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Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance

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Harlem Renaissance

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  1. Harlem Renaissance By: Chloe and Jamil

  2. What It Was • African American cultural movement in 1920’s & 30’s • A cultural explosion for African Americans • Mainly a literary movement • Music, theatre, art and politics flourished • Books, poems, essays, music, singers, writers • African Americans able to express culture through various talents • Other Names: • Negro Movement • New Negro Renaissance

  3. Where • Harlem, New York • Great Migration – blacks moved from south to cities for better socioeconomic oppurtunities • Many blacks came from south and went to Washington D.C., Philadelphia, Chicago • Blacks came from south and moved to urban cities looking for work • Harlem originally a white residential neighborhood • Harlem became black cultural center • Great Migration expanded black culture in cities

  4. When • Between the years of WWI and the Great Depression • Started and blossomed in 1920’s • Faded by 1930’s • 1920’s and 30’s social and political changes • Period when African American expressionism explored and redefined • Black culture blossomed and expanded

  5. The Beginning • Great Migration – African Americans moved from South to urban cities for job opportunities • Harlem became cultural center for educated blacks • Three Major Events launched Harlem Renaissance • March 21, 1924- Dinner recognizing new literary talent in African American community • Nigger Heaven by Carl Van Vetchten exposed the black lifestyle in Harlem and sparked interest for people to see the arts in Harlem • Autumn 1926 – Magazine called Fire!! Produced by black writers. Famous writers Langston Hughes, Wallace Thurman, Zora Neale Hurston

  6. Arts • Visual arts, music, literature, theatre and musical theatre • Poets: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Nella Larsen, Zora Neale Hurston • Musicians: Bessie Smith, Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Josephine Baker. Lena Horne • Jazz music became popular • Cabaret clubs became part of nightlife • Books and poems appealed to middle class educated blacks • Portrayed lifestyles of African Americans in America

  7. Literature • Writers included Countee Cullen, W.E.B. Dubois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston. James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Jean Tommer • Characteristics of writing: despeartion, sadness, love of God, identity issues, racial pride, excellent rhythm • Langston Hughes – writer, promoted equality, humor, culture, spirituality, condemned racism and injustice, wrote 16 books of poems, 2 novels, three collections of short stories, childrens’ books, plays, The Weary Blues (1925), Not Without Laughter (novel, 1930) • Claude McKay- considered first major poet, characters have hard lives, alcoholics, works criticized by Dubois, If We Must Die (1919), Outcast (1922)

  8. Music • Jazz the sound of 1920’s • Jazz the “people’s music” • Freedom for African Americans was expressed through music • Music a way for people to respect blacks as talented and as artist • Famous Nightclubs: Savoy Ballroom, the Apollo Theatre, The Cotton Club • Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton, Willie “The Lion” Smith considered the best • Louis Armstrong- considered greatest jazz players of all time • Bessie Smith- considered to be greatest blues singers of all time • Lena Horne, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Cab Calloway

  9. Ending • Decline in mid 1930’s • Economic collapse • No new recruits during the Renaissance – no new ideas, or art produced • 1935 Riot - The tension between white business owners and black community because of stress from Great Depression • End of Renaissance led to the end of careers • Many writers and literary figures left New York: W.E.B Dubois, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, and Charles S. Johnson

  10. Influence Allowed for other African American writer, s such as: Toni Morrison, Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and Alice Walker Some artists moved to Paris to pursue their careers February – Black History Month Black Culture became primary influence on American culture Most influential historian and poet W.E.B. Dubois

  11. Langston Hughes • February 1, 1902-May 22, 1967 • Writer who excelled at many different disciplines like poetry, short stories, and novels. • Probably the most famous of the African American Writers • He was one of the fathers of Jazz Poetry

  12. Zora Neale Hurston • Born on January 7, 1891- January 28, 1960 • A writer most known to be a folklorist • Folklore focuses on the oral tradition of a culture

  13. Duke Ellington • April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974 • One of the most famous composers and pianists in American History. • Responsible for elevating jazz to an artistic level • Known for his charisma, musical creativity and versatility

  14. Bessie Smith • April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937 • Known as the “Empress of Jazz” • Many regard her as one of the greatest singers of her era • Had an influence on Blues, Jazz, and Swing • Along with Billie Holiday she became one of the two most famous female musicians of the era

  15. Louis Armstrong • “Satchmo” was born August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971 • Known for his charisma, unique trumpet playing, and very deep and distinct voice. • Had arguably the greatest impact of anyone on jazz music in the Harlem Renaissance

  16. Sources • http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566483/harlem_renaissance.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Renaissance • www.artlex.com/ArtLex/h/harlemrenaissance.html • http://library.rit.edu/homepages/cmckenzie/pathfinder.html • http://aalbc.com/authors/harlem.htm • classiclit.about.com/.../harlemrenaissance/Harlem_Renaissance.htm • http://www.1920s-fashion-and-music.com/Harlem-Renaissance-music.html • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/famous-musicians-of-the-harlem-renaissance.html • http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-02/2005-02-02-voa68.cfm?moddate=2005-02-02 • http://www.questiaschool.com/read/57016631