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The Vedic Age • Aryasv.Dasas • Varna Class Structure = • Brahmin (Priests/Scholars) • Kshatriya (Warriors) • Varshya (Merchants) • Shudra (Peasant/Laborers) • Untouchables (Demeaning work) • Jati = Subdivision of the 4 main Varna (Caste) • Rules (Jobs, duties, interaction among Jati groups) • Religion / Role of Women • Worship via sacrifice • Study, participate in rituals, own property
Jainism, Buddhism & Hinduism • Formed by monopoly of the Brahmins • Jainism • Founded: Mahavira • Nonviolence to all living things • Buddhism • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama • The Four Noble Truths / Eightfold Path to Enlightenment • 2 Sects = Mahayana (new) & Theraveda(old) • Hinduism • Reformed Vedic Religion • Devotion to the gods (Vishnu, Shiva, & Devi) = 1 Divine Force • Puja & Pilgrimage (Ganges river) • Dominant Religion
The Mauryan Empire 324-184 BCE • Formed from Kingdom of Magadha • Strategic Geographic Location • Agricultural & Iron Resources • Mauryan Government • Capitol: Pataliputra • Large Army • 25% Agricultural Tax • State Monopolies (mines, ships, weapons) • Notable Leaders • Founder: Chandragupta • Ashoka = Buddhism state adopted religion (Buddhist empire!) • Era of Political Fragmentation • Economic & Cultural Development • North = Guilds / Deccan State • Central = Religious authority / Urbanization • South = Artistic / 3 kingdoms
The Gupta Empire 320-550 CE • Magadha Kingdom…again • Controlled Central & Northern India • Copied Mauryan Govt. Structure • Except: Weak military & theatre-state • Gupta Culture • Trade with SE Asia • Literacy / Mathematics Arabic numerals & concept of zero • Women = No right to own land, treated like Shudra, married young, social status determined treatment • Religion = Hinduism / Tolerant • Collapse = Military Spending (Huns) • Southern India • Warrior Kingdoms (Pallavas & Cholas)
Southeast Asia 50-1025 CE • 3 Geographic Zones • Indochina Mainland • Malay Peninsula • Islands • Natural Resources & Agriculture • Fertile soil / Several Growing Seasons • Domestic Animals / Agricultural Products • Swidden = Slash & Burn agriculture • Migrations • Malay peoples from Southern China • First Major State = Funan • 1st thru 6th Century • Mekong Delta