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World War II. U.S. History Chapters 23,24. Rise of Dictators and World War II. Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia led to World War II. Aggressive leaders still threaten peace today. Ch. 23 & 24. Steps to War

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World War II

U.S. History

Chapters 23,24

rise of dictators and world war ii

Rise of Dictators and World War II

Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia led to World War II.

Aggressive leaders still threaten peace today.

Ch. 23 & 24


Steps to War

  • The Great Depression had ruined economies in Europe. Many Europeans turned to new leaders to solve their problems.
  • Who were the dictators that came to power in Europe?
  • Dictator – an absolute ruler.
  • Italy – Benito Mussolini – began a political movement – fascism – an extreme form of nationalism and racism.
  • Germany – Adolf Hitler – leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nazi Party.

Who am I?

  • Benito Mussolini
  • Italy

Fascist and Totalitarian State


Who am I?

  • Adolf Hitler
  • Germany

Dictators come to power:

  • Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator took over upon the death of Vladimir Lenin (led the Communist takeover of Russia in 1917.) His government tried to control every aspect of life in the nation.
  • Japan – The military was gaining more and more power with army General Hideki Tojo having more power than the Emperor Hirohito.

Who am I?

  • Joseph Stalin
  • Russia

Communist and Totalitarian State


Who am I?

  • Emperor
  • Hirohito
  • Japan

General Hideki Tojo

Prime Minister

Totalitarian State


Who am I?

  • Francisco Franco
  • Spain
  • Fascist who overthrows the democratic government.

Who am I?

  • Winston Churchill
  • Great Britain

Who am I?

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • United States


  • Fascism – political movement that preached intense nationalism and racism.
  • Adolf Hitler – Nazi dictator of Germany.
  • Nazi party – Fascist party that ruled Germany between 1933 – 1945, with Hitler as the dictator.
  • Dictator – absolute ruler.
  • Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.

Axis Powers – the name of the alliance between Germany and Italy, and later would include Japan.

  • Benito Mussolini Dictator of Italy
  • General Hideki Tojo – Military leader of Japan.
  • 9. Appeasement – the policy of meeting a nation’s demands to avoid war.
  • 10. Lend - Lease Program – the policy in which the US sent war materials to the Allied Powers.
  • 11. Pearl Harbor – the site of the Japanese attack on the United States.

12. The Munich Agreement – Hitler and Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, met in Munich, Germany. They made an agreement giving Germany control of the Sudetenland, in return, Hitler promised to stop taking anymore territory. This appeasement was supposed to make “peace in our time.”

  • 13. Blitzkrieg – a new method of warfare, using speed and surprise, “lightning war.”
  • 14. Luftwaffe - Germany’s air force
  • 15. The Battle of Britain – German planes flew massive bombing attacks on London and other civilian targets – but the British never surrendered.
why underlying causes of wwii
Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

1. Treaty of Versailles

A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations

B. War Reparations

1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S.

2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent)

3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans

Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilsonduring negotiations for the Treaty

why underlying causes of wwii17
Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

2. World-wide Depression

A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse

B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders

1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems

1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks

why underlying causes of wwii18
Why? (underlying causes of WWII)

2. World-wide Depression

2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals) 3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues

  • 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes

A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation

Communist Dictatorship (USSR)

Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy)

Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community


Military Dictatorship (Japan)

  • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers

A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist?

1. Great Depression (problems at home)

2. Perceptions of WWI

a. WWI did not seem to solve much

b. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

  • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers

3. Opposition to war (Pacifism)

a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies

b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts

  • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers

3. Opposition to war (Pacifism)

a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies

b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts


WorldWar II

  • CAUSES (Long Term)
  • WWI (the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles)
  • Dictators come to power in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union
  • Severe economic problems exist in Europe and Asia.
  • Italy, Germany, and Japan expand their territory.
  • The policy of appeasement fails.

Immediate Causes

  • Germany invades Poland.
  • Japanese attack the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor

Countries That Threatened World Peace

  • Japan
  • Military leaders took control of gov’t
  • Invaded Manchuria
  • Tried to expand in the Pacific
  • Joined the Axis Powers in 1940

Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935

Emperor Haile Selassie


Countries That Threatened World Peace

  • Italy
  • Mussolini seized control of the gov’t and the military and formed a fascist state
  • Italy formed alliance with Germany called the Axis Powers
  • Invaded Ethiopia in 1936
  • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war
so what was hitler asking for
So What Was Hitler Asking For?
  • Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”
  • Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938

German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

so what was hitler asking for29
So What Was Hitler Asking For?
  • Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”
  • Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic)
  • Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peace
  • Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia

German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939


Countries That Threatened World Peace

  • Germany
  • Dictator and fascist Adolph Hitler took control in 1934
  • created a totalitarian state
  • built up Germany’s army

Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

so what was hitler asking for34
So What Was Hitler Asking For?
  • Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland
  • Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany

Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939

so what was hitler asking for35
So What Was Hitler Asking For?
  • Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic)
  • Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peace
  • Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia

German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

so what was hitler asking for36
So What Was Hitler Asking For?
  • Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland
  • Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany

Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939


Countries That Threatened World Peace

  • Germany
  • Nazis attacked Jews and sent them to concentration camps
  • Hitler made alliance with Mussolini as an Axis Power
  • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war

Countries That Threatened World Peace

  • Germany
  • Threatened France’s border
  • Annexed Austria
  • Seized the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

German Aggression!

Lightning War - Hitler invades Poland


German Aggression


Nazi Blitzkrieg April - May 1940

Hitler conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands


April 1940

The Miracle of Dunkirk


June 22, 1940

France surrenders

September 1940

U.S. passes first peacetime draft


German Aggression

Battle of Britain

Autumn 1940 - daily air raids over Britain - Unable to defeat the British quickly!


German Aggression

  • Despite their partnership – Hitler and Stalin distrusted each other. (There is no honor among thieves or dictators.)
  • June1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union
  • September 1941 – January 1944 German troops surround the city. The Siege of Leningrad - - lasted 872 days
  • December 1941 – German advance to Moscow – harshest winter in decades. The weather and the Soviets push them back.

Dec. 1940

The Lend-Lease Policy allows U.S. to give Allies help.


Atlantic Charter

Prime Minister Winston Churchill

President Franklin Roosevelt

Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.


Pearl Harbor

Ford Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December.

National Archives Photo 80-G-279375


Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft

183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida.

At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.


FDR calls this “a date which will live in infamy”, and Congress declares that a state of war exists with Japan.


With only 450 feet of 'runway,' one of sixteen Army B-25 Mitchell bombers takes off from the deck of the USS HORNET on its way to take part in the Doolittle Raid, the first U.S. bombing raid on Japan. The all volunteer strike force, trained and led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle, flew 800 miles then bombed Tokyo and 3 other cities without opposition. The raid inflicted little damage but gave a big boost to Allied morale in the face of the seemingly unstoppable Japanese. April 18, 1942.

Doolittle’s Raid


Major Events Review

  • 1936 Germany and Italy form Axis Powers.
  • Civil war erupts in Spain.
  • Germany annexes Austria (think the Sound of Music - true story.)
  • Britain and France allow Germany to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement.
  • Germany invades Czechoslovakia.
  • Germany signs nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union.
  • Germany invades Poland, Sept. 1, 1939.
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany, Sept. 3

Japan joins the Axis Powers

  • Germany invades France.
  • Battle of Britain fought.
  • Germany invades the Soviet Union.
  • December 7 - Japan attacks United States at Pearl Harbor.
  • The United States enters the war.

1941 June - British stop Axis advance in Africa at the Battle of El Alamein.

  • September - Germans attack Soviet Union city of Stalingrad.
  • November - American forces join tlhe Allies in North Africa.
  • February Soviets win the Battle of Stalingrad.

War in Africa and Europe

During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.

The Allies defeated the Axis Powers in Europe and in Africa.


Terms to Know for the TEST:

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower – U.S. general who led the Allied Forces in Europe.
  • D-Day – Allied invasion of France in June 1944 to liberate Europe.
  • Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s last major attack.
  • Yalta Conference – Meeting of Allied leaders to discuss the end of the war plans.
  • Holocaust – Systematic murder of millions of Jews and other people in Europe by the Nazis.
  • Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews.

6. Anti-Semitism – hostility or discrimination against Jews.

  • Persecute – to continuously treat others in a way meant to be cruel and harmful.
  • Genocide – the deliberate destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.
  • The Holocaust – complete destruction of life on purpose – usually by fire. This term refers to the murder of 6 million Jews and 5 million others by the Nazis in WWII.
  • The Final Solution – Hitler’s plan to exterminate “inferior” people such as Jews, the handicapped, political enemies, and others that did not conform.

North African Campaign

Operation Torch

  • Purposes:
    • Drive Axis powers out of North Africa and Middle East
    • Divert German forces from Russian Front
  • Strategy: Sandwich Afrikan Corp between British in East and Allied forces (including US) in West

The Panzer IV was the mainstay

of the Afrika Corps

and were needed in great

numbers in the

Western Desert

Erwin Rommel

Commander of the Nazi forces in North Africa


July - August 1943,

Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy.

This Operation was the greatest Airborne-Amphibious Operation of WWII until D-DAY

3,000 ships and landing-craft with 160,000 men

(8 Divisions), 14,000 vehicles, 600 tanks and 1800 guns.

Operation continues in Sicily and Italy 1943-1945


Operation Husky


of Italy

First Allied attacks on Monte Cassino


Landing on Omaha Beach

Landing on the beach was difficult.

1. Surprise attack

2. Poor weather conditions

3. German fortifications


13 June, 1944 - till 20 June,

  • V-1 named "Vergeltungswaffe". Germany launches its first V-1 rocket attack on England,
  • 8000 V-1's fired to London.
  • Up to 100 V-1s fell every hour on London.
  • Over an 80 day period, more than 6,000 persons were killed.

Those witnessing the event cannot explain the cause of the explosion because the speed of the projectile is such that it arrives before the sound of its passage is heard.

Launched a V-2 rocket.

8 September 1944,


7 November 1944,

Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected to an unprecedented fourth term as President of the United States.


Last major offensive German action.

"The Battle of the Bulge”

December 1944 - January 1945


Yalta Conference

  • FDR, Stalin, Churchill
  • Meet to decide what happens next in Europe
  • Stalin wants complete control of eastern Europe.
  • FDR and Churchill refuse!
  • Agree to divide Germany into occupied zones
  • Agree to set up the United Nations

12 April 1945,

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies; he is

succeeded by his Vice-president, Harry S. Truman.


April 1945, "United Nations" formed in San Francisco.

  • 28 April 1945, Benito Mussolini, and sixteen of Mussolini's body-guards are assassinated in the village of Giulino di Messegra, on Lake Como, Italy.
  • 30 April 1945, Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun, Goebbels and his wife commit suicide in the bunker under the Reich Chancellery
  • in Berlin, Germany

Germany Surrenders!

Victory in Europe

8 May 1945,

V-E Day - Victory in Europe is celebrated.


Concentration Camps

January 1945 - Red Army liberates Auschwitz, finds convincing evidence of SS atrocities of the Holocaust.


After early losses, the Allies defeated the Japanese in the Pacific.


Japan attacks Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

What happened next?


Terms to Know for the TEST

  • Bataan Death March – Forced march of captured Americans and Filipinos in the Philippines.
  • Island hopping – Strategy of invading Japanese – held islands and moving ever closer to Japan.
  • General Douglas MacArthur – “I shall return,” are his words after FDR orders him to withdraw from the Philippines in March 1942. (same guy – drove out the WWI Bonus Army.)
  • Battle of Coral Sea – 1st time in Naval history, enemy ships fought a battle without seeing each other – aircraft carriers’ war planes fought the battle. No clear victory for either side but America blocks their path to Australia. (May 1942)
  • Battle of Midway – naval battle between American and Japanese forces – won by Americans. (June 1942)

6. Battle for Guadalcanal – After 6 months of fierce fighting, the US wins first major land victory against the Japanese. ( Feb. 1943)

  • 7. Navajo Code Talkers – Navajo Indians were trained to used their native language to communicate coded messages so the Japanese couldn’t decode our messages.
  • 8. March 1945 – MacArthur returns and liberates Manila, Philippines.
  • Kamikaze – Japanese suicide pilot
  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa – Fiercely fought battles for these two islands places Americans close enough to begin major bombings of Japan.

Manhattan Project – Secret program to build an atomic bomb. Led by American scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimer. Worked for 3 years to develop and test the world’s first atomic bomb.

  • Enola Gay – the name of the B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb. PILOT IS TIBBETS
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan – The US dropped bombs on these two cities after issuing a warning to surrender or face complete destruction.
  • September 2, 1945 – Japan signed the official letter of surrender, ending the war.

Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March. About 76,000 prisoners including 12,000 Americans were forced on the 60 mile march under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp in the Philippines. April, 1942.


Marines of the 5th Division inch their way up a slope on Red Beach No. 1 toward Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima, defended by seven Japanese Battalions. By nightfall, 566 Marines were killed and 1,854 wounded. February 19, 1945.


19 February 1945, (till 26 March).

  • US Marines divisions land on Iwo Jima
  • In the Pacific Iwo Jima is strategically and politically important to both sides. The Americans need the island as a fighter base (Mustangs P-51 fighters) for their Japanese raids (B-29's) and a relief base for damaged bombers.
  • On the first day some 30,000 marines landed on the 8 square mile island. About 23,000 Japanese soldiers had prepared defenses but allowed the landing to take place before opening fire. The Japanese had prepared for the invasion with a system of underground tunnels, bunkers, and pillboxes, designed to entrap and decimate the Americans.
  • Over the next 36 days - 6,281 US soldiers are killed (in the first 2 days, 4000 US soldiers died), and 21,865 are wounded in capturing the island from 23,000 defenders.
  • 21,000 Japanese soldiers died.

23 February 1945,

U.S. Marines plant a U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi, IwoJima.

The flag raising photo and subsequent statue came to symbolize being a Marine.


26 May 1945,

Tokyo, Japan is fire bombed by American bombers. The city burns, uncontrolled, for two days.


26 June 1945,

  • Fifty nations meet in San Francisco, California (USA) and sign the World Security Charter formally establishing
  • the United Nations.
  • 4 July 1945,
  • General Douglas MacArthur announces the liberation of the Philippines.
  • 21 July 1945,
  • The U.S. delivers a final ultimatum to the Japanese, quit the war or face total destruction.
  • 24 July 1945,
  • At the Potsdam Conference in defeated Germany, President Truman told Stalin only that the U.S. "had a new
  • weapon of unusual destructive force."

Col. Paul W. Tibbets, pilot of the B-29 Superfortress ENOLA GAY, drops the world's first atomic bomb, Little Boy, on Hiroshima.

The 9,000 lb. bomb was dropped from 31,600 feet and detonated at 8:15 a.m., August 6, 1945, about 1,900 feet above the center of Hiroshima. A blinding light, tremendous explosion and dark gray cloud enveloped the city, followed by a rising mushroom shaped cloud.

The Japanese estimated 72,000 were killed and 70,000 out of 76,000 buildings in the city were destroyed.

Enola Gay


At the time of the bombing, Hiroshima was a prosperous city of nearly 320,000. The bomb exploded almost directly over the center of the city. Two square miles of the city were completely leveled by the bomb, and the intense heat generated by the explosion started fires as far as two miles

from ground zero.


A Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill is all that remains in this section of Nagasaki following the dropping of the second Atomic Bomb from a B-29 flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney, August 9, 1945. The Japanese estimated 25,680 were killed and 44 percent of the city was destroyed.


8 August 1945, The Soviet Union declares war on Japan. Soviet forces invade Manchuria and North-Korea.

  • 9 August 1945, The world's second (and last) atomic bomb
  • (Plutonium), Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
  • One minute after explosion 39,000 were killed and 25,000 wounded.
  • 14 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announces the Japan defeat to his people. Japan accepts an unconditional surrender. The
  • fear of more atomic weapon attacks and the certainty of land defeat by the Soviets have combined to secure the
  • complete surrender.
  • 2 September 1945, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the instrument of surrender aboard the battleship
  • U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan.
  • End of World War II.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.

test chapters 23 24
TEST Chapters 23,24
  • Be sure to review all handouts and notes.
  • Look over the review sheet.
  • Study!!!!

Sept 2, 1945

Japanese sign surrender agreement

Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay.

quick facts write 2 3
Quick Facts (write 2-3)

A. War Costs

  • US Debt 1940 - $9 billionUS Debt 1945 - $98 billion
  • The war cost $330 billion -- 10 times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous federal spending since 1776