Japan What I know about Japan What I want to learn about Japan What I learned about Japan Refer to your Notes Packet
Geography TTYN: What kind of land formation is Japan located on? Archipelago Montana – about the same size as Japan • Despite its size, Japan currently ranks 10th in population with an estimated 127M. Conversely, Montana ranks 38th with just under one million
Geography • TTYN • Considering what we have already learned about Japan, describe how geography and location affected AND currently impacts Japans growth. Think about possible advantages and disadvantages. Protection and Isolation • About the island of Japan • The affect of little farmland • Access to water • Most people settle in valleys and the coastal plains • Very little natural resources • Cultural Diffusion opportunities • The affects of the Ring of Fire
Geography • Very mountainous and offers very little farmland Mount Fuji; 3776 meters • Japan lacks key natural resources such as metals and minerals
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions • Clan Systems • Own chief or special god of goddess who viewed as the clan's original ancestor. • Ahead of their time: Even women were clan leaders. Yamato Clan • About 500 A.D., the Yamato clan establishes sufficient ascendancy for its chieftain to be seen as emperor • The Yamato claim as ancestor the Sun empress, who shines above all others in the heavens. Emperor Nintoku Tomb
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions TTYN: What is Shinto? • Shinto – • Indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Japan • Shinto has no founder • Has no official sacred scriptures • Has preserved its main beliefs and rituals throughout the ages. Shinto – “way of the gods” or “way of kami” One or more torii gates mark the approach and entrance to a shrine. They come in various colors and are made of various materials.
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions Shintocreation stories tell of the history and lives of the "Kami" (deities). Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands. Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. The Sun Goddess was one of their daughters. She is the ancestress of the Imperial Family and is regarded as the chief deity. Her descendants unified the country. Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth. He is famous for killing a great evil serpent. The Kami are the Shinto deities. The word "Kami" is generally translated "god" or "gods." However, the Kami bear little resemblance to the gods of monotheistic religions. Shrine of the Sun Goddess
Small Group Activity: Shinto Shinto Your Choice Refer to your Notes Packet
Small Group Activity: Shinto Shinto Christianity Believes in the Trinity (Father Son Spirit)... is ONE No apparent Holy Book Since it isn't really a religion, and it is a native belief in Japan, it is somewhat locked inside Japan. Attempts to spread its religion all around the world Afterlife Evil Uses a holy book, the Bible Believes in many natural spirits... and somewhat deify them Loving Christians should only believe in Christianity • Shintoists are usually Zen Buddhists as well Refer to your Notes Packet
Nara and Heian Japan 710-1185 • China Moves East (but with a twist) • 710, modeled after China, Nara • established as new capital of Japan • 784, capital moved to • Nagaoka • 794, finally moved • to Heian (Kyoto)
Nara and Heian Japan • Chinese Influence • Adoption of the higher civilization of China • Three stages • Japanese studied China – 7th century • Japanese implanted Chinese institutions – 8th century • Adapted institutions to meet Japanese needs – by 11th century - Japanized • Official embassies to Tang court began in 607 • Emperor Temmu began institutional changes • Used Chinese systems to consolidate power • “Heavenly emperor” replaces “great king”
Heian Period • The Heike Wars, 1180-85 • Minamoto family defeated the Taira. Minamoto no Yoritomo • Established the Shogunatewith its distinctive warrior culture. • The end of Golden Age and beginning of Feudalism
Feudal Period The samurai • The samurai were the warriors of pre-modern Japan. They later made up the ruling military class that eventually became the highest ranking social caste of the Edo Period (1603-1867). • Samurai employed a range of weapons such as bows and arrows, spears and guns, but their main weapon and symbol was the sword.
Feudal Period • Women • During the age of the samurai, the position of women declined steadily • From warriors to child bearer • No Chivalry here TTYN: What is Chivalry?
Attack from Outsiders The Mongol Invasions of Japan 1274 & 1281 • 1281 Invasion • 140K men • Samurai's better prepared; knew what to expect • No more Man vs. Man tactics; mass attack met with mass defense • Another Typhoon on the way • Kamikaze or “Devine Wind” once again saves Japan • The Mongols would not return; If it were not for two "miraculous" appearances of a mighty typhoon, a "Kamikaze" or "Divine Wind," • during those two massive Mongol invasions by Kublai Khan, Japan today might be part of China!
Era of Peace: Kamakura & Tokugawa Government • Tokugawa Period (Edo Period 1603-1867) • Hello Tokyo • More land distribution…see a trend? • TTYN: Think of another area of study where land distribution was a result of change in leadership. • Foreign Trade • Christianity Suppressed • Neo-Confucianism • Meiji Restoration • Open Door Policy – Japan’s version
Tokugawa Period • Welcomed Western Traders • Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English • Acquired western firearms • Built castles modeled after Europe • TTYN: What advantage might new weapons afford the Tokugawa Shoguns? • Allowed them to centralize power and impose order
The Global Age Do Now & TTYN Identify new technologies that made it possible for Europeans to make contact with Asian communities • Improvement in Cartography • Astrolabe • Caravel • Sextant • Ships
Japan What I know about Japan What I want to learn about Japan What I learned So far about Japan Refer to your Notes Packet
Modernization The Cotton Gin – 1793 The Steam Engine - 1775 The Spinning Jenny- 1769 The 1st Railway – 1825 Do Now & TTYN – what do the above listed inventions of the Industrial Revolution have in common with Japan in 1854? The United States wins: Extraterritoriality Rights and a “Most Favored Nation” clause
Meiji Restoration • The Big Test • Feeding the new imperialist beast • Island Nation has needs • Nationalism grows • Modernized Military • Korea!!! • The better equipped and better prepared stuns the world • 1894, Japan thumps China • Gains treaty ports in China and rights to rule Taiwan
Ambition and Motives for Expansion Economics Island Nation - Japan was in desperate need of natural resources to fuel its industry and military Nationalism Many Japanese citizens believed that Japan was the most superior country in Asia and therefore had the right to rule everyone else Acts by Western Powers Several actions by Western powers were motivated by the belief that Japan was not equal; these insults fueled imperialistic desires in Japan The Interwar Years
Growing Pains The Mukden Incident In 1931 Japan invaded the northern area of China, Manchuria, which had huge deposits of natural resources such as coal The League of Nations does nothing The Interwar Years
The Emperor Showa of Japan. He had complete control over, and commanded complete loyalty from his subjects. It was his responsibility for starting and ending the wars against China, USA, Britain etc. He was protected from prosecution in 1945 by the US who needed him to keep Japan from collapsing. Japan and WWII The Emperor Hirohito1926-1989
Japan and WWII Imperial Japanese expansion up to 1941
The ‘zero’ fighter plane. Japan and WWII
Pearl Harbor Japan and WWII The major fleet base of the US navy in the Pacific. It was home to all the major US warships in the Pacific. Destruction of these ships would take out all the resistance to Japanese expansion to the East and South.
Japan and WWII December 7, 1941 ‘A date that will live in infamy’. The Japanese launch a surprise attack. The Japanese had been shown how to attack a harbour with planes by the British attack on the Italian fleet in Taranto 11.11.1940. The US navy had chosen to regard the feat as a ‘fluke’.
Japan and WWII Just a reminder Extensive coverage of WWII will be examined during our WWII Unit
Japan and WWII US ships ablaze after kamikaze attacks
The first Atomic bomb to be used in war… ‘little boy’. This bomb was shipped from the US a mere 4 hours after the ‘Trinity’ A-bomb test in the US. The actual radioactive material inside was the size of an orange. Japan and WWII The Atomic Bomb