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World History: The Earth and its Peoples. Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200 - 1500 C.E. Objectives. How did differing environments influence the development of Mesoamerican, Andean, and northern people?

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world history the earth and its peoples

World History:The Earth and its Peoples

Chapter 11

Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas,

200 - 1500 C.E.

objectives
Objectives
  • How did differing environments influence the development of Mesoamerican, Andean, and northern people?
  • What technologies were developed to meet the challenges of these environments?
  • How were the civilizations of Mesoamerica and the Andean region similar? How did they differ?
  • How did religious belief and practice influence political life in the ancient Americas?
classic era culture and society 200 900
Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900

Classic Period - (200-900 CE)

    • Olmec traditions
    • platform and pyramid structures
  • political and cultural innovations
    • elite ability to control laborers
    • rich and power of leaders

Teotihuacan - (450-600 CE)

    • largest city in Americas
      • 125,000 to 200,000
    • pyramids to Sun and Moon gods
      • human sacrifice
        • well-being of society
    • Quetzalcoatl
      • feathered serpent god
classic era culture and society 200 9001
Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900

Teotihuacan Agriculture

  • marginal lands into production
  • chinampas
    • “floating gardens”
    • year-round farming

Commoner Housing

  • apartment-like stone buildings
  • artisans

Commerce

  • base of wealth for elite class

Politics

  • alliance of elite families
  • demise to invaders or interior elite / class conflict
the maya
The Maya

Maya

    • Guatemala, Belize, Honduras
    • tropical climate and fragile soils
      • managed forests; terracing
      • draining swamps; gardens
    • single culture, no political unity
  • city-states
    • centered of religious temples
      • awe the masses
      • pyramids and plazas
      • alignment with Sun and Venus
  • rulers
    • priestly and political
    • bloodletting as communication
the maya1
The Maya

Military

  • captives not territory
    • elite warriors sacrificed

Women

  • ruling class
    • important roles in ceremonies
    • bloodletting
  • common
    • gardens; family, religion, healing

Technology

  • calendric system
    • ritual, solar, cycle, long count
  • math
    • zero and place value
postclassic period 900 1500
Postclassic Period, 900-1500

Population expansion

    • intensified agriculture
    • increased warfare

Toltecs - 968-1156 CE

    • Tula
    • important innovations
      • military and political
      • conquest state
        • warrior, sacrifice images
    • downfall
      • division of responsibility
      • struggle between religious cults
  • new Mesoamerican order
    • urbanized Toltec statecraft
the aztecs
The Aztecs

Aztecs - 1325

    • Mexica
    • clan-based from N. Mexico
      • serfs and mercenaries
      • adopt Toltec urbanization
    • Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco
      • Lake Texcoco
  • shift to monarch system
    • rulers selected by council
    • war provided legitimacy
    • social reorganization (inequality)
      • warrior elite
        • slaves and serfs
      • clothes, diets, marriage
aztecs
Aztecs

Population

    • 150,000 (500,000 by 1500 CE)
  • Agriculture
    • labor of clans and defeated
    • land reclamation
      • Lake Texcoco dike
    • chinampas
      • maize, fruits, vegetables
    • tribute system
      • 1/4 of crops
  • Commerce
    • specialized merchant class
    • no money or credit (barter)
    • Tenochtitlan markets
aztecs1
Aztecs

Religion

    • polytheistic; dual nature gods
      • male and female
      • war and agriculture (Twin Temples)
    • Huitzilopochtli
      • cult of the hummingbird
      • Sun’s warmth
        • human hearts
    • Tlatoc
      • rain god
  • human sacrifice
    • war captives
    • criminals, slaves, tribute
    • political subtext
northern peoples
Northern Peoples

^ Agriculture = ^ Population

    • maize, beans, squash
    • irrigation systems

Southwestern Cultures

    • Mexican influence
  • Anasazi - 450-1200 CE
    • “ancient ones”
    • four-corner region
    • underground buildings (kivas)
      • artisan activities

Decline

    • population pressures
    • limited arable land in drought
mound builders
Mound Builders

Adena - 500 BCE

  • Ohio River Valley
  • monumental earthworks
    • elite burial mounds

Hopewell - 100-400 CE

  • hunter-gatherer / limited agriculture
  • chiefdom
    • hereditary
    • religious and secular

Cahokia

  • Mississippi Valley
  • East St. Louis
  • 30,000 population
andean civilizations 200 1500
Andean Civilizations, 200-1500

Andean Society

    • effective organization of labor
      • khipus
        • census and tribute counts
      • terrace farming
    • ayllu (clan)
      • communally held land
      • reciprocal relationship
    • mit’a (territorial state)
      • state projects
  • vertical integration
    • small ecological areas
    • access to essential zones
moche
Moche

Moche - 200 CE

    • city-state
      • influence via military
      • theocratic society
    • massive irrigation
      • coca for religious rituals
    • llamas and alpacas
  • artisanship
    • pottery: textiles
    • gold and silver objects: metal tools
  • decline
    • natural disasters
    • rise of new military powers (Wari)
tiwanaku and wari
Tiwanaku and Wari

Tiwanaku

  • Andean highland (13,000’)
  • Lake Titicaca reclamations
  • ceremonial / political center
    • large regional population

Wari

  • possible twin capital or dependency
  • lacks central planning

Decline

increased military conflict

the inca
The Inca

Inca

    • ambitious military expansion
      • resources from ecological zones
      • llamas and alpacas
    • collective efforts
      • 1/7 male population
    • held hostage
      • local ruler heirs held in Cuzco
    • Cuzco
      • Incan capital
      • shape of a Puma
  • Weakening
    • civil war in 1525