist criticism of Freud’s theory • Need for security is most important ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  25. Horney’s Sociocultural Theory • People develop strategies to cope with anxiety: • move toward people, seeking love and support • move away from people, becoming more independent • move against people, being competitive and domineering • The secure person uses these ways of coping in moderation • The insecure person uses one or more strategies in exaggerated fashion ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  26. Jung’s Analytical Theory • Carl Jung (1875–1961) • thought Freud underplayed unconscious mind • Collective unconscious - impersonal, deepest layer of unconscious mind, shared by all human beings • Archetypes - emotionally-laden ideas and images in collective unconscious that have meaning for all people ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  27. Adler’s Individual Psychology • Alfred Adler (1870–1937) • People strive toward creating own goals • Emphasis on social motivation • Everyone strives for superiority • Compensation - individual attempts to overcome inferiorities or weaknesses by developing own abilities • Overcompensation - individual exaggerates to conceal a weakness ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  28. Adjustment Strategies Based on Psychodynamic Approaches 1. Think about your experiences as a child and now 2. Recognize you have unconscious feelings, drives, and desires 3. Examine your thoughts, feelings, and behavior to determine extent you are using defense mechanisms 4. Evaluate extent to which security needs are met 5. Examine feelings of superiority or inferiority and discover areas of life in which you can excel ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  29. Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives • Psychodynamic perspectives: • view personality as primarily unconscious • stress that personality develops in stages • emphasize the role of the individual’s past experiences • emphasize mental representation and transformation of experience • emphasize the influence of conflict on personality ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  30. Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives • Weaknesses of the psychodynamic perspectives include: • difficulty of testing its concepts • too much emphasis on sexuality and unconscious mind • negative view of human nature • too much attention to early experience • male, Western bias ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  31. BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES Classical Conditioning Skinner’s Behaviorism Social Cognitive Theory Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  32. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning = learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with meaningful stimulus and acquires capacity to elicit a response similar to response to meaningful stimulus ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  33. Classical Conditioning • Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1906) argued classical conditioning consists of: • unconditioned stimulus • unconditioned response • conditioned stimulus • conditioned response • Classical conditioning has been applied to understanding fear ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  34. Figure 2.6 Classical Conditioning: Boss’s Criticism and High Blood Pressure ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  35. Skinner’s Behaviorism • B. F. Skinner (1938–1990) argued that our actions on the environment have consequences that shape our behavior Operant conditioning = learning process that occurs when consequences of the behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  36. Reinforcement and Extinction Reinforcement = process by which a stimulus or event that follows a behavior increases probability that the behavior will occur again • Positive reinforcement - frequency of behavior increases because it is followed by rewarding stimulus • Negative reinforcement - frequency of behavior increases because it is followed by removal of an aversive stimulus ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  37. Reinforcement and Extinction • Extinction - frequency of a previously reinforced behavior that is no longer reinforced decreases ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  38. Punishment • Punishment decreases likelihood that a behavior will occur • Positive punishment - behavior decreases when followed by unpleasant stimulus • Negative punishment - behavior decreases when positive stimulus is removed ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  39. Figure 2.7 Positive and Negative Reinforcement, Positive and Negative Punishment ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  40. Applying Skinner’s Approach to Personality • Skinner’s behaviorism emphasizes that cognition is unimportant in personality • Personality is observable behavior, which is influenced by rewards and punishments in the environment • In the behavioral view, personality often varies according to the situation ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  41. Social Cognitive Theory • Social cognitive theory was first proposed by Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel • Social cognitive theory states that behavior, environment, and cognitive factors are important in understanding personality ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  42. Observational Learning Observational learning (imitation or modeling) = learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior • Bandura (1986) identified four main processes: • retention • production • attention • reinforcement ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  43. Observational Learning • Bandura’s 1965 classic study - children who had seen a model punished for aggression only showed the model’s aggression when offered a reward • Reciprocal determination - Bandura’s view that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  44. Personal Control • Social cognitive theorists emphasize that adjustment can be measured by people’s belief in their capacity to exercise some control over their own functioning and over environmental events ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  45. Personal Control • Three aspects of personal control: • delay of gratification - deferring immediate gratification to obtain desirable future outcome • self-efficacy - belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes • locus of control - belief that the outcomes of people’s actions depend on what they do (internal locus) or on events outside of their personal control (external locus) ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  46. Personal Control - Self-Efficacy • Self-efficacy is related to positive developments in people’s lives • Self-efficacy helps people in unsatisfactory situations by encouraging them to believe that they can succeed • Having an internal locus of control is associated with positive functioning and adjustment ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  47. Adjustment Strategies For Increasing Your Self-Efficacy 1. Select something you expect to be able to do, not something you expect to fail at accomplishing 2. Distinguish between past performance and your present project 3. Pay close attention to your successes 4. Keep written records so that you will be concretely aware of your successes 5. List the specific kinds of situations in which you expect to have the most difficulty and the least difficulty ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  48. Adjustment Strategies Based on Behavior and Social Cognitive Perspectives 1. Recognize extent to which reinforcement and punishment influence your behavior 2. Examine extent to which you use reinforcement and punishment when interacting with others 3. Use your ability to learn through observation 4. Consider obtaining a mentor 5. Evaluate how good you are at delaying gratification 6. Examine whether you have an internal or an external locus of control ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  49. Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives • Strengths of the behavioral and social cognitive perspectives include emphasis on: • environmental determinants • scientific climate for investigating personality ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  50. Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives • The behavioral view has been criticized for: • taking the “person” out of personality • ignoring cognition • inadequate attention to individual differences • inadequate attention to biology • inadequate attention to personality as whole ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.