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The Independence of India. Location. Colonial India. What is now India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka. Colonial India. India was a colony of Great Britain 1757-1857 India is run by the East India Tea Company 1858-1947 British Government rules India using royal

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colonial india
Colonial India

What is now




Sri Lanka

colonial india1
Colonial India
  • India was a colony of

Great Britain

  • 1757-1857 India is run by the East India Tea Company
  • 1858-1947 British Government rules India using royal

governors and viceroys

  • British use raw materials

from India to build their


independence movements
Independence Movements
  • INC – Indian National Congress
    • Formed in 1885
    • Mostly Hindu
    • After independence, became India’s main political party
  • Muslim League
    • Formed in 1906
    • Political party in Pakistan and Bangladesh
world war i
World War I
  • More than 1 million Indian troops

serve in British Army during war

  • Indian wheat and cotton used in war effort
  • 1917 British promise to work toward self-government

(same year as the Balfour Declaration)

  • Why did Indians call for independence after World War I?
  • Indians felt that the British did not deliver the significant reforms promised during the war as acknowledged for their services. Amritsar massacre intensified dissatisfication.
amritsar massacre
Amritsar Massacre
  • Harsh laws enacted after

WWI leading to many arrests

  • British pit Hindus vs. Muslims
  • In Amritsar, all large gatherings are banned
    • British threaten to use force
  • 10,000 unarmed demonstrators in walled garden
  • Local British commander decides to set example
    • Blocks entrance and opens fire when crowd doesn’t leave
    • 400 Dead, 1200 Wounded
  • Increased desire for Independence, lacked unity.
mohandas gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi
  • Known as “The Mahatma” (great soul)
  • Born in 1869 (4 yrs after Civil War)
  • Family was middle class, Hindu
  • Married at 13 in an arranged marriage
  • Went to college in London, became a lawyer
  • 1893-1914 lives in South Africa and fights against apartheid
  • Returns to India during WW I and begins “fighting” for independence
gandhi s beliefs
Gandhi’s Beliefs
  • Pacifism
  • Civil Disobedience
    • Henry David Thoreau
    • Martin Luther King Jr.
    • Nelson Mandela
  • Joins with INC to work toward Indian independence
  • Urged “non-c00peration”
  • Ahimsa, nonviolence and reverence of life, “love”
  • Arrested in 1922 for sedition, served 2 years
  • Series of arrests and hunger strikes
  • Fought to end harsh treatment of Untouchables, members of the lowest class
  • Urged Indians to boycott British made goods
  • Only wore Homespun clothing, symbol during protests was the spinning wheel
  • Believed that denying British the profits of colonialism would lead to independence
  • 1930 – Protest against salt tax charged to citizens
  • Marched 240 miles to the sea to make salt
  • British arrest 60,000
  • What methods did Indians under Gandhi use to resist British rule?
  • They staged boycotts and other nonviolent protests. They increased their own industries so India would be more self-sufficient.
  • What did the salt march symbolize?
  • Indian protest against oppression.
steps toward independence
Steps toward Independence
  • 1935 – Government of India Act
    • Increased suffrage
    • Limited self-government
  • Hindu – Muslim Disputes
    • Hindus outnumbered Muslims 3-1
    • Controlled 7 out of 11 provinces
    • Muslims wanted a separate country
  • INC led by Jawarharal Nehru and Gandhi wanted one united India
independence and division
Independence and Division
  • British agree to grant independence after WW II
  • Violence continues between Hindus and Muslims
  • 1947 Independence achieved
    • India
    • West Pakistan and East Pakistan
    • Migration ensued, over 100,000 deaths
  • India
    • 2nd most populated country – over 1 Billion People
    • Economic power
      • US imports many Indian goods
      • Many US jobs outsourced to India (technology)
    • Nuclear Weapons
  • Pakistan
    • US Ally?
    • Home of Bin Laden?
    • Nuclear Weapons