AKS 40:Japan and China Chapter 19.2 and 19.3 – Pages 536-547
Essential Questions for AKS 40 • 40A- Explain how political (government) and social (class) changes transformed Chinese and Japanese society from the 1600s to 1850s. • 40B- How does population growth affect social structure? (academic must use China as an example and gif/hon can use China and come up with another example)
What did China look like under the Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) • Brought peace and prosperity to China after driving out the Mongols • Achievements: • Set up nationwide school system • Began construction of new Imperial City in Beijing (Forbidden City) • Conducted the Zheng He voyages • Policy of isolation
What did China look like under the Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) • Ming Dynasty on the Decline • Bad harvest, • high taxes, • incompetent leaders, and • corrupt government led to the fall of this mighty dynasty and paved the way for the Manchu
What did China look like under the Qing Dynasty? (1644-1905) • Qing Dynasty – founded by Manchus(from Manchuria) – many Chinese resisted • Rebellions flared up periodically for decades • To make it easier to identify the rebels, the Manchu ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles. All Chinese males were to shave their foreheads and braid their hair into a pigtail called a queue. Those who refused were killed • Manchus slowly earned respect • Upheld China’s traditional Confucian beliefs • Gave Chinese most of the lower government positions • Made frontiers safe & restored prosperity
What did China look like under the Qing Dynasty? (1644-1905) • In order to preserve their distinct identity within Chinese society, the Manchus (1% of population) were defined legally as distinct from everyone else in china. • Marriages between Manchu and Chinese were barred. • Manchu nobility maintained large landholdings and received revenues from the state treasury • Other Manchus were organized into separate military units called banners. The “bannermen” were the chief fighting force of the empire.
Qing Dynasty:Kangxi (1661-1722) • Reduced gov’t expenses, lowered taxes • Gained support of intellectuals by offering them gov’t positions • Jesuits told him of European achievements in science, medicine, and math • patron of the arts • Why? to further solidify Manchu power in China
Qing Dynasty:Isolation Continues • Only the government was allowed to trade with foreign countries. • Those that wished to trade w/ China had to follow certain rules: • Trade at special ports • Tribute • “Kowtow” ritual (kneeling before emperor & touching head to ground 9 times) “There is nothing we lack, as your principal envoy and others have themselves observed. We have never set much store on strange or ingenious objects, nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.” - Qian-Long, from a letter to King George III of Great Britain
Qing Dynasty:Isolation Continues • British petition the Chinese to trade in 1793, but refused to kowtow. They were denied trading privileges in China • The Chinese were self-sufficient and did not need the British
Qing Dynasty:Cultural Developments • Based mainly on traditional forms • Valued technique over creativity • Pottery – high-quality ceramics (porcelain) • Drama popular b/c literacy rates were low • Focused on Chinese history & cultural heroes
Causes of Population Increase • Agriculture Improved -irrigation & fertilizer use ↑ • Farmers produced more food • Nutrition improved new crops – corn and sweet potatoes (Europe) • People lived longer, families expanded **Columbian Exchange
Impact on Social Structure:Qing China • Sons Favored • Only sons allowed to perform religiousrituals • Raised his own family under parents’ roof - help aging parents on farm • Were the ticket to wealththrough the examination system • Neat fact*** the exam took three days where students worked uninterrupted for that time period. If you died during the exam they would wrap your body and throw it over the walls of the facility • Females are not valued – many infants girls killed
Impact on Social Structure:Qing China • Sons Favored • Only sons allowed to perform religious rituals • Raised his own family under parents’ roof - help aging parents on farm • Were the ticket to wealth through the examination system • Neat fact*** the exam took three days where students worked uninterrupted for that time period. If you died during the exam they would wrap your body and throw it over the walls of the facility • Females not valued – many infants girls killed
Impact on Social Structure:Qing China • Role of Women • Worked in fields, supervised children’s education, managed family finances • Subjected to the authority of men. • Some found jobs working as midwives or textile workers
Impact on Social Structure:Qing China • Role of Women • During Ming and Qing dynasties widows were discouraged to remarry; and those who committed suicide following their spouse to the grave received posthumous [pos-chuh-muh s] honors • Women could not get a divorce, but men could set aside a wife for not producing an offspring, adultery, theft, disobedience to her husband’s family, or even being too talkative. • Foot binding • Originated during the Song Dynasty • Popular amongst the wealthy classes, since it demonstrated an ability to support women who could not perform physical labor. • Commoners sometimes did it to especially pretty girls in hopes of arranging favorable marriages that would enhance the family’s social standing.
What did I just say? • What was China’s official trading policy? • What group established the Qing Dynasty? • Why did Manchu emperors take a Chinese name for their dynasty and uphold Chinese traditions? • Why did China refuse to trade with the British? With which European country did the Chinese trade? • What was the effect of population growth in China? After the questions, please work on your AKS 40 section 19.2 worksheet. It is due tomorrow.
unscramble Unscramble these words Match the clue with the unscrambled word on the left They were allowed to trade with foreign governments The British did not gain trading privileges in China because they refused to do what? They established the Qing Dynasty, which took rule after the fall of the Ming. China’s foreign policy The Qing Dynasty upheld China’s traditional Confucian beliefs, gave the Chinese most of the lower government positions, made frontiers safe, & restored prosperity in an effort to gain ___________ from the Chinese people They followed Chinese trading protocol and were the European nations that gained trade privileges in China. • Stalionsoim • Chumasn • Twowok • cuthdslearndenth • verngemontscloiffia • prescet • Answers • Isolationism D • Manchus C • Kowtow B • Dutch Netherlands F • Government officials A • Respect E
Geography of Japan Japan is a series of islands off the coasts of Korea & China Like Greece, Japan was divided by mountains & had few areas for farming Before 400 A.D., Japan was not a unified nation but was ruled by hundreds of different family clans Japan’s island location provided protection from Chinese & Mongol invasions… …but Japan was close enough to borrow cultural ideas from China
Japan’s isolation gave rise to a unique Japanese culture, most specifically the Shinto religion Shinto is a polytheistic religion based on the respect of nature & ancestor worship Shinto worshipers believed in divine spirits called kami that live in nature The most important of the Shinto gods is the sun goddess who gave light to the world Amaterasu: Sun Goddess
As Japan had more contact with Asia, it adopted Chinese culture & ideas Japan adopted the Chinese idea of an emperor & rule by dynasties; The first Japanese emperor was said to have descended from the sun goddess Unlike China, Japanese emperors often did not have power over clan leaders; Japan often had an emperor figurehead & a clan ruler with true power Japan tried, but failed, to model the Chinese examination system for gov’t officials
Japan adopted Confucianism & blended Chinese styles of writing, architecture, & art Chinese landscape art Chinese architecture Chinese writing Japanese landscape art Japanese architecture Japanese writing
In the mid-700s Buddhism was introduced in Japan from China & Korea Buddhism was accepted by Japanese emperors, but in Japanese society, Buddhism & Shinto blended An example of religious blending was Zen Buddhism
Classical Japan during the Heian Period From 794-1185, Japan entered a classical era during the Heian Period • ? During this time, the imperial gov’t was strong & Japan experienced an era of peace and prosperity Japan developed a “golden age” in poetry, art, & literature
Japanese Feudalism By the mid-1000s, the imperial gov’t grew weak, regional landowners gained power, & Japan became lawless & dangerous • ? Outlaws attacked farmers & pirates attacked the coast Rival clans competed for power & threw Japan into a series of civil wars
Quick Class Discussion:Based on these images, how were Japanese & European feudal systems similar?
Japanese Feudalism As a result, Japan developed a feudal system Farmers traded land to strong warlords called daimyo who offered protection Daimyo were served by loyal warriors called samurai The emperor had little power
Japanese Feudalism Samurai warriors were usually relatives or dependents of daimyo, although some were hired warriors called Ronin Samurai warriors lived by a code of Bushido which demanded courage, loyalty, deity, fairness, & honor Samurai were skilled swordsmen, but also used horses & guns (after the arrival of Europeans)
Japanese Feudalism In 1192, the first shogun was named by the emperor • Text The emperor remained in place, but the shogun held real power & ruled as military dictators Shoguns’ power varied over time, but the pattern of gov’t controlled by a shogun lasted until 1867
Closure Activity • Who were the military leaders, landowners, & warriors in medieval Europe & feudal Japan? • How were they alike? • How were they different?
Japan before the Tokugawa Shogunate • Japan • 1467-1568 = Warring States = Local lords (Daimyo), were fighting each other for power • Daimyo: heads of noble families, warlords
Japan before the Tokugawa Shogunate • Europeans reached Japan • The first European (Portuguese) ships arrived in Japan in 1543. • They acquired tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, etc. from Europeans • Japanese merchants traded silks for muskets (guns) from the Portuguese. • New technology makes the samurai obsolete. • Catholic missionaries-for almost 90 years, Catholic missionaries traveled freely in Japan and learned many things about Japanese culture.
Oda Nobunaga (1568-1582) “Rule the empire by force.” - Oda Nobunaga • ended the “warring states” period • Wanted to eliminate remaining enemies • 1575 – Nobunaga’s 3,000 soldiers armed w/ muskets crushed enemy forces of samurai cavalry • 1st time firearms had been used effectively in battle in Japan • Committed seppuku (ritual suicide of samurai) after a general turned on him
Tokugawa Shogunate (military gov’t):Tokugawa Ieyasu (1603-1616) • Unites Japan after defeating his rivals at Battle of Sekigahara • 1603 – Became sole ruler (shogun) • Moved capital to Edo (later Tokyo) • Enacted policies that resulted in the rule of law overcoming the rule of the sword • Controlled daimyo through the alternate attendance policy • Definition: • Brought peace and stability
Tokugawa Japan:Policy of Isolation • 1639 – Shoguns realized that they could safely exclude both missionaries and merchants • They implemented the closed country policy to control foreign ideas • The Tokugawa Bakufu feared that Christianity could serve as a cultural bridge for alliances between daimyo and Europeans. • Converts ignored Japanese cultural beliefs and laws. • Missionaries and converts were tortured and killed by crucifixion or burning at the stake. In 1612 Christianity was banned and all citizens were forced to practice Buddhism • Christianity barely survived as a secret religion • Sealed Japan’s borders, except Nagasaki (Dutch) • Commercial contacts w/ Euro. ended • 200+ years – Japan remained closed & citizens could not leave • Continued to develop self-sufficiently • After 1720 the ban on foreign books was lifted, and the elite were able to study European medicine, and science
Tokugawa Japan:Policy of Isolation • Effects: • caused Japan to fall behind in science, technology and military power • gave Japan a long period of peace and stability • Japanese culture was rich and creative
Tokugawa Japan:Policy of Isolation • Effects: • Many farmers leave the country to go to the city to become merchants and lead a better life • Farmers bore the heaviest tax burden • 1700s Japan moves toward an urban society (urbanization) • trade and industry flourish, • banking on the rise, • paper money became the norm, • Japanese merchant class emerged and began to play a significant role in the life of the Japanese nation.
Tokugawa Japan:Cultural Developments • Traditional culture thrived • New types of fiction began to emerge – realistic stories about self-made merchants or hardships of life • Haiku – type of poetry that presented images rather than ideals • Kabuki theater – skits about modern life