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AKS 40: Japan and China. Chapter 19.2 and 19.3 – Pages 536-547. Qing Dynasty: What did China look like?. Qing Dynasty – founded by Manchus (from Manchuria) – many Chinese resisted Rebellions flared up periodically for decades Manchus slowly earned respect

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aks 40 japan and china

AKS 40:Japan and China

Chapter 19.2 and 19.3 – Pages 536-547

qing dynasty what did china look like
Qing Dynasty:What did China look like?
  • Qing Dynasty – founded by Manchus (from Manchuria) – many Chinese resisted
    • Rebellions flared up periodically for decades
  • Manchus slowly earned respect
    • Upheld China’s traditional Confucian beliefs
    • Made frontiers safe & restored prosperity
qing dynasty kangxi 1661 1722
Qing Dynasty:Kangxi (1661-1722)
  • Reduced gov’t expenses, lowered taxes
  • Gained support of intellectuals by offering them gov’t positions
  • Jesuits told him of European achievements in science, medicine, and math
qing dynasty isolation continues
Qing Dynasty:Isolation Continues
  • Those that wished to trade w/ China had to follow certain rules:
    • Trade at special ports
    • Tribute
    • “Kowtow” ritual (kneeling before emperor & touching head to ground 9 times)

“There is nothing we lack, as your principal envoy and others have themselves observed. We have never set much store on strange or ingenious objects, nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.”

- Qian-Long, from a letter to King George III of Great Britain

qing dynasty cultural developments
Qing Dynasty:Cultural Developments
  • Based mainly on traditional forms
  • Valued technique over creativity
  • Pottery – high-quality ceramics (porcelain)
  • Drama popular b/c literacy rates were low
    • Focused on Chinese history & cultural heroes
oda nobunaga 1568 1582
Oda Nobunaga (1568-1582)

“Rule the empire by force.”

- Oda Nobunaga

  • Wanted to eliminate remaining enemies
  • 1575 – Nobunaga’s 3,000 soldiers armed w/ muskets crushed enemy force of samurai cavalry
    • 1st time firearms had been used effectively in battle in Japan
  • Committed seppuku (ritual suicide of samurai)
tokugawa shogunate military gov t tokugawa ieyasu 1603 1616
Tokugawa Shogunate (military gov’t):Tokugawa Ieyasu (1603-1616)
  • Defeated his rivals at Battle of Sekigahara
    • Victory earned him loyalty of daimyo throughout Japan
  • 1603 – Became sole ruler (shogun)
  • Moved capital to Edo (later Tokyo)
  • Enacted policies that resulted in the rule of law overcoming the rule of the sword
tokugawa japan policy of isolation
Tokugawa Japan:Policy of Isolation
  • 1639 – Shoguns realized that they could safely exclude both missionaries and merchants
    • Sealed Japan’s borders, except Nagasaki
  • Commercial contacts w/ Euro. ended
  • 200+ years – Japan remained closed & citizens could not leave
  • Continued to develop self-sufficiently
tokugawa japan cultural developments
Tokugawa Japan:Cultural Developments
  • Traditional culture thrived
  • New types of fiction began to emerge – realistic stories about self-made merchants or hardships of life
  • Haiku – type of poetry that presented images rather than ideals
  • Kabuki theater – skits about modern life
causes of population increase
Causes of Population Increase
  • Agriculture Improved -irrigation & fertilizer use ↑
  • Farmers produced more food
  • Nutrition improved  new crops – corn and sweet potatoes (Europe)
  • People lived longer, families expanded

**Columbian Exchange

impact on social structure qing china
Impact on Social Structure:Qing China
  • Sons Favored
    • Only sons allowed to perform religious rituals
    • Raised his own family under parents’ roof - help aging parents on farm
    • Females not valued – many infants girls killed
  • Role of Women
    • Worked in fields, supervised children’s education, managed family finances
    • Some found jobs working as midwives or textile workers
impact on social structure tokugawa japan
Impact on Social Structure:Tokugawa Japan
  • Societal Structure
    • Emperor top rank (figurehead only)
    • Actual ruler was shogun – military commander
    • Daimyo – landholding samurai
    • Samurai warriors
    • Peasants (4/5 of population) & Artisans
    • Merchants
  • Role of Women
    • W/ rise of commercial centers, found jobs in entertainment, textile manufacturing, & publishing
    • Most led sheltered lives as peasant wives

* Confucian values important

*Farmers made ideal citizens