Colonial India What is now India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka
Colonial India • India was a colony of Great Britain • 1757-1857 India is run by the East India Tea Company • 1858-1947 British Government rules India using royal governors and viceroys • British use raw materials from India to build their Empire
Independence Movements • INC – Indian National Congress • Formed in 1885 • Mostly Hindu • After independence, became India’s main political party • Muslim League • Formed in 1906 • Political party in Pakistan and Bangladesh
World War I • More than 1 million Indian troops serve in British Army during war • Indian wheat and cotton used in war effort • 1917 British promise to work toward self-government (same year as the Balfour Declaration)
Checkpoint • Why did Indians call for independence after World War I? • Indians felt that the British did not deliver the significant reforms promised during the war as acknowledged for their services. Amritsar massacre intensified dissatisfication.
Amritsar Massacre • Harsh laws enacted after WWI leading to many arrests • British pit Hindus vs. Muslims • In Amritsar, all large gatherings are banned • British threaten to use force • 10,000 unarmed demonstrators in walled garden • Local British commander decides to set example • Blocks entrance and opens fire when crowd doesn’t leave • 400 Dead, 1200 Wounded • Increased desire for Independence, lacked unity.
Mohandas Gandhi • Known as “The Mahatma” (great soul) • Born in 1869 (4 yrs after Civil War) • Family was middle class, Hindu • Married at 13 in an arranged marriage • Went to college in London, became a lawyer • 1893-1914 lives in South Africa and fights against apartheid • Returns to India during WW I and begins “fighting” for independence
Gandhi’s Beliefs • Pacifism • Civil Disobedience • Henry David Thoreau • Martin Luther King Jr. • Nelson Mandela • Joins with INC to work toward Indian independence • Urged “non-c00peration” • Ahimsa, nonviolence and reverence of life, “love” • Arrested in 1922 for sedition, served 2 years • Series of arrests and hunger strikes • Fought to end harsh treatment of Untouchables, members of the lowest class
Boycotts • Urged Indians to boycott British made goods • Only wore Homespun clothing, symbol during protests was the spinning wheel • Believed that denying British the profits of colonialism would lead to independence • 1930 – Protest against salt tax charged to citizens • Marched 240 miles to the sea to make salt • British arrest 60,000
Checkpoint • What methods did Indians under Gandhi use to resist British rule? • They staged boycotts and other nonviolent protests. They increased their own industries so India would be more self-sufficient. • What did the salt march symbolize? • Indian protest against oppression.
Steps toward Independence • 1935 – Government of India Act • Increased suffrage • Limited self-government • Hindu – Muslim Disputes • Hindus outnumbered Muslims 3-1 • Controlled 7 out of 11 provinces • Muslims wanted a separate country • INC led by Jawarharal Nehru and Gandhi wanted one united India
Independence and Division • British agree to grant independence after WW II • Violence continues between Hindus and Muslims • 1947 Independence achieved • India • West Pakistan and East Pakistan • Migration ensued, over 100,000 deaths
Today • India • 2nd most populated country – over 1 Billion People • Economic power • US imports many Indian goods • Many US jobs outsourced to India (technology) • Nuclear Weapons • Pakistan • US Ally? • Home of Bin Laden? • Nuclear Weapons